Timeline Of Modernist Architecture 30.11.2009

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The buildings designed by Leon Krüger Architects (“LKA”) contextualised within the development of Modernist Architecture from the 1940s to 2003

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Timeline Of Modernist Architecture 30.11.2009

  1. 1. TIMELINE OF<br />MODERNIST ARCHITECTURE<br />+<br />DESIGNS BY LEON KRÜGER ARCHITECTS<br />The buildings designed by Leon Krüger Architects (“LKA”) contextualised within the development of Modernist Architecture from the 1940s to 2003 <br />
  2. 2. 1940s to 1970s<br />International <br />Style<br />LKA - Sunninghill <br />Hospital, <br />Johannesburg,<br />1991<br />LKA –<br />Republic<br />Observatory, <br />Sutherland, <br />1978<br />(Left) SEAGRAM BUILDING - The International style epitomises the modernist architectural movement of the 20th century - Form follows Function - simplified form and elimination of ornamentation - stark, uncompromisingly rectangular geometry. <br />
  3. 3. 1940s to 1970s<br />International <br />style<br />1950s onwards Brutalist Architecture<br />LKA - Sunninghill <br />Hospital, <br />Johannesburg,<br />1991<br />LKA –<br />Republic<br />Observatory, <br />Sutherland, <br />1978<br />(Left) SEAGRAM BUILDING - The International style epitomises the modernist architectural movement of the 20th century - Form follows Function - simplified form and elimination of ornamentation - stark, uncompromisingly rectangular geometry. <br />(Left) J EDGAR HOOVER BUILDING, WASHINGTON - From the French “béton brut” (raw concrete) - Use of concrete, striking repetitive angular geometries and the exposure of the building&apos;s functions in the exterior of the building.<br />LKA - CSIR Convention <br />Centre, Pretoria, 1975<br />
  4. 4. 1940s to 1970s<br />International <br />style<br />1950s onwards Brutalist Architecture<br />1970 onwards High-tech Architecture<br />LKA - Sunninghill <br />Hospital, <br />Johannesburg,<br />1991<br />LKA –<br />Republic<br />Observatory, <br />Sutherland, <br />1978<br />(Left) SEAGRAM BUILDING - The International style epitomises the modernist architectural movement of the 20th century - Form follows Function - simplified form and elimination of ornamentation - stark, uncompromisingly rectangular geometry. <br />(Left) J EDGAR HOOVER BUILDING, WASHINGTON - From the French “béton brut” (raw concrete) - Use of concrete, striking repetitive angular geometries and the exposure of the building&apos;s functions in the exterior of the building.<br />LKA - CSIR Convention <br />Centre, Pretoria, 1975<br />(Left) HSBC HONG KONG - A bridge between modernism and post-modernism - incorporates elements of high-tech industry & technology - visual emphasis internal steel and/or concrete skeletal structure - clear glass façade, visible network of support beams exposed behind it. <br />LKA –<br />Grosvenor <br />Corner, <br />Johannesburg, <br />1996<br />
  5. 5. 1940s to 1970s<br />International <br />style<br />1950s onwards Brutalist Architecture<br />1970 onwards High-tech Architecture<br />1950 onwards Postmodern Architecture<br />LKA - Sunninghill <br />Hospital, <br />Johannesburg,<br />1991<br />LKA –<br />Republic<br />Observatory, <br />Sutherland, <br />1978<br />(Left) SEAGRAM BUILDING - The International style epitomises the modernist architectural movement of the 20th century - Form follows Function - simplified form and elimination of ornamentation - stark, uncompromisingly rectangular geometry. <br />(Left) J EDGAR HOOVER BUILDING, WASHINGTON - From the French “béton brut” (raw concrete) - Use of concrete, striking repetitive angular geometries and the exposure of the building&apos;s functions in the exterior of the building.