Immunology Basic Terms
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Immunology Basic Terms

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some basic concepts before to start to study immunology

some basic concepts before to start to study immunology

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    Immunology Basic Terms Immunology Basic Terms Presentation Transcript

    • Immunology Vocabulary
    • Antigen
        • a molecule that stimulates an immune response
        • Any identifiable moiety = “anything”
        • 99% Proteins are antigens
    • Epitope
      • It is the part of a macromolecule that is recognized by the immune system
    • Hapten
        • Antigen that is too small to set off an immune response (<6000 D)
        • Viruses are a common hapten, when they are small!!!
          • They soon replicate and grow larger, thus setting off an immune response
    • Antibody
      • antibody = immunoglobulin
      • antibody = glyco protein
      • The antibody recognizes a specific target, which is called an antigen .
    • Cytokine
      • Cytokines are a group of proteins and peptides that are used in organisms as signaling compounds.
      • are used to allow one cell to communicate with another
    • Interleukin
      • are a group of cytokines (secreted signaling molecules) that were first seen to be expressed by white blood cells ( leukocytes , hence the -leukin ) as a means of communication ( inter- ).
    • Complement system
      • The complement system is a biochemical cascade of the immune system that helps clear pathogens from an organism, and promote healing.
    • Complement system
      • It is derived from many small plasma proteins that work together to form the primary end result of cytolysis by disrupting the target cell's plasma membrane
    • Things that can INCREASE an immune response
      • Variability
      • Size
    • Variability
      • Variability - is the #1 factor in eliciting an immune response
      • How different do you look?
        • Think about Genetic Drift and Genetic Shift or HIV
        • A virus or a toxin can contain an enzyme that is very different to your own!!!
    • Size
      • Beware of large molecules without variability b/c smaller molecules with variability will still be more immunogenic!!!