Federal University of Acre Campus Floresta - Cruzeiro do Sul Center for Multidisciplinary Studies - English Course Morphosyntax I Prof. Msc. Mauro UchôaWhat is affixation?Affixation is the morphological process whereby an affix is attached to aroot. prefix = Appears at the front of a root suffix = Appears at the back of a rootSuffixation NOUN + ...ful = ADJECTIVE The word "-ful" is a suffix. It is used in the English language andis taken from the Middle English having been derived from the OldEnglish word "full". The suffix is used to refer to something as being fullof something, characterized by or given, able and tending to besomething. It is used in a quantitative sense to refer to something asbeing filling. A child who is of a pleasant temperament can be said to beplayful, a person who is generally ready to help others will be termedhelpful, something that does not contain in ones arms can be said to bearmful, that which will be of some use is useful, when some thing isprovided for in abundance it is written as bountiful etc. NOUN + ...less = ADJECTIVE (-less indicates without).-less is added to nouns in order to form adjectives that indicate thatsomeone or something does not have the thing that the noun refers to....drink and talk and meaningless laughter...He is not as friendless as he appeared to be.NOUN ...ful ADJECTIVE ...less ADJECTIVEart (arte) artful (criativo) artless (grosseiro)care (cuidado) careful (cuidadoso) careless (descuidado)color (cor) colorful (colorido) colorless (que não tem cor)doubt (dúvida) doubtful (duvidoso) doubtless (indubitável)faith (fé) faithful (fiel) faithless (infiel)fear (medo) fearful (medroso) fearless (destemido)force (força) forceful (vigoroso, forceless (sem força, que não se impõe)fruit (fruto) coercitivo) fruitless (infrutífero)grace (graça) fruitful (frutífero) graceless (que não é gracioso)harm (dano, graceful (gracioso) harmless (inócuo, inofensivo)prejuízo) harmful (prejudicial) hopeless (que não tem esperança)
hope (esperança) hopeful (esperançoso) lawless (sem lei, fora-da-lei)law (lei) lawful (legal, dentro da lei) meaningless (sem sentido)meaning meaningful (significativo) merciless (impiedoso)(significado) merciful (piedoso) mindless (inconseqüente, que não se dá conta, quemercy (piedade) mindful (consciente) não requer concentração)mind (mente) painful (doloroso) painless (indolor)pain (dor) powerful (potente) powerless (impotente)power (potência) shameful (vergonhoso) shameless (sem-vergonha)shame (vergonha) tasteful (saboroso) tasteless (sem sabor)taste (sabor) thoughtful (bem pensado, thoughtless (mal pensado, sem consideração)thought pensativo) useless (inútil)(pensamento) useful (útil)use (uso)beauty (beleza) beautiful (belo, bonito) -play (jogo, playful (brincalhão) -brinquedo) respectful (respeitoso) -respect (respeito) skillful (habilidoso) -skill (habilidade) successful (bem-sucedido) -success (sucesso) youthful (com aspecto de -youth (juventude) jovem) -wonder wonderful (maravilhoso)(maravilha)child (criança, - childless (sem filhos)filho) - cordless (sem fio)cord (fio) - countless (incontável)count (conta) - defenseless (indefeso)defense (defesa) - endless (interminável)end (fim) - headless (sem-cabeça, acéfalo)head (cabeça) - heartless (sem coração, cruel)heart (coração) - homeless (sem-teto)home (casa) - landless (sem-terra)land (terra) - penniless (que não tem nem um centavo)penny (centavo) - priceless (que não tem preço)price (preço) - restless (inquieto)rest (descanso) - seamless (sem emenda)seam (emenda) - speechless (sem fala)speech (fala) - stainless (sem mancha, inoxidável)stain (mancha) - timeless (eterno)time (tempo) - topless (sem a parte de cima)top (topo) - wireless (sem fio)wire (arame, fio) - wordless (sem fala, mudo)word (palavra) - worthless (que não vale nada)worth (valor) COUNT NOUN + …hood = NONCOUNT ABSTRACT NOUN COUNT NOUN …hood ABSTRACT NOUN adult (adulto) adulthood (maturidade) boy (menino) boyhood (infância de menino) brother (irmão) brotherhood (fraternidade) child (criança) childhood (infância) father (pai) fatherhood (paternidade) knight (cavaleiro, fidalgo) knighthood (fidalguia) mother (mãe) motherhood (maternidade) neighbor (vizinho) neighborhood (vizinhança) parent (progenitor) parenthood (paternidade)
