What if battery would have mind?

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Paper presentation offers new paradigm and changes existing perception for the batteries

Authors confirm that they were able to split chemical and electrical parts inside chemical battery thanks to matching parameters of digit currents and voltages

The main output of this split is full reduction of polarization part in internal resistance due to shift in electric neutrality. We would like to share some test results we have been doing for 5 years.

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What if battery would have mind?

  1. 1. SWEL What if battery would have mind?Offering new paradigm - Harmonizing the battery
  2. 2. Current world of batteries• Long since SWEL has been addressing the issues of chemical cell efficiency improvement.• We have worked out an algorithm which helps to reduce internal resistance of a chemical cell during its charge or discharge.• We have obtained experimental data and tests’ results that we want to share with you today.
  3. 3. Internal resistence can be dropped• The internal resistance of a chemical cell, for example, of an accumulator, is a sum of active (ohmic) resistance and so called polarization resistance related to complex electrode reactions. The size of accumulator ohmic resistance is defined by its construction and cannot be reduced. On the contrary, the polarization component can be reduced nearly to zero directly during charge or discharge of the accumulator.
  4. 4. Separation of electric and chemical parts• The most important feature of our algorithm is the separation in time of electric and electrochemical processes with the help of a special external effect on them (periodic connection and disconnection of a chemical cell to/from load or external power supply). By optimizing the parameters of this effect, it’s possible to dramatically reduce the polarization component of a chemical cell and significantly increase the efficiency of energy extraction and redistribution.• This algorithm can be realized during charge as well as discharge of a chemical cell. The results, obtained in our experiments, prove that effective energy capacity of a chemical cell can be increased by 15% - 50% according to its type and operation mode.
  5. 5. How it works?• The algorithm of internal resistance decrease in an electrochemical cell is based upon theoretic conceptions of formation mechanism of double electronic layer on electrode/solution boundary in an electrolyte, which were most completely defined in the works of R.R. Salem
  6. 6. Tests results:Experiments on discharge ofLi-Ion batteries
  7. 7. Test results: Li-Ion• Our studies of Li-ion accumulators Kokam (11 A∙h, 12 V) carried out with the help of a special device – electronic separator (ES) of 500 W power – demonstrated significant growth of energy efficiency during accumulator discharge, which probably was associated with decrease of polarization component in internal resistance.
  8. 8. Test results: Li-Ion• Particularly, shows that the capacity (in A∙h) extracted from the accumulator during its discharge through ES by the current 2,5 C, increases by 23% in comparison with typical discharge conditions (at the same power and load current). Expected benefit: capacity growth
  9. 9. Test results: Li-Ion• Here are diagrams of temperature change on the surface of Li-ion accumulator battery during its discharge through the ES and without it. A smaller accumulator heating during its discharge through ES points out the reduction of internal resistance. As far as accumulator battery resource to a large extent is defined by heat loss during its work, it is logical to state that the use of ES increases this resource. Expected benefit: extended battery life
  10. 10. Tests results:Experiments on charge ofsealed lead-acid batteries
  11. 11. Test results: sealed lead-acid batteries• Based on our technology we have created a device for effective battery charge (“SWEL-ECD) and we carried out its practical tests with lead- acid batteries of different types.• The use of SWEL-ECD device provides the following advantages:  charge of aqueous electrolyte batteries up to their full capacity without gassing;  increase of effective working surface of active battery mass during its charge, and thereafter, the decrease of discharge current density and gain of energy, extracted during discharge.
  12. 12. Test results: sealed lead-acid batteries• The following results were obtained during the tests on lead-acid accumulator batteries with capacity 17 A∙h and 33 A∙h• At 10-hour charge up to voltage 13,4 V (that permits almost completely avoid gassing) and following discharge by direct current in 2, 4 and 20-hour modes the extracted capacity equaled 122,7%, 123% and 106% respectively, from the nameplate capacity stated in battery ratings; Expected benefit: 6-23% capacity growth
  13. 13. Test results: sealed lead-acid batteries• At quick charge during 4 hours up to U = 13,6 V and discharge by direct current in a 4-hour mode it is possible to completely extract the capacity, transferred to the battery during its charge; Expected benefit: no natural losses
