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The Classical Period
 

The Classical Period

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All about the Classical period of music

All about the Classical period of music

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    The Classical Period The Classical Period Presentation Transcript

    • The Classical Period 1750-1820
    • Vocal- Opera
      • The Italian opera (serious opera) declined
      • Evolved into a showy and artificial art form
      • Solo singers started to lose their dominance over the opera
      • Choral ensembles were used more
      • The orchestra expanded in size and nature
      • The comedic opera began to develop
    • Religious Music
      • It resembled operatic music
      • Almost all composers of church music also did operas
      • Masses became operatic style pieces of literature
      • Duets and arias even resembled opera
      • The only difference was the text
      • Fugal choruses and continuo basso remained from the Baroque Period
    • Instrumental Music
      • Sonata form is how composers wrote instrumental music
      • Sonata form was written in three or four movements
      • Sonata form was applied to solo sonatas, chamber music, symphonies, and concertos
    • Instrumental- Sonata Form
      • First movement called sonata-allegro
        • Exposition
        • Development
        • Recapitulation
      • Second movement
        • Written in slow tempo
        • In a contrasting key from the rest of the piece
        • More lyrical
    • Instrumental- Sonata Form
      • Third movement- menuetto (could be omitted)
        • Moderately fast tempo
        • In tonic key
        • In ¾ time
        • 3 sections- minuet, trio, and repeat of minuet
      • Fourth movement- finale
        • Lively tempo
        • In tonic key
        • In sonata-allegro form
    • Instrumental- Symphony
      • Developed in the 18 th century
      • Basic form was Italian overture called sinfonia
      • In 3 movements- fast-slow-fast
      • 4 woodwinds in pairs
      • Trumpets, horns, and timpani in pairs
      • String choir
    • Instrumental- Symphony
      • Strings most important sound
      • Themes played by first violins
      • Harmonies played by second violins and violas
      • Cellos and basses doubled
      • Brass instruments played only in tutti passages
    • Instrumental- Concerto
      • Similar to Baroque concerto
      • Followed fast-slow-fast formula
      • Omitted the minuet movement
      • First movement
        • 2 different expositions
        • Development section- musical ideas were developed and expanded
        • Recapitulation- restate theme
        • Cadenza- at end of recapitualtion
    • Instrumental- Concerto
      • Second movement
        • Written in contrasting key
        • Slow tempo
        • More lyrical
      • Third movement
        • Written in rondo form
        • Lively tempo
        • Sometimes a cadenza was added
    • Instrumental- Chamber Music
      • Divertimento
        • Composed for small ensembles and small orchestras
        • 3-10 movements
        • For outdoor and informal performances
      • String Quartet
        • Most popular
        • 4 movements
        • Classical sonata form
    • Instrumental- Chamber Music
      • Other Chamber Music
        • Mixed quartets
        • String and mixed trios
        • String and mixed quintets
      • Keyboard Music
        • Piano and harpsichord sonatas were very important
    • Composers
      • Ludwig Van Beethoven (1770-1827)- helped bridge the gap between Classical and Romantic Period
      • Christoph Willibald Gluck (1714-1787)- applied classic Greek principles to Italian operatic form
    • Composers
      • Franz Joseph Haydn (1732-1809)- considered the father of the string quartet
      • Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart (1756-1791)- regarded as the greatest child prodigy the world has ever known