Psychological foundations of curriculum

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The psychological foundations of curriculum. You may send me an e-mail if you want a copy of this presentation. This was presented as a partial fulfillment for the course curriculum development under the MA in Nursing program at Our Lady of Fatima University QC campus.

-Maverick Reyes - Castillo, RN
maverick_castillo@yahoo.com

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Psychological foundations of curriculum

  1. 1. Behaviourism Cognitivism CURRICULUMConstructivism Humanism
  2. 2. BEHAVIOURIST PRINCIPLES APPLIED IN TEACHING AND LEARNING:Use a system of rewards Break down complex task Reinforce when studentsto encourage certain into smaller and demonstrate thebehaviours and learning manageable subskills modelled behaviourWhen learning factual Sequence material to enhance understanding eg. State the learningmaterial provide teach simple concepts first outcomes desired for theimmediate and frequent before proceeding to more benefit of both teachersfeedback for complex difficult and abstract and studentsand difficult concepts concept Model the behaviour Establish a contract withProvide practice, drill and students are to imitate students on the work toreview activities to and repeat be done and whatenhance mastery of facts demonstrations when rewards will be given necessary
  3. 3. The short term memory is where information is being attended and encoded. Encoding is transforming information received into a form that can be deposited or stored in memory. The sensory memoryreceives information from The long term memory various sources and the where information that is brain will only focus on encoded and rehearsed is information that has stored. Long term been attended to. It is memory has an unlimited very short and lasts for capacity or storage area. about ¼ second.
  4. 4. ResponseVisualAuditory Sensory Short Term Long Term Smell Memory Memory MemoryTouch Taste
  5. 5. Formal operations (11 years and onwards): The young person can think logically about abstract ideas, evaluate data and test hypotheses systematically. Concrete operational (7-11 years): The child can think logically about objects and events. Preoperational stage (2-7 years): The child learns to use language and able to represent objects symbolically.Sensorimotor stage (birth to age 2): In the early stage, the child’sreactions are based on reflex operations and progresses towards being able to differentiate self from objects.
  6. 6. Even if insightful Insight learning can learning is not the result be applied to new of trial and error, trial situations. and error is present in insight learning.The greater the The stronger theintelligence, the experiences of the Insight can be tested ingreater are the organism, the greater possibility it will have of the laboratory.possibilities ofachieving insight. achieving insight.
  7. 7. Episodic memory is the Semantic memory is ability to consciously the ability to store recollect previous more general experiences from knowledge in memory. memory.
  8. 8. Gain the students attention• Use cues to signal when you are ready to begin.• Move around the room and use voice inflections (changing tone)Bring to mind relevant prior learning• Review previous days lesson.• Have a discussion about previously covered content.
  9. 9. Point out important information• Provide handouts.• Write on the board or use transparenciesPresent information in an organised manner• Show a logical sequence to concepts and skills.• Go from simple to complex when presenting new material.
  10. 10. Show students how to categorise (chunk) related information• Present information in categories.• Teach inductive reasoning.Provide opportunities for students to elaborate on new information• Connect new information to something already known.• Look for similarities and differences among concepts.
  11. 11. Show students how to use coding when memorizing lists• Make up silly sentence with first letter of each word in the list.• Use mental imagery techniques such as the keyword method.Provide for repetition of learning• State important principles several times in different ways during presentation of information (STM).• Have items on each days lesson from previous lesson (LTM).• Schedule periodic reviews of previously learned concepts and skills (LTM).
  12. 12. Knowledge Construction MechanismsAssimilation - fitting a Accommodation - Equilibrium - seeking new experience into revising an existing cognitive stability an existing mental schema because of a through assimilation structure. new experience. and accommodation.
  13. 13. The most effective sequences inPredisposition towards learning which to present material The ways in which a body ofknowledge can be structured so The nature and pacing of that it can be most readily rewards and punishments grasped by the learner
  14. 14. Student autonomy and initiative are accepted and encouraged• respect students’ ideas and encourage independent thinking• teachers help students attain their intellectual potential• students take responsibility for their own learning
  15. 15. Higher-level thinking is encouraged• teachers challenge students to make connections, analyse, predict, justify and defend their ideas• way in which teachers ask questions will influence student response
  16. 16. Students are engaged in dialogue with the teacher and with each other• students present what they and build their personal knowledge• comfortable to express their ideas to allow for meaningful learning
  17. 17. Students are engaged in experience that challenge hypotheses and encouragediscussion• students generate varying hypotheses about phenomena• provide opportunity to test their hypotheses through dialogue• the class use raw data, primary sources, manipulatives, physical and interactive materials• involve students in real-world situations
  18. 18. Curriculum• curriculum emphasises big concepts, beginning with the whole and expanding to include the parts• knowledge is seen as dynamic, ever changing with experience
  19. 19. Self-actualisation needs: to develop one’s full potential and to fulfil one’s aesthetic needs Knowing and understanding needs: a desire to know, learn and understand things Esteem needs: to be recognised and feeling worthwhile Belongingness and love needs: gain affection of people and need to belong to a group Safety needs: to be safe and avoid dangerSurvival needs: food, water, air and rest
