Literature

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Literature

  1. 1. LiteratureOrganized by Prof. MSc. Maura Xavier Garcia
  2. 2. Fire and ice By Robert Frost (1920)
  3. 3. epigragh• The opening quote before a novel• It creates the opening atmosphere into which we begin a story• It serves as something to compare to the larger story• For the novel Eclipse, Stephanie Meyer chose a poem by Robert Frost, entitled "Fire and Ice"
  4. 4. Some saythe worldwill end Some say
  5. 5. In fire In fire
  6. 6. Some saySome Say In ice
  7. 7. From whatI’ve tasted Of desire
  8. 8. I hold with thoseWhofavorfire
  9. 9. But if I had To perish twice
  10. 10. I think I knowEnoughof hate
  11. 11. To say thatFordestruction
  12. 12. Ice is also great And would suffice.
  13. 13. Fire and IceSome say the world will end in 1. What are the two things “some say”fire, the world will end in, according toSome say in ice. the speaker?From what I’ve tasted ofdesire a. Wind and fireI hold with those who favorfire. b. Fire and IceBut if it had to perish twice,I think I know enough of hateTo say that for destruction iceIs also great 2. What emotion does the poetAnd would suffice. suggest that the two emotions have in common? a) Fire/ pain – ice/indifference b) Fire/desire – Ice/hate
  14. 14. Fireassociated with the sun and light –Purification –Destruction –Power –Passionate emotions: love, hate, rage, anger –Sexuality
  15. 15. Fire and IceInterpreting: • What does the poem suggest that the two emotions have in common? The poem suggests that both desire and hate are strong emotions that could bring destruction, sadness, devastation to the world. • What other kinds of destruction besides destruction of the world might the poem be about? Destruction of human lives, destruction of human relationship within others, destruction of the nature.
  16. 16. So why was this particular poem chosen to preface the story of Eclipse?• The most obvious answer is in the title itself. The vampires of the book Eclipse are cold, and the werewolves are abnormally hot, so we are presented with two opposing forces that could easily be represented by fire and ice.• Its not an easy choice that the story of Eclipse presents to Bella. To be with Edward, she must eventually die and become a vampire herself. To be with Jacob, she faces a temper that could kill her, or the possibility of Jacobs imprinting on another woman and forgetting her entirely. Her life and possibly her heart are in danger with both men.
  17. 17. • The beginning of “Eclipse,” the third episode of “The Twilight Saga,” finds Bella and Edward (Kristen Stewart and Robert Pattinson, of course) cuddling passionately — though chastely, of course — in a meadow full of wildflowers. The day is just sunny enough to bring out the frosty sparkle in Edward’s skin, but not bright enough to kill either him or the brooding, minor-key mood. Bella is reciting Robert Frost’s poem “Fire and Ice,” about competing notions of how the world will end. Supposedly it’s for an English paper, but who is Bella kidding? “From what I’ve tasted of desire,” she intones, “I hold with those who favor fire.”
  18. 18. So why was this particular poem chosen to preface the story of Eclipse?• In the poem, Frost links "fire" with desire.• Jacob desires Bella. He cant let go of Bella, any more than she can let go of him. In fact, they are linked emotionally and physically, since she depends on both the Cullen vampire clan as well as Jacobs Quileute tribe of shape-shifting wolves to keep her safe from the threat of the vampiress Victoria, who is bent on killing Bella to revenge herself on Edward for the death of her mate James in "Twilight".• Victorias army of newborns could be represented by the hatred that Robert Frost links to the destructive power of ice. Victoria hates Edward and Bella, and creates a powerful army of newborn vampires, strong and dangerous, to kill Bella, as well as any other creatures that may stand in their way.
  19. 19. So why was this particular poem chosen to preface the story of Eclipse?• A third element of ice near the end of Eclipse is the Volturi, who decide to check up on the Cullens and their promise to change Bella. They are pacified for the time being, with the knowledge that Victoria and her newborn army have been defeated, and punctuate their visit with the threat of further violence against the Cullens if they choose to ignore the Volturi - with the violent end of the newborn vampire Bree who surrendered, but was killed regardless. Frost speaks in his poem about the world perishing twice, and seems very fitting when we consider the two violent icy forces coming at Bella to end her existence, driven by jealousy or hatred, and both forces thwarted by her protective extended family of vampires and werewolves.• Bella is the catalyst that draws together the explosive forces of fire and ice, and holds them uncomfortably close together in a shared goal, forcing natural enemies to cooperate and build bonds of their own, and to fight against their own kind in the name of protecting those they love. Frosts comparison of fire and ice and how the world will end is an appropriate backdrop for the story of Eclipse in the Twilight Saga of books. The great tension of the story is not only how they must fight for Bella, but how they must guard against their own natural inclinations and prejudices in the process.• http://voices.yahoo.com/the-poetry-twilight-saga-eclipse-robert-6449000.html
  20. 20. Stephenie Meyer• graduated from Brigham Young University with a bachelors degree in English.• She lives with her husband and three young sons in Phoenix, Arizona.• After the publication of her first novel, Twilight, booksellers chose Stephenie Meyer as one of the "most promising new authors of 2005" (Publishers Weekly).
