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Romantic Period

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All about the Romantic period of music

All about the Romantic period of music

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  • 1. Romantic Period 1850-1920
  • 2. Romantic Period
    • Allowed artist freedom, experimentation, and creativity
    • Nationalism became popular
    • Increased use of dissonance and chromaticism
    • Color of the instruments widely used
    • Opera became increasingly popular
    • Virtuoso performers
  • 3. Vocal Music
    • Art song- most important
      • Lyrical
      • Melody- turn written poetry into musical scene that was emotionalized through its music
      • Accompaniment- usually piano helped add emotion
      • Form- through-composed form and strophic form
      • Song cycle- group of poems by one poet set to music by one composer
  • 4. Vocal Music
    • Oratorio- not the main focus anymore
    • Religious choral music- more for festival works than for church music
    • Secular choral music- partly gained popularity back due to increase use of nationalism and interest in folk songs
  • 5. Instrumental Music
    • Beethoven bridged the gap between Classical and Romantic
    • Music with a plot or depicted a scene became important
    • Tone Poem
    • Main instrumental traits
      • Virtuosity
      • Individualism
      • nationalism
  • 6. Instrumental Music- Keyboards
    • Piano
      • became the most popular
      • Versatile instrument
      • Wide dynamic range
      • Sonority
    • Forms
      • Etudes, character pieces, variations, and virtuosos
      • Dance forms- waltz, mazurka, polka, and gallop
  • 7. Symphonic Music- Orchestration
    • Orchestra grew in size and importance
    • More instruments were added
    • Wider range of sounds and emotions
    • Woodwind or horn new favored solo instrument
    • String section experimented
      • Mutes
      • Tremelos
      • Harmonics
      • Pizzicato
      • Double stops
  • 8. Symphonic Music- instruments
    • Woodwind- grew to two or more bassoons, oboes, flutes, and clarinets
      • Color instruments added
    • Brass- valves instruments used such as trumpets, trombones, horns, and tubas
    • Percussion- more percussion instruments were used
      • Xylophones, bells, bass and side drums, gongs, cymbals
    • Strings- number of strings increased
  • 9. Symphonic Music- Forms
    • Symphony- different from the Classical Symphony
      • Freer form of the internal structure
      • Variation on number of movements
      • Creative means of expression
      • Solo voices and choral sounds added
    • Concerto
      • Showpiece for virtuoso soloist and orchestra
    • Symphonic poem (Tone poem)
      • Introduced by Franz Liszet in the mid 1800’s
  • 10. Symphonic Music- Forms
    • Concert overtures
      • Single movement work in sonata-allegro form
    • Symphonic variations
    • Symphonic suites
      • Works in several movements that don’t follow symphonic form
    • Dances
      • Orchestral music written in dance forms
  • 11. Chamber Music
    • Became obsolete
    • Could not match the piano’s warmth of versatility in range and expression
    • Didn’t posses the size, sound, and color of symphony
    • String quartet was the choice of composers
    • Wrote new music for piano- trios, quartets, and quintets
    • Rarest form- solo sonatas for violin and other instruments
  • 12. Composers
    • Johannes Brahms (1833-1897)- composer of numerous waltzes
    • Frederic Chopin (1810-1901)- was the master of the piano in his generation
    • Felix Mendelssohn- Bartholdy (1809-1847)- wrote the Wedding March
    • Giacomo Puccini (1858-1924)- master of Italian opera, wrote Madame Butterfly
  • 13. Composers
    • Franz Schubert (1797-1828)- wrote Ava Maria and the Unfinished Symphony
    • Peter Llyich Tchaikovsky (1840-1893)- composed the music to The Nutcracker
    • Guiseppi Verdi (1813-1901)- great master of opera, wrote Aida for the opening of the Suez Canal