Stages of test development and common test techniques (1)

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  • 1. STAGES OF TEST DEVELOPMENT & COMMON TEST TECHNIQUES DANIEL F. CALI. O.
  • 2. STAGES OF TEST DEVELOPMENT
  • 3. OUTLINE STAGES OF TEST DEVELOPMENT SPECIFICATIONS WRITING AND MODERATING ITEMS ITEMS ON NATIVE SPEAKERS VALIDATION CALIBRATION OF SCALES ANALYSIS OF RESULTS ON NON-NATIVE SPEAKERS HANDBOOKS FOR TEST TAKERS TRAINING STAFF STATING THE PROBLEM
  • 4. • SHOULD BE A TEST DESIGNED BY A SINGLE PERSON OR A TEAM? TEAM! • IT IS DIFFICULT TO DESIGN A TEST BECAUSE OF… …OBJECTIVITY …CRITICISMS …NATIVE COMMAND OF THE LANGUAGE
  • 5. STEPS…
  • 6. STATING THE PROBLEM PROFICIENCY FINAL DIAGNOSTIC PLACEMENT KIND? PROGRESS CONSTRAINTS? PURPOSE? EXPERTISE QUESTIONS FACILITIES WASHBACK? ABILITIES? TIME RESULTS HOW ACCURATE? HOW DETAILED?
  • 7. STATING THE PROBLEM • ONCE THE PROBLEM IS CLEAR, IT IS ALSO IMPORTANT TO: GATHER INFORMATION ON ALREADY EXISITING TEST DESIGNED FOR SIMILAR SITUATIONS!
  • 8. WRITING SPECIFICATIONS FOR THE TEST • A) CONTENT • B) STRUCTURE, TIMING, MEDIUM/CHANNEL AND TECHNIQUES • C) CRITERIAL LEVELS OF PERFORMANCE • D) SCORING PROCEDURES
  • 9. A) CONTENT • INCLUDE CLEAR SPECIFICATIONS REGARDING: • • • • • • • • • • SKILLS (SUB-SKILLS) TYPE OF TEXTS ADDRESSEES LENGTH OF TEXTS TOPICS (READABILITY) STRUCTURAL RANGE VOCABULARY RANGE DIALECT, ACCENT AND STYLE SPEED OF PROCESSING
  • 10. B) STRUCTURE, TIMING, MEDIUM/CHANNE L AND TECHNIQUES • TEST STRUCTURE • NUMBER OF ITEMS • NUMBER OF PASSAGES • TIMING • MEDIUM • KIND OF TEST TECHNIQUE(S)
  • 11. C) CRITERIAL LEVELS OF PERFORMANCE • ACCURACY • APPROPRIACY • RANGE • FLEXIBILITY • SIZE
  • 12. D) SCORING PROCEDURES • WHAT RATING SCALE WILL BE USED? • HOW MANY PEOPLE WILL RATE EACH PEACE OF WORK? • WHAT HAPPENS IF TWO OR MORE RATERS DISAGREE ABOUT A PIECE OF WORK?
  • 13. WRITING AND MODERATING ITEMS • A) SAMPLING • B) WRITING ITEMS • C) MODERATING ITEMS
  • 14. A) SAMPLING HOW THE TEXTS ARE GOING TO BE CHOSEN?
  • 15. B) WRITING ITEMS • TRY TO LOOK AT THE TEST THROUGH THE EYES OF TEST TAKERS! • AN ITEM WITHOUT A KEY IS INCOMPLETE! • “THE BEST WAY TO IDENTIFY ITEMS THAT HAVE TO BE IMPROVED OR ABANDONED IS THROUGH THE PROCESS OF MODERATION”.
  • 16. C) MODERATING ITEMS • INTERVATION OF TWO COLLEAGUES:
  • 17. INFORMAL TRIALLING OF ITEMS ON NATIVE SPEAKERS • 20 OR MORE… • THEY SHOULD BE SIMILAR TO THE GROUP BEING TESTED IN TERMS OF: AGE EDUCATION GENERAL BACKGROUND
  • 18. TRIALLING OF THE TEST ON A GROUP OF NON-NATIVE SPEAKERS SIMILAR TO THOSE FOR WHOM THE TEST IS INTENDED • PROBLEMS IN ADMINISTRATION AND SCORING CAN BE NOTED.
  • 19. ANALYSIS OF RESULTS OF THE TRIAL; MAKING OF ANY NECESSARY CHANGES • STATISTICAL AND QUALITATIVE ANALYSIS. HOW DIFFICULT ARE THE ITEMS? DISCOVER MISINTERPRETATIONS (TO BE MODIFIED OR DROPPED)
  • 20. CALIBRATION OF SCALES • IT IS IMPORTANT TO COLLECT SAMPLES OF PERFORMANCE AND ASSIGN EACH OF THEM TO A POINT ON THE RELEVANT SCALE.
  • 21. VALIDATION TOEFL HIGH STAKES TEST LOW STAKES TEST POP QUIZES
  • 22. WRITING HANDBOOKS FOR TEST TAKERS, TEST USERS AND STAFF
  • 23. TRAINING STAFF INTERVIEWERS PROCTORS NEED TO BE TRAINED COMPUTER OPERATORS SCORERS RATERS
  • 24. COMMON TEST TECHNIQUES
  • 25. OUTLINE DEFINITION MULTIPLE CHOICE GAP FILLING COMMON TEST TECHNIQUES TRUE OR FALSE SHORTANSWERS
  • 26. WHAT ARE TEST TECHNIQUES? • MEANS OF ELICITING BEHAVIOR
  • 27. MULTIPLE CHOICE ITEMS • STEM • DISTRACTOR
  • 28. MULTIPLE CHOICE ITEMS ADVANTAGES DISADVANTAGES DIFFICULT TO WRITE ITEMS GREAT DEMAND ON TIME AND EXPERTISE
  • 29. YES/NO AND TRUE/FALSE ITEMS Reliability and validity
  • 30. SHORT-ANSWER ITEMS READING TESTS LISTENING TESTS
  • 31. GAP FILLING ITEMS • IT IS A VALUABLE TECHNIQUE AS LONG AS THE CONTEXT IS PROVIDED! • A: WHAT WILL HE DO? • B: I THINK HE ______ RESIGN. BUT: A: I WONDER WHO THAT IS. B: IT ______ BE THE DOCTOR. A: HOW CAN YOU BE SO CERTAIN? WILL, MIGHT, COULD MAY, ETC.
  • 32. • Now you know what a teacher should do when preparing tests, what advices would you give? • (Each one should only mention only 1 advice) Names Advices Carolina Think of the applicability to real situations ar real life situations. Paola Put in your students´ shoes. Mauricio Consider multiple intelligences.
  • 33. REFERENCES • Huges, Arthur. Testing for Language Teachers. New York: Cambridge UP, 2003.