  21. 21. Masterpieces:The Road Not TakenFire and IceStopping by Woods on aSnowy Evening
  22. 22. Robert Frost was an American poet who lived at the turn of the 19th century. "Fire and Ice" was first published in 1920. • Robert Lee Frost was born March 26,1874 in San Francisco, California and lived there until he was 11 years old. Frost wrote about the natural world, and also about his struggle to raise a family in depression times. Robert Frost died on January 29, 1963 at the age of 88. He died in Boston, Massachusetts, in the United States.
  23. 23. Background to Robert FrostAmerican poetWrite deceptively simple verse butwith subtle and profound thoughtsand feelingsTeacher and a farmerSymbolism from the countryside ofNew EnglandFocuses mainly on relationshipbetween man and nature – usually atodds with one another – man willnever really be able to understandnatureWon the Pulitzer Prize for Poetry fourtimes
  24. 24. Robert Lee FrostMarch 26, 1874 – January 29, 1963The Road Not Taken (1916)
  25. 25. The Road not TakenTWO roads diverged in a yellow wood,And sorry I could not travel bothAnd be one traveler, long I stoodAnd looked down one as far as I couldTo where it bent in the undergrowth; 5
  26. 26. Then took the other, as just as fair,And having perhaps the better claim,Because it was grassy and wanted wear;Though as for that the passing thereHad worn them really about the same, 10
  27. 27. And both that morning equally layIn leaves no step had trodden black.Oh, I kept the first for another day!Yet knowing how way leads on to way,I doubted if I should ever come back. 15
  28. 28. I shall be telling this with a sighSomewhere ages and ages hence:Two roads diverged in a wood, and I—I took the one less traveled by,And that has made all the difference. 20
  29. 29. yellow wood leaves turn yellow in autumnfair beautifulclaim argumentgrassy and wanted wear overgrown and unused the number of people who had takenthe passing there that roadno step had trodden back stepping on leaves they turn blackages and ages a very long time
  30. 30. • And I was sorry that I could not take both• And sorry I could not take both• And I was one traveller, I stood for a long time• And be one traveller, long I stood• Then I took the other which was just as fair and it had the better claim• Then took the other, as just as fair and having perhaps the better claim• Because I knew how way leads on to way I doubted if I would ever come back• Yet knowing how way leads on to way I doubted if I should ever come back.
  31. 31. Discussion• Do you like the poem?• Many people in America consider this their favorite poem. Why do you think so?• A moral is something that you can learn from a story, a poem or an experience. Does this poem have a moral?• Think of some major decisions a person makes in their life. Have you had to make any major decisions? Did you take the road less traveled by?
  32. 32. Two roads diverged in a yellow woodAnd sorry I could not travel bothAnd be one traveler, long I stoodAnd looked down one as far as I couldTo where it bent in the undergrowth;Then took the other, as just as fairAnd having perhaps the better claim,Because it was grassy and wanted wear;Though as for that, the passing thereHad worn them really about the same.And both that morning equally layIn leaves no step had trodden black.Oh, I kept the first for another day!Yet knowing how way leads on to way,I doubted if I should ever come back.I shall be telling this with a sighSomewhere ages and ages hence:Two roads diverged in a wood, and I—I took the one less traveled by,And that has made all the difference.
  33. 33. system of systemsone twoone person has two choices
  34. 34. travel /being a travellertwo roads divergea yellow woodWhat are possible connotations oftravel –roads –wood ?
  35. 35. How does he reach his decision?Which words evoke his emotions?Was the decision difficult?
  36. 36. Two roads diverged in a yellow woodAnd sorry I could not travel bothAnd be one traveler, long I stoodAnd looked down one as far as I couldTo where it bent in the undergrowth;Then took the other, as just as fair
  37. 37. And having perhaps the better claim,Because it was grassy and wanted wear;Though as for that, the passing thereHad worn them really about the same.And both that morning equally layIn leaves no step had trodden black.
  38. 38. • Look at the words in red and try to find the common denominator, we can establish that the speaker spent some time trying to make up his mind (long I stood) and that he underwent a process of considering the pros and cons.• The decision was hard because there was really wasnt much to choose between the two roads. They both attracted him but the (later) "less travelled by" road was the one he chose.
  39. 39. Universal ThemesTraveling –The idea of man “traveling” through life which isa series of roads and crossroads.People make decisions along the way which maybe very difficult.One can never see into the future (“the bend inthe road” “the undergrowth”)The decisions are irreversible (“way leads on toway…”)
  40. 40. Robert Frost on his own poetry:"One stanza of The Road Not Taken was written while Iwas sitting on a sofa in the middle of England: Was foundthree or four years later, and I couldnt bear not to finishit. I wasnt thinking about myself there, but about a friendwho had gone off to war, a person who, whichever roadhe went, would be sorry he didnt go the other. He washard on himself that way."Bread Loaf Writers Conference, 23 Aug. 1953

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