Credit seminar Spring semester – 2012 Prepared by: ADHAR KASHYAP 11ID60R17RCG School of Infrastructure Design & Management, IIT-Kharagpur.
• Background.• Why Multi level parking?• Types of automated MLCP’s.• Project finances.• MLCP facilities on PPP Model.• Examples of MLCP’s in India.• Conclusion and future prospects.
• India’s urban population is currently around 30% of its total population• In context to urban transport system, the CBD’s are majorly facing the space issues in terms of open spaces, green spaces, and clear headways on roads, which lead to major inconvenience as well as delays in existing systems.• population of India’s six major metropolises increased by about 1.9 times during 1981 to 2001, the number of motor vehicles went up by over 7.75 times during the same period• Parking is one of the major concerns in terms of space occupation in these places. It can be broadly classified into two categories: On street and Off- street.
Background• Presently demand for cars going up at the rateof 15% per annum.• Presently approximately15 lakhs cars are beingsold every year.• Making roads more expensive than parkinginfrastructure.• Cars being parked on roads causing traffic causestraffic congestion and pollution. Image 1: Traffic congestion in Bengaluru due to off- street parking. (Image courtesy: Mint money)
Background• Besides the problem of space for cars moving on the road, greater is the problem of space for a parked vehicle considering that private vehicles remain parked for most of their time.• State governments would be required to amend building bye laws in all million plus cities so that adequate parking space is available for all residents / users of such buildings.• Land is valuable in all urban areas. Parking places occupy large portions of such land. This fact should be recognized in determining the principles for allocation of parking space.• Multi-level parking complexes should be made a mandatory requirement in city centers that have several high rise commercial complexes.
Multi-level Parking systems for sometime have provided relief since they come witha number of advantages:• Optimal utilization of space.• Lower maintenance and operational cost.• Lower construction cost (owing to the prefabrication).• Secure and environment-friendly nature (the underground implementation renders Image 2: Conventional multi-level car parking (Image courtesy: Wikipedia, Robert Lawton) the outdoor space free for landscaping).• Comfortable for the drivers, cost saving for builders by saving height or depth.
Why Multi level parking?The Equivalent Car Space (ECS) that can be accommodated at the parking site wouldvary with the technology used. There are two basic technologies used for MultilevelParking:• Conventional type• Automated type Image 3: Recent initiatives by Ram Ratna Group in Mumbai using Twin parking for Apartments and Bungalows at low power consumption (Image courtesy: The Hindu)
Conventional multilevel parking system can be underground, above found orboth under and above ground structure, the above ground structures are usuallyOpen-deck parking structures, which typically have at least two sides that areminimum 50 percent, open to the outside. The open parking structure ispreferable to close parking structures for above ground, as it do not requiremechanical ventilation and specialized fire protection system. The design ofconventional multi-level parking includes:• Entry and exit ramps and/or car lifts• Aisle/circulation space between the vehicles.• Car parking area.
Why Multi level parking?Conventional MLCP Garage (Taking into consideration the number of cars and lotsize for a conventional garage on a proposed site for 924 cars)• Footprint = 150 x 270 (for 8 Levels), Assuming 275 days /year• Use of express ramps, assuming one turn per day per stall.• Average Vehicle Miles Traveled (VMT) (assuming travel to mid-point at 4th level) per car per day to park and to exit = 5280: ([2x 240+ 2x 90] x 4 levels) x 2 for entry & exit• The total average number of vehicle the total average number of vehicle miles traveled (VMT)/YR. = 254,100 miles/year
Why Multi level parking?• Hydrocarbons: 3.3 grams / mile = 838,530 grams = 1,847 lbs. of HC / Year.• Carbon Monoxide: 25.5 grams / mile = 6, 479, 550 grams = 14,272,137 lbs. = 7,136 tons of CO / Year.• Nitrogen Oxides: 1.7 grams / mile = 431,970 grams = 951 lbs. of NOx / Year.• Car bon Di oxide: 1 pound / mile = 254, 100 lbs. or 127 tons of CO2 / Year• Gasoline: .05 gallon/ mile = 12,705 gallons gasoline / Year.Fully Automatic Multilevel Parking Systems help create a cleaner environment.
