Beginnings and beowulf (2)

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  • 1. English Literature Literature is characterized by beauty of expression and form and by university of intellectual and emotional appeal. Literature shows us not only what a society is like in a certain age, but also what individual feel about it, what they hope from it, and how they can change it or escape from it. Literature gives readers an insight into the tradition, custom, beliefs, attitudes, folklore, values of the age in which it is written. Prof. MSc. Maura Xavier Garcia
  • 2. How to study Literature? a. analytical approach  The elements of fiction include plot, character, setting, point of view, theme, symbol, allegory, style, and tone. b.thematic approach  What is the story, the poem, the play, or the essay about? c. historical approach  It aims at illustrating the historical development of literature. All the Literature exists in time and as such bears the unmistakable imprint of the period and culture in which it is written.  Other approaches        Marxist/sociological criticism psychoanalytical criticism feminist/gender criticism mythic and archetypal criticism reader-response criticism formalist /new criticism structuralism deconstructuralism
  • 3. literature 1): pagan: oral sagas: the Song of Beowulf 2): Christian: copied by the monk. The influence of the Christianity upon language and culture. Two ecclesiastic poets: Caedmon and Cynewulf 3. the Song of Beowulf----England’s national epic creation time: written in 10-th century  plot and theme: fight with Grendel fight with Grendel’s mother fight with firedrake death and funeral
  • 4. Asterix
  • 5. Obelix
  • 6. Asterix_&_Obelix___ Once_Upon_A_Time_ In_Armorica.wmv
  • 7. 55BC 55 BC
  • 8. The Roman Baths in Bath England Feature Video From BathTV.wmv Roman Baths in Bath.wmv
  • 9. 43CE Romans invade Britain. Encountered the Celts. Romans build roads, villas, sewage systems, huge buildings, and forts. Introduced Christianity. Introduced army organization 420CE Romans leave.
  • 10. The Saxon Chronicles Movie Trailer.wmv
  • 11. •Anglo-Saxon society. –Lived in tribal groups with a high class of warriors. –Kings emerged as society developed. •Spoke Old English. •This was the language that Beowulf was written in. •Became Christian but still valued heroic ideals and traditional heroes. •Their culture valued human contact, family, virtue, and a good story. •They feared humiliation and loneliness in their lives. In addition, the Anglo-Saxons desired richness, power, and appreciated heroic actions of warriors.
  • 12. •787CE Viking raids begin •871-899CE saxon King Alfred the Great becomes King of England. –Established education systems, rebuilt monasteries. –Contributed with artfacts –Fought Danes and forced them from Wessex. –Unified Anglo-Saxons under one king to resist the Viking invasions. –Danes ruled in the North, Anglo-Saxons in the South.
  • 13. Asterix_And_the_Viki ng_19.wmv Asterix_ANd_The_Vi king_part_2.wmv
  • 14. the Anglo-Saxon period (4491066) historical background Three conquests: Roman conquest in 43 AD; Anglo-Saxon conquest in 449; Norman conquest in 1066 43 AD, Roman conquered Britain ,making the latter a province of Roman Empire; the withdrawal of Roman troops ,the Teutonic (Germanic people) tribes, esp., the Anglos conquered the island and called it Angle-land, then England, their language is Anglo-Saxon old English. 1.
  • 15. Beowulf towers above all other Anglo-Saxon literature, not only because it is a powerful poem about people’s hero written in true epic style, but also because it tells in artistic form the tale in a leisurely way, full of elaborations in legendary details, and the verse rises at places to heights of poetic grandeur.
  • 16. The significance of Beowulf:  This glorious epic presents us a vivid picture of the life of Anglo-Saxon people and highly praises the brave and courageous spirit of the fighting against the elemental forces.  The epic reflects the situations the epoch of pagan tribalism and of the era of the Christianized feudal society.  The epic gives the vivid portrayal of a
  • 17. characters • Beowulf: main character, a hero featuring all the qualities of an epic hero. He has superhuman strength and is fearless and brave in battle. (Geats) • Hrothgar: the king of the village that Beowulf saves from Grendel. (Danes) • Grendel: a monster terrorizing Hrothgar’s village. • Grendel’s mother: a monster set out to avenge her son’s death.