<br />LKA - CSIR Convention <br />Centre, Pretoria, 1975<br />(Left) HSBC HONG KONG - A bridge between modernism and post-modernism - incorporates elements of high-tech industry & technology - visual emphasis internal steel and/or concrete skeletal structure - clear glass façade, visible network of support beams exposed behind it. <br />LKA –<br />Grosvenor <br />Corner, <br />Johannesburg, <br />1996<br />(Left) PORTLAND USA PUBLIC SERVICES BUILDING – Post-modernist Architecture continues to influence present-day architecture - return of &quot;wit, ornament and reference&quot; to architecture in response to the formalism of the International Style of modernism.<br />LKA - GNLD Distr. Centre, <br />Longmeadow, <br />Johannesburg, 2006<br />
  6. 6. 1940s to 1970s<br />International <br />style<br />1950s onwards Brutalist Architecture<br />1970 onwards High-tech Architecture<br />1950 onwards Postmodern Architecture<br />1940s to 1960s Googie Architecture<br />LKA - Sunninghill <br />Hospital, <br />Johannesburg,<br />1991<br />LKA –<br />Republic<br />Observatory, <br />Sutherland, <br />1978<br />(Left) SEAGRAM BUILDING - The International style epitomises the modernist architectural movement of the 20th century - Form follows Function - simplified form and elimination of ornamentation - stark, uncompromisingly rectangular geometry. <br />(Left) J EDGAR HOOVER BUILDING, WASHINGTON - From the French “béton brut” (raw concrete) - Use of concrete, striking repetitive angular geometries and the exposure of the building&apos;s functions in the exterior of the building.<br />LKA - CSIR Convention <br />Centre, Pretoria, 1975<br />(Left) HSBC HONG KONG - A bridge between modernism and post-modernism - incorporates elements of high-tech industry & technology - visual emphasis internal steel and/or concrete skeletal structure - clear glass façade, visible network of support beams exposed behind it. <br />LKA –<br />Grosvenor <br />Corner, <br />Johannesburg, <br />1996<br />(Left) PORTLAND USA PUBLIC SERVICES BUILDING – Post-modernist Architecture continues to influence present-day architecture - return of &quot;wit, ornament and reference&quot; to architecture in response to the formalism of the International Style of modernism.<br />LKA - GNLD Distr. Centre, <br />Longmeadow, <br />Johannesburg, 2006<br />(Left) MCDONNELL PLANETARIUM - A subdivision of expressionist, or futurist architecture - upswept roofs and, often, curvaceous, geometric shapes, and bold use of glass, steel and neon.<br />LKA- Nestlé Distr. Centre, <br />New Germany,<br />KwaZulu-Natal, 1994<br />
  7. 7. 1940s to 1970s<br />International <br />style<br />1950s onwards Brutalist Architecture<br />1970 onwards High-tech Architecture<br />1950 onwards Postmodern Architecture<br />1940s to 1960s Googie Architecture<br />1980s – Critical Regionalism<br />LKA - Sunninghill <br />Hospital, <br />Johannesburg,<br />1991<br />LKA –<br />Republic<br />Observatory, <br />Sutherland, <br />1978<br />(Left) SEAGRAM BUILDING - The International style epitomises the modernist architectural movement of the 20th century - Form follows Function - simplified form and elimination of ornamentation - stark, uncompromisingly rectangular geometry. <br />(Left) J EDGAR HOOVER BUILDING, WASHINGTON - From the French “béton brut” (raw concrete) - Use of concrete, striking repetitive angular geometries and the exposure of the building&apos;s functions in the exterior of the building.<br />LKA - CSIR Convention <br />Centre, Pretoria, 1975<br />(Left) HSBC HONG KONG - A bridge between modernism and post-modernism - incorporates elements of high-tech industry & technology - visual emphasis internal steel and/or concrete skeletal structure - clear glass façade, visible network of support beams exposed behind it. <br />LKA –<br />Grosvenor <br />Corner, <br />Johannesburg, <br />1996<br />(Left) PORTLAND USA PUBLIC SERVICES BUILDING – Post-modernist Architecture continues to influence present-day architecture - return of &quot;wit, ornament and reference&quot; to architecture in response to the formalism of the International Style of modernism.