Technologies used forautomated parking systemsare of following types:1. Puzzle type2. Tower type3. Multi floor type4. Rotary type Image 4: Automated multi-level car parking at Autostadt, Germany. (Image Courtesy: autostadt.de)
Types of automated MLCP’sThis system has more than two levels of parking. Its design has a structure thatenables use of all parking entrances and exits on ground level. The parking palletsmove left, right , upward and downward and always has one empty slot formovement.Advantages:• Operation is simple, no need for parking attendant• Fast retrieval time, generally 2 min.• Extremely safe and reliable with safety and option of automated gates. Image 5: Puzzle type parking, (Image courtesy: Industrial services)
Types of automated MLCP’sAdvantages:• Minimal land use. An area of 25’x22’ can park up to 72 vehicles.• Low noise and vibration• Entry and exit is very quick and convenient.• Completely equipped with multiple sens ors and triple safety devices• Has the capability of holding cue memory when multiple patrons come to Image 6: Elevator or tower type automated parking retrieve their vehicles during rush hours. (Image courtesy: Simmatec solutions)
Types of automated MLCP’s Advantages:• Because each elevator and cart is operated independently on each level, entry and exit is quick. Retrieval time of a vehicle is less than two minutes.• Low noise and vibration. Entry and exit is very quick and convenient. We incorporate a built in turntable on each elevator.• A self-malfunction diagnostic control Image 7: Multi floor automated parking (image courtesy: Autostadt) provides an excellent level of safety and reliability.• Has the capability of holding cue memory when multiple patrons come to retrieve their vehicles during rush hours.
Types of automated MLCP’s Advantages:• Up to 12 vehicles can be accommodated within the space normally taken up by two vehicles.• It is not applicable by the regulations of building coverage.• There is no need for an attendant because of its simple one‐touch operation method.• Senses where vehicle is closer and rotates bi‐directionally for fast retrieval time.• Extremely safe and reliable. Impossible for vehicles to fall with endless chain and pallet drop prevention system. Image 8: Rotary type automated parking (Image Courtesy: Wikipedia)
Types of automated MLCP’s Comparison of Car Parking SystemsSI. No Criteria Stack Park Puzzle Multi floor Rotary Max space Max space 1) Space Optimization Poor Poor optimization optimization Low as Low as compared to 2) Capital Investment compared to Very High Reasonable others others Operating and 3) Maintenance Low Very high Very high Low Expenses 4) Ease of Installation Simple Simple Complex Simple 5) Construction Time Low Low High Low 6) Retrieval Time High Very high High Low Table: 1 Comparison matrix of various type of MLACP’s(courtesy: Tal Manufacturing Solutions Ltd), Continued……
Types of automated MLCP’sSI. No Criteria Stack Park Puzzle Multi floor Rotary Better than 7) Technology Simple Outdated Superior Puzzle 8) Noise Low Very high Very high Low Facility 9) Manual Override Not there Not there Facility is there available 10) Reliability Medium Poor Reasonable Good Reasonable Highly Highly 11) Security Less secure Secured Secured Secured 12) Centering device Not there Not there Not there Available 13) Life cycle 10-15 yrs. 10-15 yrs. 15-20 yrs. 20-25 yrs. 3-4% of capital 3-4% of 2-3% of 2-3% of 14) Maintenance cost cost capital cost capital cost capital cost Table: 1 Comparison matrix of various type of MLACP’s(courtesy: Tal Manufacturing Solutions Ltd)
Types of automated MLCP’sAdvantages:• A fast parking process in which the driver does not have to maneuver his car or drive backwards, guarantees highest t comfort and security.• A single lift serves 6 to 12 parking spaces per level taking up a min. of space.• Time-saving vertical and horizontal movements take place simultaneously ensuring fast parking and retrieval times.• Automatic multi-story car parks provide lower building cost per parking slot, as they typically require less building volume and less ground area than a conventional facility with the same capacity.• Costs are usually lower too, for example there is no need for an energy intensive ventilating system, since cars are not driven inside and human cashiers or security personnel may not be needed.
