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Cloud Computing - A business and economical perspective & An architectural and technological overview
 

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    Cloud Computing - A business and economical perspective & An architectural and technological overview Cloud Computing - A business and economical perspective & An architectural and technological overview Presentation Transcript

    • Cloud Computing A business and economical perspectiveAn architectural and technological overview Gianmario Motta - Nicola Sfondrini - Daniele Sacco LOGO Department of Industrial and Information Engineering University of Pavia - Via Ferrata 1, Pavia, Italy
    • Introduction Approach We present a Systematic Literature Review (SLR) to capture the relevant points of view on Cloud Computing by selecting:  84 papers from first tier journals and conferences  in the period 2008-2012  On the basis of impact factor, number of citations and source authoritativeness Systematic Literature Review Methodology As opposed to narrative reviews, it is based on a specified structured method. Our SLR includes the following steps:  Formulation of the research question: • What cloud computing really is and what level of maturity has reached?  Source selection: • IEEE Computer Society - ACM Digital Library - Google Scholar  Studies inclusion criteria: • Search by “Cloud Computing” keyword • Exclusion of short or non-english papers and non-international conferenceGianmario Motta - Nicola Sfondrini - Daniele Sacco - University of Pavia - Department of Industrial and Information Engineering
    • Papers & Journals Classification Studies Categorization CATEGORY DESCRPTION Case study An investigation on a single individual, group, incident, community or enterprise Theory A Guidelines on or introduction to a particular subject Survey An investigation on a given topic based on the analysis of a given sample Simulation A study that introduces simulation methods and related results Position paper Presents an opinion about an issue SLR Profiles the literature related to a given topic Topic Classification PRIMARY DOMANIS SUB-DOMAINS CONTENT General Overview Introduction, Definition Guidelines and general aspects. Technological Issues Network, Storage Technology and architectures Performance studies to refine workflow Service Level Management Performance, Security setting and security Business Issues Cost, Legal Issues Economic value and privacy issues Other / Papers that cover multiple domainsGianmario Motta - Nicola Sfondrini - Daniele Sacco - University of Pavia - Department of Industrial and Information Engineering
    • Growing Interest Cloud Computing- A new disruptive Technology Through Google Trends you can spot, a rapid growth of search out on Cloud Computing from 2007 onwards, and a corresponding decline of searches on previous technologies such as Utility Computing, Cluster Computing and Grid Computing.This suggests two main different interpretations: Cloud Computing is the last step in IT evolution after mainframes, PCs, networked computing, Internet and grid computing. Cloud Computing is just the repackage of existing technologies, introduced in the market for pure economic and commercial purposes. Gianmario Motta - Nicola Sfondrini - Daniele Sacco - University of Pavia - Department of Industrial and Information Engineering
    • A topic with multiple definitions Virtualization Deterministic Development Commitment Performance Pay-Per-Use Off-premise Automation No Upfront Scalability Internet / Hardware Software platform network Service Data SLAAuthorArmbrust et al. x x x x x x x xBuyya x x x XFoster et al. x x x x x x xGartner x x x x x xGrossman x x x x xIDC x x x x xKim et al. x x x x x x x xNurmi et al. x x x x xVaquero et al. x x x x x x xWang et al. x x x xYouseff et al. x x x x x x xTotal 10 11 6 3 3 5 1 10 2 5 2 1 6 1 Gianmario Motta - Nicola Sfondrini - Daniele Sacco - University of Pavia - Department of Industrial and Information Engineering
    • Cloud Computing - Overview Cloud Computing- Conceptual Model Cloud computing enables convenient, on-demand network access to a shared pool of computing resources that can be rapidly provisioned and released with minimal management effort. Source: NIST (National Institute of Standard and Technology) • Software as a Service: consumer can use, via web, provider’s appsDelivery Model SaaS running on a cloud infrastructure. • Platform as a Service: the consumer can deploy onto the cloud PaaS infrastructure using and tools supported by the provider IaaS • Infrastructure as a Service: the consumer can provision computing resources (processing, storage, …) where deploy SW Private Cloud: cloud is operated solely Public Cloud: cloud is available to the for an organization public and owned by a provider Internet Internet Intranet Hybrid Cloud: cloud is a composition of more clouds that remain unique entities but are bounded together by standardized tech Deployment Model Gianmario Motta - Nicola Sfondrini - Daniele Sacco - University of Pavia - Department of Industrial and Information Engineering
    • 5 Essential feature “to be Cloud”1. On-demand self-service A consumer can unilaterally provision computing capabilities, such as server time and network storage, without requiring human.2. Broad network access. Capabilities are made available through the network and standard mechanisms that promote use by client platforms (e.g., mobile phones, tablets, laptops).3. Resource Pooling The provider’s resources are pooled to serve multiple consumers using a multi-tenant model, with different physical and virtual resources (e.g. storage, memory, network bandwidth, etc.)4. Rapid Elasticity Capabilities can be elastically provisioned and relinquished, in some cases automatically, to commensurate with demand.5. Measured Service Resource usage can be monitored, controlled and reported, providing transparency for both the provider and consumer of the utilized service. Gianmario Motta - Nicola Sfondrini - Daniele Sacco - University of Pavia - Department of Industrial and Information Engineering