  14. 14. Tests results:Experiments on formation ofautomobile starter batteries(cells)
  15. 15. Test results: formation of cells• The tests on use of effective charging device “SWEL- ECD” during initial formation of filling starter lead-acid batteries with nameplate capacity 77 A∙h, showed the potential of the new method.• It provides triple reduction of power inputs on battery formation, it provides a very low level of gassing, as well as significantly improves charge- discharge characteristics of the battery.• Thanks to formation, battery mass structure improves and its effective surface area increases.
  16. 16. Test results: key benefits• Reduction of internal battery resistance during its charge and discharge;• Decrease of charging voltage during charge by direct current, in comparison with standard mode;• Drop of gassing during charge (so, during first 9-10 hours of charge by direct current 0,1 C, that is, at efficiency up to 90% of the nameplate capacity, gassing is completely absent); that permits to significantly improve the environmental safety of battery formation process;• Increase of normally open circuit voltage of the battery;• Attainment of discharge capacity close to the nameplate capacity, in the first cycle (of formation), and of 5-10% higher capacity than the nameplate one in the following charging-discharging cycles;• Increase of discharge voltage at rated current (see next slide).
  17. 17. Test results: formation of cells• All these benefits are of long-term character, and the characteristics obtained by the accumulator batteries, are preserved during several tens of charging- discharging cycles.• It’s important to mention, that the same process takes place when “SWEL-ECD” is used only for battery formation, and in the following cycles the charge is executed in standard mode (from a direct current source, without SWEL). Formation gives long lasting effect, changing cell for whole life
  18. 18. Tests results:Experiments on increase ofdischarge capacity foruninterruptible power supply(UPS) units
  19. 19. Test results: UPS units• We conducted series of experiments in order to improve the discharge capacity of sealed lead- acid batteries Solby SL12-7 (12 V, 7 A∙h) which were a part of UPSs with nameplate load capacity 700 W.• The main point of the first experimental stage was to charge these batteries with the help of modified effective charging device “SWEL-ECD”.• The essence of the second stage was to conduct life tests by the way of multiple charge and discharge battery cycles in a typical UPS (without “SWEL-ECD” already).
  20. 20. Test results: UPS units• Modified device “SWEL-ECD” was connected between UPS proper charging device and test accumulator batteries, and provided accumulator charge up to the full capacity.• There was no gassing during the process, like during battery floating mode. The tests were conducted with two battery sets – testing set and checking set. The accumulator batteries in both sets were produced by the same manufacturer and were from the same lot. Testing and checking battery sets were located in the same UPS by turns
  21. 21. Test results: UPS units• The UPS working period with the load 550 W in case of battery charge with “SWEL-ECD” increases by 50% – 70% in comparison with a standard charging mode (see slide 25);• In the following charge-discharge cycles executed only in standard mode, without “SWEL-ECD” device, the discharge capacity of test batteries stably exceeded discharge capacity of check batteries by 40% – 50%;• Life tests at discharge capacity 600 W didn’t reveal degradation of the examined batteries. It means that during prior treatment by “SWEL-ECD” device the batteries obtained permanent improvement of active mass surface structure (see slide 26)
  22. 22. Conclusions
  23. 23. Conclusions• The new technology, developed and patented by “SWEL Energy Ltd.”, helps to reduce internal resistance of chemical cells and provides significant (by 15% – 50%) growth of their efficiency, which is proved by numerous experiments with different types of accumulators.• Further, we believe it is possible to achieve even more effect in case of combined use of our algorithm during charge and discharge of a electrochemical cell.• At the end of the day, SWEL aimed to use our resources and technology more effectively
  24. 24. Conclusions• This innovative technology can be successfully used in different economic sectors where accumulator batteries and other elecrochemical cells are used:  in no-break and backup power systems (sealed accumulator batteries with increased lifecycle);  in motor transport (starter and traction accumulator batteries, as well as buffer energy storages for hybrid automobiles);  in rail transport (serviced and maintenance-free accumulator batteries);  in independent power supply systems (buffer accumulators for solar batteries and wind-power generators);  in production of lead-acid and Ni-Cd accumulators;  in the other areas.
  25. 25. THANK YOU! SWEL ENERGYMaxim Drozd, Marketing Director 23 b.2, Matrosskaya Tishina, Moscow, 107076, Russia P: +7 495 979 07 09 M: +7 903 168 24 80 E-mail: md@okresearch.ru

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