Types of automated MLCP’sLimitations:• Multi-Story Car Park on Surrounding Residential Blocks cause air and noise pollution caused by the motor vehicles.• Parking lots also tend to be subject to contamination with concentrated spots of pollutants such as motor oil.• Virtually all of the rain that falls becomes runoff. The parking lot must be built to effectively channel and collect runoff. Traditionally, the runoff has been shunted directly into storm sewers, streams, or even sanitary sewers.• Many areas today also require minimum landscaping in parking lots. This usually principally means the planting of trees to provide shade, but parking lot providers have long been antagonistic to planting trees because of the extra cost of cleaning the parking lot.
• The preliminary financial analysis for a standardized MLACP has been carried out based on assumption arrived from preliminary market assessment carried out at identified cities.• The financial viability of the project is assed with respect to the key parameters such as Project’s NPV, B/C Ratio,IRR, Internal IRR.• The Internal IRR for the selected cities vary drastically as certain cities growth Rates are much lower as compared to developed cities.• The Viability analysis includes the identification of revenue and expenditure streams. Revenues will be from parking fees, commercial activities and advertisements, while expenditure would be primarily on account of Capital and O&M costs.
Project FinancesThe landed project cost is estimated considering the cost involved in:• Construction.• Project development fees.• Interest during construction.• Cost of Approvals & Sanctions.• pre-operative cost and Contingencies etc.Layout of basic estimation:• Total construction cost: 25% of the project cost.• Overhead costs: 3% of the project cost.• Equipment cost: 68% of the project cost.• Interest during construction: 3% of the project cost.
Project Finances• Operation and maintenance cost is taken as 20% of the revenue generated.• Viability of the project is based on the parking fees and other revenues like commercial activities, advertisements, etc. and depends on the development and city infrastructure of the area. Image 9: Proposed MLACP at Pune (Image Courtesy: Tal Manufacturing Solutions )
Operating Framework: Implementation StructureThe Locations identified for development of MLCP’s in individual cities wouldneed to be assessed for their technical and financial viability. In propose PPPstructure for implementation, the roles to be performed by the respectiveparties, i.e. the ULBs and selected developers.• Identification of location and Co-ordination with and seeking requisite clearances.• Standardization of parking- fee structure and performance standards and• Providing collection of parking fees and advertisement rights to developers.
MLCP facilities on PPP ModelRole of Developer:Design, Finance, Construct, operate, maintain and manage the facilities includingsupporting ancillary infrastructure and meet the requirements laid down bycompetent authority.Key Stake holders:• Project sponsor• Nodal Department: Urban Development Department/ Directorate of Municipal Administration.• Financial Department.• City Town planning department.• Traffic Police department.• State electricity board.
Chandigarh• In its plan to make Sector 17 a no-vehicle zone, Chandigarh’s architecture wing had suggested four multi-level parking lots at each side of the sector. But till now, work has started on only one multi-level parking and no planning has been made regarding the remaining three lots.• According to the parking wing of MC, there are around 15 parking lots in Sector 17 which are under the direct control of the civic body and over 15,000 vehicles are parked there on a daily basis.
Examples of MLCP’s in India. Project Multi level car parking at sector-17 Chandigarh Developer SMPL Client Mun. Corp Chandigarh Capacity 1200 Height G+3+2 basementTechnology/type Manual + semi-automatic Land Area 6996 sq. m. Approx. cost 3.5 lacs/ ECS(2007)Parking charges Rs. 10/hr, monthly Rs. 500 Occupancy Under implementationComm. Facility 9% of floor premises (Advertising) Model BOT Table 1: Database for MLCP at Chandigarh (Source: pppindiadatabase) Con. period 9 yrs. 11 Months.