priest (padre) priesthood (sacerdócio) sister (irmã) sisterhood (irmandade) widow (viúva) widowhood (viuvez) There was a degree of solidarity and sisterhood among the women. She may feel unready for the responsibilities of parenthood. The joys of fatherhood. Nothing can prepare you for the shock and grief of widowhood. Few people nowadays are able to maintain friendships into adulthood. He has been a Derby County supporter since boyhood. COUNT NOUN + …ship = NONCOUNT ABSTRACT NOUN COUNT NOUN …ship ABSTRACT NOUN citizen (cidadão) citizenship (cidadania) court (corte) courtship (cortejo, galanteio) dealer (negociante, revendedor) dealership (revenda) dictator (ditador) dictatorship (ditadura) fellow (companheiro) fellowship (companheirismo, solidariedade) friend (amigo) friendship (amizade) intern (residente, estagiário) internship (estágio, residência) leader (líder) leadership (liderança) member (sócio, membro de um clube) membership (qualidade de quem é sócio) owner (proprietário) ownership (posse, propriedade) partner (sócio, companheiro) partnership (sociedade comercial) relation (relação) relationship (relacionamento) scholar scholarship sponsor (patrocinador) sponsorship (patrocínio) statesman (estadista) statesmanship workman workmanship worth worship ADJECTIVE + …ness = NONCOUNT ABSTRACT NOUNThe suffix -ness is a native English suffix which is attached to adjectivesand participles. It is used to form abstract nouns. These abstract nounsexpress quality or state. The suffix -ness is added to words such asgood to get goodness, great (greatness), dark (darkness), kind(kindness), obliging (obligingness), prepared (preparedness), bright(brightness) and busy (business). ADJECTIVE …ness ABSTRACT NOUN appropriate (apropriado) appropriateness (propriedade) aware (ciente) awareness (ciência) clever (esperto, inteligente) cleverness (esperteza) conscious (consciente) consciousness (consciência) dark (escuro) darkness (escuridão) dizzy (tonto) dizziness (tontura) empty (vazio) emptiness (o vazio) faithful (fiel) faithfulness (lealdade)
Exercise1) Fulfill the blank space in the following statements. a) If you describe someone as …………….., you mean that they are very cruel or determined and do not show any concern for the effect their actions have on other people. b) …………… is a word used to describe someone who shows kindness and forgiveness to people who are in their power. c) …………….. is the act of being so surprised, upset, or angry that you cannot think of anything to say. d) You became ……………….. when you’re not able to speak, especially because you are extremely angry or surprised. e) Be …………… is to be careful about or conscious of something. f) Something such as a treatment that is ………………… causes no physical pain. g) If you describe someone as …………………………, you mean that they should be ashamed of their behavior, which is unacceptable to other people. h) Someone who is ………………………. achieves what they intended to achieve. i) If you describe someone as ………………………., you mean that they should be ashamed of their behavior, which is unacceptable to other people. j) Having no beneficial use or incapable of functioning usefully = k) Very good at doing something that involves special ability or training=2) Create abstract nouns from the following countable nouns. a) adult = b) boy = c) brother = d) child = e) father =
f) knight = g) mother = h) neighbor = i) parent = j) priest = k) sister = l) widow =3) Give an abstract noun to the statements below. a) ……………….. is the affection and loyalty that you feel for people who you have something in common with. b) A …………………… is an organization whose members all have the same political aims and beliefs or the same job or profession. c) …………………………. is the affection and loyalty that women feel for other women who they have something in common with. d) ………………………. is the state of being a parent. e) ………………… is the state of being a father. f) ……………… is the state of being a widow or widower, or the period of time during which someone is a widow or widower. g) ………………….. is the state of being an adult. h) A ………………. is a title that is given to a man by a British king or queen for his achievements or his service to his country. A man who has been given this title can put `Sir in front of his name instead of `Mr. i) …………………….. is the period of a male persons life during which he is a boy. 4) Read the enouncement and explain the word formation process in the bolded words.