<br />LKA - GNLD Distr. Centre, <br />Longmeadow, <br />Johannesburg, 2006<br />(Left) MCDONNELL PLANETARIUM - A subdivision of expressionist, or futurist architecture - upswept roofs and, often, curvaceous, geometric shapes, and bold use of glass, steel and neon.<br />LKA- Nestlé Distr. Centre, <br />New Germany,<br />KwaZulu-Natal, 1994<br />LKA –<br />TongaRural<br />Hospital, <br />Mpumalanga<br />1997<br />(Right) SYDNEY OPERA HOUSE - Uses contextual forces to give a sense of place and meaning – emphasising topography, climate, light, tectonic form and the tactile sense. <br />
  8. 8. 1940s to 1970s<br />International <br />style<br />1950s onwards Brutalist Architecture<br />1970 onwards High-tech Architecture<br />1950 onwards Postmodern Architecture<br />1940s to 1960s Googie Architecture<br />1980s – Critical Regionalism<br />Late 1980s<br /> Deconstructivism <br />LKA - Sunninghill <br />Hospital, <br />Johannesburg,<br />1991<br />LKA –<br />Republic<br />Observatory, <br />Sutherland, <br />1978<br />(Left) SEAGRAM BUILDING - The International style epitomises the modernist architectural movement of the 20th century - Form follows Function - simplified form and elimination of ornamentation - stark, uncompromisingly rectangular geometry. <br />(Left) J EDGAR HOOVER BUILDING, WASHINGTON - From the French “béton brut” (raw concrete) - Use of concrete, striking repetitive angular geometries and the exposure of the building&apos;s functions in the exterior of the building.<br />LKA - CSIR Convention <br />Centre, Pretoria, 1975<br />(Left) HSBC HONG KONG - A bridge between modernism and post-modernism - incorporates elements of high-tech industry & technology - visual emphasis internal steel and/or concrete skeletal structure - clear glass façade, visible network of support beams exposed behind it. <br />LKA –<br />Grosvenor <br />Corner, <br />Johannesburg, <br />1996<br />(Left) PORTLAND USA PUBLIC SERVICES BUILDING – Post-modernist Architecture continues to influence present-day architecture - return of &quot;wit, ornament and reference&quot; to architecture in response to the formalism of the International Style of modernism.<br />LKA - GNLD Distr. Centre, <br />Longmeadow, <br />Johannesburg, 2006<br />(Left) MCDONNELL PLANETARIUM - A subdivision of expressionist, or futurist architecture - upswept roofs and, often, curvaceous, geometric shapes, and bold use of glass, steel and neon.<br />LKA- Nestlé Distr. Centre, <br />New Germany,<br />KwaZulu-Natal, 1994<br />LKA –<br />TongaRural<br />Hospital, <br />Mpumalanga<br />1997<br />(Right) SYDNEY OPERA HOUSE - Uses contextual forces to give a sense of place and meaning – emphasising topography, climate, light, tectonic form and the tactile sense. <br />LKA –<br />Federated <br />Forum <br />Building, <br />Pretoria, <br />1983<br />(Right) IMPERIAL WAR MUSEUM, MANCHESTER, UK - Fragmentation, non-linear processes of design, distortion and dislocation of structure and envelope - move away from &apos;rules&apos; of modernism such as &quot;form follows function” & &quot;purity of form“.<br />
  9. 9. 1940s to 1970s<br />International <br />style<br />1950s onwards Brutalist Architecture<br />1970 onwards High-tech Architecture<br />1950 onwards Postmodern Architecture<br />1940s to 1960s Googie Architecture<br />1980s – Critical Regionalism<br />Late 1980s<br /> Deconstructivism <br />2000 onwardsSustainable Architecture<br />LKA - Sunninghill <br />Hospital, <br />Johannesburg,<br />1991<br />LKA –<br />Republic<br />Observatory, <br />Sutherland, <br />1978<br />(Left) SEAGRAM BUILDING - The International style epitomises the modernist architectural movement of the 20th century - Form follows Function - simplified form and elimination of ornamentation - stark, uncompromisingly rectangular geometry. <br />(Left) J EDGAR HOOVER BUILDING, WASHINGTON - From the French “béton brut” (raw concrete) - Use of concrete, striking repetitive angular geometries and the exposure of the building&apos;s functions in the exterior of the building.