Examples of MLCP’s in India.New Delhi• A city like Delhi has over five million cars and two-wheelers on its roads, but not enough parking spaces.• The demand for parking space has, on an average in the main markets of Delhi, outstripped demand by 43 per cent.• DIMTS under NDMC has launched multilevel car parking at Sarojini Nagar, New Delhi on 11th November 2011.• The Sarojini Nagar parking will be of eight floors with the ground and the first reserved for shopping/ commercial complex and the rest dedicated for parking.• It will have a parking capacity for 824 vehicles.
Examples of MLCP’s in India. Development of Automated Multilevel Parking cum Commercial Project Name: Complex at Sarojini Nagar Delhi State: Sarojini nagar Location: Urban development Sector: 824 cars (85 crores) Capacity size: Type of nodal State department: NDMCContracting authority: Complete Completion Status: Project Company / Developer / Operator: DLF Ltd, No consortium Legal Status of Project Company: DLF- Listed company EPC Contractor : DLF principal contractor Project proponent: O&M Contractor : Technology provider selected by DLF Table 2: Database for MLCP at New Delhi (Source: pppindiadatabase)
Examples of MLCP’s in India.The scope of work of DIMTS at MLACP is as follows:• Review, monitor and where required by the agreement, to approve activities associated with the design, construction, operation and maintenance of the Project facilities to ensure compliance by the Concessionaire with the construction requirement.• Review and monitor Quality Assurance and Quality Control Procedures adopted by the Concessionaire.• Report to the parties, Concessionaire (DLF) and the Concessioning authority (NDMC) on the various physical, technical and financial aspects of the projects based on the inspections, site visits and tests.• Assist the parties in arriving at an amicable settlement of disputes, if any.
Examples of MLCP’s in India.• Review matters related to safety and traffic management measures adopted by the Concessionaire.• Review and assist in finalization of the O & M manual prepared by the concessionaire• Issue Completion Certificate.• Assistance at the time of handing back the project facilities to NDMC at the end of the concession period.• Review and Certification of as Built Drawings.
Examples of MLCP’s in India.Other examples :• Sambhaji park – Pune (proposed)• MG Road – Bengaluru (proposed)• Rowdon Street - Kolkata Image 10: proposed MLCP at Bengaluru (Image courtesy: For Image 11: MLCP at Sarojini Nagar, New Delhi (Image courtesy: The Hindu) mechanics, TATA)
• In India, the concept of automated parking is still restricted to large cities.• Some of the problems in this system as felt by the industry is the absence of a regular body for monitoring the quality of such systems, lack of skilled labor• With less land available, parking is a growing concern in the Indian context. various technological options are rapidly catching demand, as there are considerable technology providers for these for the past few years.• These seem to be getting absorbed in the Indian context as these are easy to install, and operate, capital costs are relatively cheaper than fully automatic parking systems, and involve lesser consumption of electrical energy.
Conclusion and future prospects1. Optimal utilization of space.2. Can be constructed on minimum available space.3. Lower construction cost.4. Low maintenance and operational cost.5. Safety of vehicle.6. Environment friendly.7. Benefit to a driver.8. Benefit to builder.9. Benefit to architects.10. Reduction of crimes.
Types of automated MLCP’sPapers/Journals/Articles• Mariano, G., Luca, D. and Bruno, M. (2011). A multilayer model to simulate cruising for parking in urban areas. Transport Policy Vol. 18, 735–744• Paul, A. B. (2012). Off-street parking policy surprises in Asian cities, Cities Vol. 29 23–31• Banerjee, S. and Hameed, A.Q. (2011). Egyptian Informatics Journal.Vol. 12, 9–17• Tsamboulas, D.A.(2001) Parking fare thresholds: a policy tool. Transport Policy Vol. 8,115–124Weblinks• http://cseindia.org/node/175• http://www.dimts.in/Engineering_Services.htm• http://www.idd.kar.nic.in/docs/27.Prefea• http://www.nbmcw.com/• http://www.pppindiadatabase.com/