Immunology Vocabulary
Antigen <ul><ul><li>a molecule that  stimulates an immune response </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Any  identifiable  moiety = ...
Epitope <ul><li>It is the part of a  macromolecule  that is recognized by the  immune system   </li></ul>
Hapten <ul><ul><li>Antigen that is  too small  to set off an immune response  (<6000 D) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Viruses...
Antibody <ul><li>antibody  =  immunoglobulin </li></ul><ul><li>antibody  =  glyco protein </li></ul><ul><li>The antibody r...
Cytokine <ul><li>Cytokines  are a group of  proteins  and  peptides  that are used in organisms as signaling compounds.  <...
Interleukin <ul><li>are a group of  cytokines  (secreted signaling molecules) that were first seen to be expressed by  whi...
Complement system <ul><li>The  complement system  is a  biochemical cascade  of the  immune system  that helps clear  path...
Complement system <ul><li>It is derived from many small plasma proteins that work together to form the primary end result ...
Things that can  INCREASE  an immune response   <ul><li>Variability </li></ul><ul><li>Size </li></ul>
Variability <ul><li>Variability -  is the #1 factor in eliciting an immune response </li></ul><ul><li>How different do you...
Size <ul><li>Beware of large molecules without variability b/c  smaller molecules with variability will still be more immu...
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Immunology Basic Terms

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some basic concepts before to start to study immunology

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Immunology Basic Terms

  1. 1. Immunology Vocabulary
  2. 2. Antigen <ul><ul><li>a molecule that stimulates an immune response </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Any identifiable moiety = “anything” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>99% Proteins are antigens </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Epitope <ul><li>It is the part of a macromolecule that is recognized by the immune system </li></ul>
  4. 4. Hapten <ul><ul><li>Antigen that is too small to set off an immune response (<6000 D) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Viruses are a common hapten, when they are small!!! </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>They soon replicate and grow larger, thus setting off an immune response </li></ul></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Antibody <ul><li>antibody = immunoglobulin </li></ul><ul><li>antibody = glyco protein </li></ul><ul><li>The antibody recognizes a specific target, which is called an antigen . </li></ul>
  6. 6. Cytokine <ul><li>Cytokines are a group of proteins and peptides that are used in organisms as signaling compounds. </li></ul><ul><li>are used to allow one cell to communicate with another </li></ul>
  7. 7. Interleukin <ul><li>are a group of cytokines (secreted signaling molecules) that were first seen to be expressed by white blood cells ( leukocytes , hence the -leukin ) as a means of communication ( inter- ). </li></ul>
  8. 8. Complement system <ul><li>The complement system is a biochemical cascade of the immune system that helps clear pathogens from an organism, and promote healing. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Complement system <ul><li>It is derived from many small plasma proteins that work together to form the primary end result of cytolysis by disrupting the target cell's plasma membrane </li></ul>
  10. 10. Things that can INCREASE an immune response <ul><li>Variability </li></ul><ul><li>Size </li></ul>
  11. 11. Variability <ul><li>Variability - is the #1 factor in eliciting an immune response </li></ul><ul><li>How different do you look? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Think about Genetic Drift and Genetic Shift or HIV </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A virus or a toxin can contain an enzyme that is very different to your own!!! </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Size <ul><li>Beware of large molecules without variability b/c smaller molecules with variability will still be more immunogenic!!! </li></ul>

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