<br />LKA - CSIR Convention <br />Centre, Pretoria, 1975<br />(Left) HSBC HONG KONG - A bridge between modernism and post-modernism - incorporates elements of high-tech industry & technology - visual emphasis internal steel and/or concrete skeletal structure - clear glass façade, visible network of support beams exposed behind it. <br />LKA –<br />Grosvenor <br />Corner, <br />Johannesburg, <br />1996<br />(Left) PORTLAND USA PUBLIC SERVICES BUILDING – Post-modernist Architecture continues to influence present-day architecture - return of &quot;wit, ornament and reference&quot; to architecture in response to the formalism of the International Style of modernism.<br />LKA - GNLD Distr. Centre, <br />Longmeadow, <br />Johannesburg, 2006<br />(Left) MCDONNELL PLANETARIUM - A subdivision of expressionist, or futurist architecture - upswept roofs and, often, curvaceous, geometric shapes, and bold use of glass, steel and neon.<br />LKA- Nestlé Distr. Centre, <br />New Germany,<br />KwaZulu-Natal, 1994<br />LKA –<br />TongaRural<br />Hospital, <br />Mpumalanga<br />1997<br />(Right) SYDNEY OPERA HOUSE - Uses contextual forces to give a sense of place and meaning – emphasising topography, climate, light, tectonic form and the tactile sense. <br />LKA –<br />Federated <br />Forum <br />Building, <br />Pretoria, <br />1983<br />(Right) IMPERIAL WAR MUSEUM, MANCHESTER, UK - Fragmentation, non-linear processes of design, distortion and dislocation of structure and envelope - move away from &apos;rules&apos; of modernism such as &quot;form follows function” & &quot;purity of form“.<br />(Right) K2 APARTMENTS, VICTORIA, AUSTRALIA - Environmentally-conscious design techniques – Focus on energy efficiency.<br />LKA - HitachiOffices, <br />Boksburg, 2008<br />
  10. 10. 1940s to 1970s<br />International <br />style<br />1950s onwards Brutalist Architecture<br />1970 onwards High-tech Architecture<br />1950 onwards Postmodern Architecture<br />1940s to 1960s Googie Architecture<br />1980s – Critical Regionalism<br />Late 1980s<br /> Deconstructivism <br />2000 onwardsSustainable Architecture<br />2003 onwards<br /> Blobitecture<br />LKA - Sunninghill <br />Hospital, <br />Johannesburg,<br />1991<br />LKA –<br />Republic<br />Observatory, <br />Sutherland, <br />1978<br />(Left) SEAGRAM BUILDING - The International style epitomises the modernist architectural movement of the 20th century - Form follows Function - simplified form and elimination of ornamentation - stark, uncompromisingly rectangular geometry. <br />(Left) J EDGAR HOOVER BUILDING, WASHINGTON - From the French “béton brut” (raw concrete) - Use of concrete, striking repetitive angular geometries and the exposure of the building&apos;s functions in the exterior of the building.<br />LKA - CSIR Convention <br />Centre, Pretoria, 1975<br />(Left) HSBC HONG KONG - A bridge between modernism and post-modernism - incorporates elements of high-tech industry & technology - visual emphasis internal steel and/or concrete skeletal structure - clear glass façade, visible network of support beams exposed behind it. <br />LKA –<br />Grosvenor <br />Corner, <br />Johannesburg, <br />1996<br />(Left) PORTLAND USA PUBLIC SERVICES BUILDING – Post-modernist Architecture continues to influence present-day architecture - return of &quot;wit, ornament and reference&quot; to architecture in response to the formalism of the International Style of modernism.<br />LKA - GNLD Distr. Centre, <br />Longmeadow, <br />Johannesburg, 2006<br />(Left) MCDONNELL PLANETARIUM - A subdivision of expressionist, or futurist architecture - upswept roofs and, often, curvaceous, geometric shapes, and bold use of glass, steel and neon.