05) Circle the words that are misspelled, and write them correctly. 06) The following words are written with the suffix "ship". Edit a sentence for each given words. airship internship ambassadorship leadership, authorship membership battleship ownership censorship partnership championship relationship, citizenship scholarship companionship sponsorship craftsmanship sportsmanship draftsmanship warship fellowship workmanship friendship worship hardship horsemanshipCan I Just Tell You?by Michel MartinIf Women Ruled The World, Would Debt Be Less?July 11, 2011I didnt want to bite my nails all weekend waiting for the congressional leaders and the president to agreeon a plan to raise the debt ceiling and reduce the federal debt.
So I did the next best thing — watched the Harry Potter marathon. And yes, I am getting ready for the bigU.S. premiere this week. And no, I have not seen the new one yet. My hookups dont run that deep. Trustme, if they did, I would have been there.But while I was watching the previous films, I was thinking our political wizards could catch a clue fromthe Potter gang. They could listen to Hermione once in a while, which is to say, they could let somewomen in the room.Its a stereotype that women are more reasonable than men, more moderate than men, nicer than men. Iknow thats not true.Being here in D.C., Ive met more than my share of narcissistic, blowhard female politicians, and Ive metmany men who listen well and dont care who gets the credit, as long as the job gets done.But I will say, first of all, it is amazing to me that during what could be one of the most importantdecision points in recent U.S. history, there are so few women with a seat at the table.Sure, House Democratic leader Nancy Pelosi was there on Sunday night. But is that really enough? Halfthe population gets to be represented by one voice?Can I just tell you? Is it a coincidence that in this financial crisis, as in past ones, women were often thepeople sounding the alarm before anyone else was?First there was Sherron Watkins, who tried to blow the whistle on the shady accounting practices at Enronlong before regulators and the public caught on. More recently, there was former Federal DepositInsurance Corp. head Sheila Bair, who raised questions about subprime mortgages when few others did.Or women like June ONeill, the former director of the Congressional Budget Office.These women had the right idea. What they lacked was the power and the allies to allow their point ofview to prevail.I would also ask, is it a coincidence that some of the countries with the most serious and intractablebudget woes in Europe right now are countries where female participation in government is minimal ordegraded? Like Greece, where just over 17 percent of the Parliament are women? Or Italy, where justover 20 percent are, and where the prime minister evidently thinks the most important roles for women inhis country involve taking their shirts off in public and cavorting with him in private at parties where thefavors are alleged to involve something other than goodie bags?In the U.S., women are just 17 percent of the members of Congress, holding 89 out of 535 seats.Although many of the headline-grabbing potential candidates for president have been women in recentyears — Secretary of State Hillary Clinton on the Democratic side three years ago and Sarah Palin andMichele Bachmann on the Republican side now — Clinton has made it clear she is done withcampaigning. And it remains to be seen whether Palin or Bachmann will ever have an impact ongovernance equal to her impact as a media figure.This raises the question, just what do women bring to the table when it comes to difficult negotiations? Itis tough to say, and many people have tried. Is it that women are socialized to listen more and talk less? Isit that they are more willing to sublimate their own egos for the sake of the greater good?I dont know.I do know that something is wrong when our economic future is at stake, and the only people who get tosit at the table to talk about it are the very people who messed things up to this point. source: http://www.npr.org/2011/07/11/137766613/can-i-just-tell-you