  • 18. Plot (movie here)  Beowulf travels to Hrothgar’s village to save them from     Grendel, a terrifying monster eating their warriors. An epic battle ensures Beowulf is the winner. Of course, Grendel’s mother comes seeking vengeance for her son’s death. Again, Beowulf is called upon to save them all, and he fights heroically and defeats the evil monster. After being vastly rewarded and refusing an offer from Hrothgar to be his heir, Beowulf makes the long trek back to his homeland where he becomes a mighty and generous king for many years. He fights a massive dragon who is threatening his
  • 19.  Anglo-Saxon literature began as an oral tradition. Stories, poems, and songs were all told aloud and passed from generation to generation orally through minstrels (also called scops).  Poems traditionally had a strong beat, alliteration, and no rhyme.  Caesura: “a cutting.” A break in a line of poetry, used in Old English to depict a half line. We use a comma for a modern effect.  i.e. Da com of moreunder mistheleopum ―Out from the marsh, from the foot of the hills.‖  Kenning: derived from the Norse word ―kenna‖ which means ―to know, to recognize.‖ It is a compact metaphor that functions as a name.  i.e. helmberend: ―Helm bearer‖ or ―warrior‖
  • 20. Characteristics of ―Beowulf‖ a. the mixture of pagan elements with Christian coloring. The most outstanding example is the frequent reference in the epic to ―Wyrd‖ (fate) as the decisive factor in human affaires, while on other occasions “God” or “Lord” is also mentioned as the omniscient and
  • 21. Pagan vs. Christianity in Beowulf pagan  Strong nature presence  Strength of the warrior  God is mentioned by two of the main characters in the poem: Beowulf and Hrothgar.  Grendel as Lucifer  Both are outcasts  Perform a task for God  Grendel is described as a son or descendant of Cain, a clear Biblical
  • 22. Characteristics of ―Beowulf‖ b. the frequent use of metaphors and understatements. “Ring giver” is used for king, “Swan road”, “whale-path” or “seal bath” for the sea, “wave-traveler” or “sea-wood” for ship, “shield-bearer”, “battle-hero” or “spear-fighter” for soldier.
  • 23. kenning  KENNING  Light-of-battle  Fighting-gear, battle-  MEANING Sword  Body armor gear  Blood  Battle-sweat other words:  Life would have ended [...] under wide earth  Would have died  Handle  Hilt  Lake, pond, swamp  Mere
  • 24. Characteristics of ―Beowulf‖ c. Beowulf is written in alliterative verse. Its rhythm depends upon accent and alliteration. That is, the beginning of two or more words in the same line with the same sound or letter. The lines are made up of two short halves, separated by a pause. No rhyme is used; but a musical effect is produced by giving each half line two strongly accented syllables. Each full line, therefore, has four accents, three of which usually begin with
  • 25. • Most famous of early Germanic poems • Written anywhere between 400-1000, but most likely after the 500s. Period of the barbarian invasions. • The author is unknown, but likely to be Christian. It is likely that a few different authors elaborated on the tale. • Takes place in Sweden, Denmark, and Frisia. – The Norse were at this time attacking
  • 26. Beowulf  The events described in the poem take place in the late 5th century, after the Anglo-Saxons had begun migration and settlement in England, and before the beginning of the 7th century, a time when the Saxons were either newly arrived or in close contact with their fellow Germanic kinsmen in Scandinavia and Northern Germany.
  • 27. Beowulf anonymous useless to men as of yore it was. Then about that barrow the battle-keen rode, atheling-born, a band of twelve, lament to make, to mourn their king, chant their dirge, and their chieftain honor. They praised his earlship, his acts of prowess worthily witnessed: and well it is that men their master-friend mightily laud, heartily love, when hence he goes from life in the body forlorn away.
  • 28. /ˈ beɪəˈw ʊlf/ Funeral pyre lit and Beowulf burned.  [Question: why is this old woman placed here in the book? Is this a woman's comment on all the men's actions and male dominated society that creates such continual misery with their warrior ways'?]  OLD WOMAN predicts that the Geats will be overrun. She seems to know 'what goes round comes around' and 'they'll get theirs.' They build the tower and twelve Geats ride around the tower praising Beowulf, best of kings.  http://te 
  • 29. • Beowulf is the most well-known Anglo-Saxon poem, and is a form of poetry called the epic. • Such other examples are Homer’s The Iliad and The Odessey. • Long narrative that celebrates a hero’s long journeys and heroic deeds. • J.R.R. Tolkien’s The Lord of the Ring series and George Lucas’ Stars Wars could be called modern epics. • Characteristics include a noble hero whose character traits reflect their society’s ideals. The hero performs brave acts and appears
  • 30.  The epic poem Beowulf strengthens the Heroic Code. This code was derived from the Anglo-Saxons’ Germanic roots, and called for strength, courage, and loyalty in warriors. It also required kings to be hospitable, generous, and have great political skills. This code was a basis for Anglo-Saxon honor. • Universal themes of epic poetry • Good vs. evil • Beowulf vs. Grendel • Isolation • Courage and honor • Beowulf is fearless and brave while fighting the monsters. • Gods or semi-divine creatures • Grendel, Grendel’s mother, the dragon • Tale involves the fate of an entire race
  • 31. A Lenda De Beowulf (Trailer) LEGENDADO.wmv
  • 32. Describe the scene To which part may it refer
  • 33.  Beowulf is an example of Medieval Anglo-Saxon poetry which was written by monks c1100. Beowulf describes the adventures of a great Scandinavian warrior of the sixth century. The poem of Beowulf is distinguished by its heavy use of alliteration which was used instead of the modern rhyme. There are therefore many examples of alliteration in Beowulf, often three examples in every line. Like a rhyme, alliteration makes a poem easy to remember. Examples from Beowulf are as follows: Cunningly creeping, a spectral stalker Hot-hearted Beowulf was bent upon battle He had often haunted Hrothgar's house
  • 34. the_Norman_Conquest.wmv
  • 35. •1066CE Norman Conquest by William the Conqueror. –From Norman French. –Defeated Danes and Anglo-Saxons. –Officially ended Anglo-Saxon era and brought about the beginning of the Medieval Period. cru·sade (kr-sd) n. 1. often Crusade Any of the military expeditions undertaken by European Christians in the 11th, 12th, and 13th centuries to recover the Holy Land from the Muslims. 2. A holy war undertaken with papal sanction. 3. A vigorous concerted movement for a cause or against an abuse. See Synonyms at campaign. intr.v. cru·sad·ed, cru·sad·ing, cru·sades To engage in a crusade.
