Romantic Period

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All about the Romantic period of music

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Romantic Period

  1. 1. Romantic Period 1850-1920
  2. 2. Romantic Period <ul><li>Allowed artist freedom, experimentation, and creativity </li></ul><ul><li>Nationalism became popular </li></ul><ul><li>Increased use of dissonance and chromaticism </li></ul><ul><li>Color of the instruments widely used </li></ul><ul><li>Opera became increasingly popular </li></ul><ul><li>Virtuoso performers </li></ul>
  3. 3. Vocal Music <ul><li>Art song- most important </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lyrical </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Melody- turn written poetry into musical scene that was emotionalized through its music </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Accompaniment- usually piano helped add emotion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Form- through-composed form and strophic form </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Song cycle- group of poems by one poet set to music by one composer </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Vocal Music <ul><li>Oratorio- not the main focus anymore </li></ul><ul><li>Religious choral music- more for festival works than for church music </li></ul><ul><li>Secular choral music- partly gained popularity back due to increase use of nationalism and interest in folk songs </li></ul>
  5. 5. Instrumental Music <ul><li>Beethoven bridged the gap between Classical and Romantic </li></ul><ul><li>Music with a plot or depicted a scene became important </li></ul><ul><li>Tone Poem </li></ul><ul><li>Main instrumental traits </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Virtuosity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Individualism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>nationalism </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Instrumental Music- Keyboards <ul><li>Piano </li></ul><ul><ul><li>became the most popular </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Versatile instrument </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wide dynamic range </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sonority </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Forms </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Etudes, character pieces, variations, and virtuosos </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dance forms- waltz, mazurka, polka, and gallop </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Symphonic Music- Orchestration <ul><li>Orchestra grew in size and importance </li></ul><ul><li>More instruments were added </li></ul><ul><li>Wider range of sounds and emotions </li></ul><ul><li>Woodwind or horn new favored solo instrument </li></ul><ul><li>String section experimented </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mutes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tremelos </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Harmonics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pizzicato </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Double stops </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Symphonic Music- instruments <ul><li>Woodwind- grew to two or more bassoons, oboes, flutes, and clarinets </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Color instruments added </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Brass- valves instruments used such as trumpets, trombones, horns, and tubas </li></ul><ul><li>Percussion- more percussion instruments were used </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Xylophones, bells, bass and side drums, gongs, cymbals </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Strings- number of strings increased </li></ul>
  9. 9. Symphonic Music- Forms <ul><li>Symphony- different from the Classical Symphony </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Freer form of the internal structure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Variation on number of movements </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Creative means of expression </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Solo voices and choral sounds added </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Concerto </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Showpiece for virtuoso soloist and orchestra </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Symphonic poem (Tone poem) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Introduced by Franz Liszet in the mid 1800’s </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Symphonic Music- Forms <ul><li>Concert overtures </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Single movement work in sonata-allegro form </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Symphonic variations </li></ul><ul><li>Symphonic suites </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Works in several movements that don’t follow symphonic form </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Dances </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Orchestral music written in dance forms </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Chamber Music <ul><li>Became obsolete </li></ul><ul><li>Could not match the piano’s warmth of versatility in range and expression </li></ul><ul><li>Didn’t posses the size, sound, and color of symphony </li></ul><ul><li>String quartet was the choice of composers </li></ul><ul><li>Wrote new music for piano- trios, quartets, and quintets </li></ul><ul><li>Rarest form- solo sonatas for violin and other instruments </li></ul>
  12. 12. Composers <ul><li>Johannes Brahms (1833-1897)- composer of numerous waltzes </li></ul><ul><li>Frederic Chopin (1810-1901)- was the master of the piano in his generation </li></ul><ul><li>Felix Mendelssohn- Bartholdy (1809-1847)- wrote the Wedding March </li></ul><ul><li>Giacomo Puccini (1858-1924)- master of Italian opera, wrote Madame Butterfly </li></ul>
  13. 13. Composers <ul><li>Franz Schubert (1797-1828)- wrote Ava Maria and the Unfinished Symphony </li></ul><ul><li>Peter Llyich Tchaikovsky (1840-1893)- composed the music to The Nutcracker </li></ul><ul><li>Guiseppi Verdi (1813-1901)- great master of opera, wrote Aida for the opening of the Suez Canal </li></ul>

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