<br />LKA- Nestlé Distr. Centre, <br />New Germany,<br />KwaZulu-Natal, 1994<br />LKA –<br />TongaRural<br />Hospital, <br />Mpumalanga<br />1997<br />(Right) SYDNEY OPERA HOUSE - Uses contextual forces to give a sense of place and meaning – emphasising topography, climate, light, tectonic form and the tactile sense. <br />LKA –<br />Federated <br />Forum <br />Building, <br />Pretoria, <br />1983<br />(Right) IMPERIAL WAR MUSEUM, MANCHESTER, UK - Fragmentation, non-linear processes of design, distortion and dislocation of structure and envelope - move away from &apos;rules&apos; of modernism such as &quot;form follows function” & &quot;purity of form“.<br />(Right) K2 APARTMENTS, VICTORIA, AUSTRALIA - Environmentally-conscious design techniques – Focus on energy efficiency.<br />LKA - HitachiOffices, <br />Boksburg, 2008<br />(Right) LONDON CITY<br />HALL Buildings with <br />organic, amoeba-<br />shaped, bulging<br />forms. <br />LKA - SandhurstOffices, <br />Johannesburg, 2006<br />
  11. 11. 1940s to 1970s<br />International <br />style<br />1950s onwards Brutalist Architecture<br />1970 onwards High-tech Architecture<br />1950 onwards Postmodern Architecture<br />1940s to 1960s Googie Architecture<br />1980s – Critical Regionalism<br />Late 1980s<br /> Deconstructivism <br />2000 onwardsSustainable Architecture<br />2003 onwards<br /> Blobitecture<br />LKA - Sunninghill <br />Hospital, <br />Johannesburg,<br />1991<br />LKA –<br />Republic<br />Observatory, <br />Sutherland, <br />1978<br />(Left) SEAGRAM BUILDING - The International style epitomises the modernist architectural movement of the 20th century - Form follows Function - simplified form and elimination of ornamentation - stark, uncompromisingly rectangular geometry. <br />(Left) J EDGAR HOOVER BUILDING, WASHINGTON - From the French “béton brut” (raw concrete) - Use of concrete, striking repetitive angular geometries and the exposure of the building&apos;s functions in the exterior of the building.<br />LKA - CSIR Convention <br />Centre, Pretoria, 1975<br />(Left) HSBC HONG KONG - A bridge between modernism and post-modernism - incorporates elements of high-tech industry & technology - visual emphasis internal steel and/or concrete skeletal structure - clear glass façade, visible network of support beams exposed behind it. <br />LKA –<br />Grosvenor <br />Corner, <br />Johannesburg, <br />1996<br />(Left) PORTLAND USA PUBLIC SERVICES BUILDING – Post-modernist Architecture continues to influence present-day architecture - return of &quot;wit, ornament and reference&quot; to architecture in response to the formalism of the International Style of modernism.<br />LKA - GNLD Distr. Centre, <br />Longmeadow, <br />Johannesburg, 2006<br />(Left) MCDONNELL PLANETARIUM - A subdivision of expressionist, or futurist architecture - upswept roofs and, often, curvaceous, geometric shapes, and bold use of glass, steel and neon.<br />LKA- Nestlé Distr. Centre, <br />New Germany,<br />KwaZulu-Natal, 1994<br />LKA –<br />TongaRural<br />Hospital, <br />Mpumalanga<br />1997<br />(Right) SYDNEY OPERA HOUSE - Uses contextual forces to give a sense of place and meaning – emphasising topography, climate, light, tectonic form and the tactile sense. <br />LKA –<br />Federated <br />Forum <br />Building, <br />Pretoria, <br />1983<br />(Right) IMPERIAL WAR MUSEUM, MANCHESTER, UK - Fragmentation, non-linear processes of design, distortion and dislocation of structure and envelope - move away from &apos;rules&apos; of modernism such as &quot;form follows function” & &quot;purity of form“.<br />(Right) K2 APARTMENTS, VICTORIA, AUSTRALIA - Environmentally-conscious design techniques – Focus on energy efficiency.<br />LKA - HitachiOffices, <br />Boksburg, 2008<br />(Right) LONDON CITY<br />HALL Buildings with <br />organic, amoeba-<br />shaped, bulging<br />forms. <br />LKA - SandhurstOffices, <br />Johannesburg, 2006<br />

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