  20. 20. Characteristics of a Good Teacher they are well-informed about their subject; they are sensitive to the feelings of students and colleagues; they believe that students can learn; they have a positive self-concept; they believe in helping all students do their best; and they use many different methods of instruction.
  21. 21. • Establish a warm, democratic, positive and non-threatening learning environment in which learner’s self-concept and self-esteem are considered essentials factors in learning• When it seem appropriate, function as a facilitator where the he or she works and shares ideas with students• When the teacher is comfortable, the teacher may occasionally show his or her “real person” by telling students how he or she feels• Provide learning experiences that will lead to the development of habits and attitudes that teachers want to foster• Teachers should be role models and set good examples• Students and teachers plan together the experiences and activities of the curriculum• Students are given choices (with limitations) and freedom (with responsibilities); the extent of choices and freedom is related to the maturity level and age of students• Learning is based on life experiences, discovery, exploring and experimenting
  22. 22. BackgroundCollege students are prone to stress due to the transitional nature of college life. Highlevels of stress are believed to affect students health and academic functions. If thestress is not dealt with effectively, feelings of loneliness, nervousness, sleeplessnessand worrying may result. Effective coping strategies facilitate the return to a balancedstate, reducing the negative effects of stress.
  23. 23. MethodsThis descriptive cross-sectional study was performed to determine sources of stressand coping strategies in nursing students studying at the Iran Faculty of Nursing &Midwifery. All undergraduate nursing students enrolled in years 1-4 during academicyear 2004-2005 were included in this study, with a total of 366 questionnaires fullycompleted by the students. The Student Stress Survey and the Adolescent CopingOrientation for Problem Experiences Inventory (ACOPE) were used for data collection.
  24. 24. ResultsMost students reported "finding new friends" (76.2%), "working with people they did not know" (63.4%) as interpersonal sources ofstress, "new responsibilities" (72.1%), "started college" (65.8%) as intrapersonal sources of stress more than others. The most frequentacademic source of stress was "increased class workload" (66.9%) and the most frequent environmental sources of stress were being "placed inunfamiliar situations" (64.2%) and "waiting in long lines" (60.4%). Interpersonal and environmental sources of stress were reported morefrequently than intrapersonal and academic sources. Mean interpersonal (P=0.04) and environmental (P=0.04) sources of stress weresignificantly greater in first year than in fourth year students. Among coping strategies in 12 areas, the family problem solving strategies, "tryingto reason with parents and compromise" (73%) and "going along with family rules" (68%) were used "often or always" by most students. Tocope with engaging in demanding activity, students often or always used "trying to figure out how to deal with problems" (66.4%) and "tryingto improve themselves" (64.5%). The self-reliance strategy, "trying to make their own decisions" (62%); the social supportstrategies, "apologizing to people" (59.6%), "trying to help other people solve their problems" (56.3%), and "trying to keep up friendships ormake new friends" (54.4%); the spiritual strategy, "praying" (65.8%); the seeking diversions strategy, "listening to music" (57.7%), the relaxingstrategy "day dreaming" (52.5%), and the effort to "be close with someone cares about you" (50.5%) were each used "often or always" by amajority of students. Most students reported that the avoiding strategies "smoking" (93.7%) and "drinking beer or wine" (92.9%), theventilating strategies "saying mean things to people" and "swearing" (85.8%), the professional support strategies "getting professionalcounseling" (74.6%) and "talking to a teacher or counselor" (67.2%) and the humorous strategy "joking and keeping a sense of humor" (51.9%)were used "seldom or never".
  25. 25. ConclusionFirst year nursing students are exposed to a variety of stressors. Establishing a studentsupport system during the first year and improving it throughout nursing school isnecessary to equip nursing students with effective coping skills. Efforts should includecounseling helpers and their teachers, strategies that can be called upon in thesestudents future nursing careers.
  26. 26. BackgroundThis study focuses on Swedish nursing students motivation toward their studiesduring their three year academic studies. Earlier studies show the importance ofmotivation for study commitment and result. The aim was to analyze nursing studentsestimation of their degree of motivation during different semester during theireducation and to identify reasons for the degree of motivation.
  27. 27. MethodsA questionnaire asking for scoring motivation and what influenced the degree ofmotivation was distributed to students enrolled in a nursing programme. 315 studentswho studied at different semesters participated. Analyzes were made by statisticalcalculation and content analysis.
  28. 28. ResultsThe mean motivation score over all semesters was 6.3 (ranked between 0–10) anddiffered significantly during the semesters with a tendency to lower score during the5th semester. Students (73/315) with motivation score <4 reported explanations suchas negative opinion about the organisation of the programme, attitude towards thestudies, life situation and degree of difficulty/demand on studies. Students (234/315)with motivation score >6 reported positive opinions to becoming a nurse(125/234), organization of the programme and attitude to the studies. The mean scorevalue for the motivation ranking differed significantly between male (5.8) and female(6.8) students.
  29. 29. ConclusionConclusions to be drawn are that nursing students mainly grade their motivationpositive distributed different throughout their entire education. The main motivationfactor was becoming a nurse. This study result highlights the need of understandingthe students situation and their need of tutorial support.

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