The Classical Period 1750-1820
Vocal- Opera <ul><li>The Italian opera (serious opera) declined </li></ul><ul><li>Evolved into a showy and artificial art ...
Religious Music <ul><li>It resembled operatic music </li></ul><ul><li>Almost all composers of church music also did operas...
Instrumental Music <ul><li>Sonata form is how composers wrote instrumental music  </li></ul><ul><li>Sonata form was writte...
Instrumental- Sonata Form <ul><li>First movement called sonata-allegro </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Exposition </li></ul></ul><ul...
Instrumental- Sonata Form <ul><li>Third movement- menuetto (could be omitted) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Moderately fast tempo ...
Instrumental- Symphony <ul><li>Developed in the 18 th  century </li></ul><ul><li>Basic form was Italian overture called si...
Instrumental- Symphony <ul><li>Strings most important sound </li></ul><ul><li>Themes played by first violins </li></ul><ul...
Instrumental- Concerto <ul><li>Similar to Baroque concerto </li></ul><ul><li>Followed fast-slow-fast formula </li></ul><ul...
Instrumental- Concerto <ul><li>Second movement </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Written in contrasting key </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li...
Instrumental- Chamber Music <ul><li>Divertimento </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Composed for small ensembles and small orchestras <...
Instrumental- Chamber Music <ul><li>Other Chamber Music </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mixed quartets </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>St...
Composers <ul><li>Ludwig Van Beethoven  (1770-1827)- helped bridge the gap between Classical and Romantic Period </li></ul...
Composers <ul><li>Franz Joseph Haydn  (1732-1809)- considered the father of the string quartet </li></ul><ul><li>Wolfgang ...
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The Classical Period

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All about the Classical period of music

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The Classical Period

  1. 1. The Classical Period 1750-1820
  2. 2. Vocal- Opera <ul><li>The Italian opera (serious opera) declined </li></ul><ul><li>Evolved into a showy and artificial art form </li></ul><ul><li>Solo singers started to lose their dominance over the opera </li></ul><ul><li>Choral ensembles were used more </li></ul><ul><li>The orchestra expanded in size and nature </li></ul><ul><li>The comedic opera began to develop </li></ul>
  3. 3. Religious Music <ul><li>It resembled operatic music </li></ul><ul><li>Almost all composers of church music also did operas </li></ul><ul><li>Masses became operatic style pieces of literature </li></ul><ul><li>Duets and arias even resembled opera </li></ul><ul><li>The only difference was the text </li></ul><ul><li>Fugal choruses and continuo basso remained from the Baroque Period </li></ul>
  4. 4. Instrumental Music <ul><li>Sonata form is how composers wrote instrumental music </li></ul><ul><li>Sonata form was written in three or four movements </li></ul><ul><li>Sonata form was applied to solo sonatas, chamber music, symphonies, and concertos </li></ul>
  5. 5. Instrumental- Sonata Form <ul><li>First movement called sonata-allegro </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Exposition </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Development </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Recapitulation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Second movement </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Written in slow tempo </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In a contrasting key from the rest of the piece </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>More lyrical </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Instrumental- Sonata Form <ul><li>Third movement- menuetto (could be omitted) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Moderately fast tempo </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In tonic key </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In ¾ time </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3 sections- minuet, trio, and repeat of minuet </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Fourth movement- finale </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lively tempo </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In tonic key </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In sonata-allegro form </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Instrumental- Symphony <ul><li>Developed in the 18 th century </li></ul><ul><li>Basic form was Italian overture called sinfonia </li></ul><ul><li>In 3 movements- fast-slow-fast </li></ul><ul><li>4 woodwinds in pairs </li></ul><ul><li>Trumpets, horns, and timpani in pairs </li></ul><ul><li>String choir </li></ul>
  8. 8. Instrumental- Symphony <ul><li>Strings most important sound </li></ul><ul><li>Themes played by first violins </li></ul><ul><li>Harmonies played by second violins and violas </li></ul><ul><li>Cellos and basses doubled </li></ul><ul><li>Brass instruments played only in tutti passages </li></ul>
  9. 9. Instrumental- Concerto <ul><li>Similar to Baroque concerto </li></ul><ul><li>Followed fast-slow-fast formula </li></ul><ul><li>Omitted the minuet movement </li></ul><ul><li>First movement </li></ul><ul><ul><li>2 different expositions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Development section- musical ideas were developed and expanded </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Recapitulation- restate theme </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cadenza- at end of recapitualtion </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Instrumental- Concerto <ul><li>Second movement </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Written in contrasting key </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Slow tempo </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>More lyrical </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Third movement </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Written in rondo form </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lively tempo </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sometimes a cadenza was added </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Instrumental- Chamber Music <ul><li>Divertimento </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Composed for small ensembles and small orchestras </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3-10 movements </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>For outdoor and informal performances </li></ul></ul><ul><li>String Quartet </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Most popular </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>4 movements </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Classical sonata form </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Instrumental- Chamber Music <ul><li>Other Chamber Music </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mixed quartets </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>String and mixed trios </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>String and mixed quintets </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Keyboard Music </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Piano and harpsichord sonatas were very important </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Composers <ul><li>Ludwig Van Beethoven (1770-1827)- helped bridge the gap between Classical and Romantic Period </li></ul><ul><li>Christoph Willibald Gluck (1714-1787)- applied classic Greek principles to Italian operatic form </li></ul>
  14. 14. Composers <ul><li>Franz Joseph Haydn (1732-1809)- considered the father of the string quartet </li></ul><ul><li>Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart (1756-1791)- regarded as the greatest child prodigy the world has ever known </li></ul>
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