    • Cloud Market Actors Providers Broker Cloud Providers realize and create Cloud Cloud Brokers do not realize Cloud Services, in terms of IAAS, PAAS and Services, but they simply act as an SAAS. Some of the most important intermediary between Providers and Cloud Providers are Amazon, Google Costumers. and Microsoft. Providers can also act as System Integrators. System Integrators Consulting System Integrators help costumers to Consultants do not act operatively: the migrate from a traditional IT don’t realize cloud services and they not infrastructure to a cloud infrastructure implement them. However, they support (realized by a provider). costumers in all the preliminary analysis (i.e. Provider, Broker and S.I Selection, Project Mgmt…)Gianmario Motta - Nicola Sfondrini - Daniele Sacco - University of Pavia - Department of Industrial and Information Engineering
    • Traditional IT vs Cloud Traditional IT Cloud Infrastructure InfrastrutctureGianmario Motta - Nicola Sfondrini - Daniele Sacco - University of Pavia - Department of Industrial and Information Engineering
    • Technological Issues - NetworkingCloud computing uses several current technologies and therefore perpetuate their issues. On the other side, theinnovative service characteristics of Cloud Computing pushed researchers to analyze the quality of service. Networking In cloud computing two different networks coexist:  a logical network, made of virtual machines, that are deployed on physical servers interconnected by logical links  a physical network, made of physical servers and physical networking devices.There are two different kind of approach to optimize the network flow: “1-cuts” algorithm for node assignment in witch agents dynamically allocate resources by routing traffic demandsin an optimal way, lowering cost and optimizing performance. virtualized optical network or an implementation of a reliable multicast service to reduce bandwidth on links whileensuring required reliability and flexibility. Gianmario Motta - Nicola Sfondrini - Daniele Sacco - University of Pavia - Department of Industrial and Information Engineering
    • Technological Issues – Data mgmtCloud computing uses several current technologies and therefore perpetuate their issues. On the other side, theinnovative service characteristics of Cloud Computing pushed researchers to analyze the quality of service. Data Management Cloud Computing uses a layered storage area to run computing cycles and redundancy replication to ensure high availability. The flexible architecture of cloud computing provides, ideally, an infinite amount of resources, that allow data-intensive flows otherwise unapproachable.Data management has both critics and highly innovative aspects: Cloud Computing raises critical issues in data mining manageable with customizable templates, assembledrecursively and capable to handle a wide class of SQL data mining queries. Cloud Computing has fostered new capabilities in automatic data management and content interpretation facilitatingthe spread of semantic web in the most popular search engines. Gianmario Motta - Nicola Sfondrini - Daniele Sacco - University of Pavia - Department of Industrial and Information Engineering
    • SLM - Security The architectural concept of cloud computing involves benefits as centralization of security, data redundancy and process segmentation. However it introduces also new security issues. Security  Authentication and identity management: a critical factor is to provide a robust identity management architecture and strategy. Higher levels of protection can be obtained by using: • Open Authorization (Oauth), that allows users to easily login without revealing ID and password. • Systems based on open ID frameworks as the Security Assertion Markup Language (SAML). Privacy and data protection: To manage this issue, providers offer: • solutions that combine hybrid encryption and the technique of proxy re-encryption with KP-ABE. • a Trusted Third Party (TTP) to ensure authentication, integrity and confidentiality of data and communications. Gianmario Motta - Nicola Sfondrini - Daniele Sacco - University of Pavia - Department of Industrial and Information Engineering
    • SLM - PerformanceThe power promised by cloud is attracting the community of scientific computing, who saw an alternative whereresources are no longer in a private data center but leased as needed. Performance  Computational power: cloud systems can provide excellent computing performance but have also highlighted scheduling delays and wide area communications issues. This challenge drives th CPs to offer new cost models and better interconnections or nodes with greater physical memory to overcome the bottleneck caused by slow networks Load balancing: to increase the flexibility of cloud systems, using MapReduce or Hadoop, you need to redesign agile data centers, where applications are loosely coupled with underlying infrastructure and easily communicate and share virtual resources. Service Level Agreement: the benefits offered by resource scalability and pay-as-you-go approach contrast with the low standardization and continuous change of systems. Web Service Level Agreement (WSLA) framework offers a mechanism for SLA monitoring in a SOA proposing itself as an optimal approach as seen in cloud computing environment. Gianmario Motta - Nicola Sfondrini - Daniele Sacco - University of Pavia - Department of Industrial and Information Engineering