  • 36. the Anglo-Norman period (1066— 1350) historical background Norman Conquest of Anglo-Saxon England, under William, Duke of Normandy after the battle of Hastings in 1066, accelerated the development of feudalism in England. The middle ages: the dark age (449-16-th century) 1.
  • 37. Literature - romance  a. Geoffrey’s history: a source book of literature  b. the work of the French Writers: Arthurian legends  c. Riming/rhythmic chronicles: history in doggerel verse (cordel)  d. metrical romances, or tales in verse.
  • 38. Geoffrey Chaucer (1340—1400) 1.his life born in a wine merchant family, page to ElizabethCountess of Ulster, wife of Edward III's third son he had broad and intimate acquaintance with persons high and low in all walks of life and knew well the whole
  • 39. His literary career French period (1360-1372) in French ― Romance of the rose‖ b. Italian period in Latin ―the legend of Good Women‖ a. (1372-1385)
  • 40. Chaucer’s contributions to English Literature and Language  a. a master of realism  b.founder of English literary language  c.Chaucer’s English: London dialect  d.Father of English poetry : heroic couplet (The heroic couplet is an iambic pentameter heaving the lines rhyming in pairs).
  • 41. The Canterbury Tales  It is one of the most famous works in all literature. It begins with a general prologue that explains the occasion for the narration of the tales and gives a description of the pilgrims who narrate the tales, and then follow the twentyfour tales that make up the bulk of the book, plus the separate prologues and the ―links that accompany some of‖ the tales.
  • 42. The Characters The Knight The Miller The Reeve (first specialist in state management) The Cook The Man of Law The Wife of Bath The Friar The Summoner(give notes to court attendance) The Clerk The Merchant The Squire The Franklin(not in feudal servitude) 49
  • 43. More Characters The Physician The Pardoner The Shipman The Prioress The Monk The Nun’s Priest The Yeoman (a commoner who cultivates his own land) The Manciple (purchase and storage food) The Parson (priest of independent parish) 50
  • 44. understand that Chaucer the Poet actually wrote The Canterbury Tales, but Chaucer the Pilgrim tells them. Making himself a character in the Tales enables Chaucer to inject opinions without claiming they are his own,
  • 45. Structure and Themes A prologue precedes each character’s tale The prologue introduces the character personally The tale reveals more through the character’s chosen subject and treatment of that subject Major themes include morality and genuine vs. false pilgrimage 52
  • 46. The Wife of Bath by Geoffrey Chaucer in The Canterbury AndTales she obeyed him in every thing That mighte do him pleasance or liking. And thus they live unto their lives' end In perfect joy; and Jesus Christ us send Husbandes meek and young, and fresh in bed, And grace to overlive them that we wed. And eke I pray Jesus to short their lives, That will not be governed by their wives. And old and angry niggards of dispence,* (*expense) God send them soon a very pestilence!
  • 47. The_Mirror_Has_Two_Faces_(1996)___2__13.wmv The_Wife_Of_Bath.wmv The_Nun's_Priest_Tale_(The_Canterbury_Tales).wmv medieval marriage was a largely financial arrangement, involving a transfer of wealth from the bride's family to the groom. Does this fact make the Wife's account of her own marriages seem improbable? there is evidence that medieval law held wives in subordination to their husband. Should we view her not as a freethinker but as an outlaw? Finally, what of love? In medieval times, love seems to have had little place in marriage. How should this fact influence our response to the Wife's frequent emphasis on sexual appeal as a driving force in her relationships? The moral of the story seems to confirm her argument in the "Prologue," that wives should have authority over their husbands, but the proof of the moral seems to come through magic. Are we to take the story at face value, or is it, in the truest sense, a "fairy tale"? Does Chaucer in this way represent the Wife as seeing herself as the "loathly lady" waiting for some loving husband to unlock the beauty inside her?