    • Business Issues - CostCloud computing offers benefits to all actors involved in the service but has raised new business models and legalissues about data confidentiality and privacy. Cost/Price A second step is pricing. To get higher profit, an autonomic pricing may be used; it self-adjusts pricing parameters on the amount of resources reserved to each user and their actual utilization. The commonest pricing models are: Tiered pricing: several levels of hardware specifications are provided at a cost per unit time; Per-unit pricing: resources provided are flexible and scalable on the basis of the requests and the user pays for their exact usage; Subscription-based pricing: typical of SaaS, involves a contract that specifies the resources available and the number of users. Gianmario Motta - Nicola Sfondrini - Daniele Sacco - University of Pavia - Department of Industrial and Information Engineering
    • Business Issues – Legal Issues The physical location is critical because there are no international agreement on data protection and privacy. Governments might play a strategic role to promote cloud computing as they supported Internet in the years 80-90. Legal Issues - USA U.S. have legal and regulatory rules, especially on privacy rights, that hardly can be enforced in massive cloud computing. HIPAA Restrictions on Health Data: it imposes significant restrictions on the disclosure of protected health information. Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act: it restricts financial institutions from disclosing consumers personal data to third parties, verifying that service provider is capable of maintaining an appropriate data management State Breach Notification Laws: it requires that data owners notify individuals whose computerized personal information has been subject to unauthorized access. In a cloud computing control is complex because the data owner has not a complete control on the security of company data. Gianmario Motta - Nicola Sfondrini - Daniele Sacco - University of Pavia - Department of Industrial and Information Engineering
    • Business Issues – Legal Issues The physical location is critical because there are no international agreement on data protection and privacy. Governments might play a strategic role to promote cloud computing as they supported Internet in the years 80-90. Legal Issues - UE Data protection authorities have recently covered cloud computing to ensure compliance with EU data protection requirements Data Controllers and Service Providers: Data Controller determines purposes and methods of treatment of personal data and is responsible for compliance with data protection law. International Data Transfers: transferring personal data outside European Economic Area is prohibited, unless the receiving country provides an adequate protection. Legal Bases for Processing Data in a Cloud: Under EU data protection law the data upload in a cloud computing environment is considered as processing. Gianmario Motta - Nicola Sfondrini - Daniele Sacco - University of Pavia - Department of Industrial and Information Engineering
    • Business Issues – Legal Issues The physical location is critical because there are no international agreement on data protection and privacy. Governments might play a strategic role to promote cloud computing as they supported Internet in the years 80-90. Legal Issues - UK UK shares with EU several measures The Data Protection Act 1998 contains eight principles for protection and restriction on personal data treatment. The first principle states that personal data should be processed fairly and lawfully. In accordance with its principle the cloud provider obtains permission to treat these data by inserting a specific consent in contracts. The Copyright and Rights in Databases Regulations 1997 established a stand-alone intellectual property right where a database has originality in the selection or arrangement of its contents and there has been a substantial investment in obtaining, verifying or presenting that content". Gianmario Motta - Nicola Sfondrini - Daniele Sacco - University of Pavia - Department of Industrial and Information Engineering
    • Conclusions… Undoubtedly, Cloud Computing (CC) is a fashionable topic from 2007 onwards. In fact, an IDC forecast, highlights the continuous growth of the Cloud Computing technology that will reach $72.9 billion in 2015 with an annual growth rate of 27.6%. Public Cloud Spending (bln $) Cloud Market 72.90 52.49 H Diffusion 37.79 27.21 19.5914.11 L L H Maturity2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 Note: balloons size represents market value Gianmario Motta - Nicola Sfondrini - Daniele Sacco - University of Pavia - Department of Industrial and Information Engineering
    • …Conclusions Our SLR has illustrated the current academic research landscape on Cloud Computing (CC) and has highlighted relevant trends. Highlights Different definitions that still shows a conceptual uncertainty and immaturity Almost all articles have addressed technological issues related to the adoption of cloud systems Almost all articles describe Cloud Computing for a Providers perspective Lack of PaaS articles, that might be a strategic element in the future competition of vendors Our Viewpoint CLOUD COMPUTING IS NOT A NEW TECHNOLOGY BUT A NEW APPROACH TO TECHNOLOGY CC HAS THE POTENTIAL TO INTRODUCE A NEW VISION OF GLOBALIZATION, TRANSFORMING IT INTO THE LARGEST REORGANIZATION OF THE WORLD SINCE THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION Gianmario Motta - Nicola Sfondrini - Daniele Sacco - University of Pavia - Department of Industrial and Information Engineering
    • Thank You!Gianmario Motta - Nicola Sfondrini - Daniele Sacco LOGO Department of Industrial and Information Engineering University of Pavia - Via Ferrata 1, Pavia, Italy
    • Questions and Answers Gianmario Motta - Nicola Sfondrini - Daniele Sacco LOGO Department of Industrial and Information Engineering University of Pavia - Via Ferrata 1, Pavia, Italy
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