• Share
  • Email
  • Embed
  • Like
  • Save
  • Private Content
Cancer estadisticas-Dr peñaloza
 
  • 1,768 views

Curso Enfermeria Oncologica-Estadisticas tu solidos-Dr Peñaloza

Curso Enfermeria Oncologica-Estadisticas tu solidos-Dr Peñaloza

Statistics

Views

Total Views
1,768
Views on SlideShare
1,747
Embed Views
21

Actions

Likes
0
Downloads
20
Comments
0

4 Embeds 21

http://enfermeriaoncolog.blogspot.com 12
http://enfermeriaoncolog.blogspot.mx 4
http://enfermeriaoncolog.blogspot.com.ar 4
http://www.enfermeriaoncolog.blogspot.com.ar 1

Accessibility

Categories

Upload Details

Uploaded via as Microsoft PowerPoint

Usage Rights

© All Rights Reserved

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Processing…
Post Comment
Edit your comment
  • The American Cancer Society presents Cancer Statistics 2009.
  • Cancer accounts for nearly one-quarter of deaths in the United States, exceeded only by heart diseases. In 2006, there were 559,888 cancer deaths in the US.
  • Cancer accounts for nearly one-quarter of deaths in the United States, exceeded only by heart diseases. In 2003, there were 556,902 cancer deaths in the US.
  • Compared to the rate in 1950, the cancer death rate decreased slightly in 2003, while rates for other major chronic diseases decreased substantially during this period.
  • Lung cancer is, by far, the most common fatal cancer in men (30%), followed by prostate (9%), and colon & rectum (9%). In women, lung (26%), breast (15%), and colon & rectum (9%) are the leading sites of cancer death.
  • Lung cancer is, by far, the most common fatal cancer in men (31%), followed by colon & rectum (10%), and prostate (9%). In women, lung (26%), breast (15%), and colon & rectum (10%) are the leading sites of cancer death.
  • Now we will turn our attention to the number of new cancers anticipated in the US this year. It is estimated that about 1.5 million new cases of cancer will be diagnosed in 2009. Cancers of the prostate and breast will be the most frequently diagnosed cancers in men and women, respectively, followed by lung and colorectal cancers in both men and in women.
  • Now we will turn our attention to the number of new cancers anticipated in the US this year. It is estimated that almost 1.4 million new cases of cancer will be diagnosed in 2006. Cancers of the prostate and breast will be the most frequently diagnosed cancers in men and women, respectively, followed by lung and colorectal cancers both in men and in women.
  • Between 1988 and 1992, prostate cancer incidence rates increased dramatically due to earlier diagnosis with prostate-specific antigen (PSA) blood testing, after increasing steadily from 1975 to 1988. Incidence rates for both lung and colorectal cancers in men have declined in recent years.
  • Most of the increase in cancer death rates for men prior to 1990 was attributable to lung cancer. However, since 1990, the age-adjusted lung cancer death rate in men has been decreasing. Stomach cancer mortality has decreased considerably since 1930. Death rates from prostate and colorectal cancers have also been declining.
  • Lung cancer is currently the most common cause of cancer death in women, with the death rate more than two times what it was 25 years ago. In comparison, breast cancer death rates were virtually unchanged between 1930 and 1990, and have since decreased on average 2.3% per year. The death rates for stomach and uterine cancers have decreased steadily since 1930; colorectal cancer death rates have been decreasing for over 50 years.
  • In women, breast cancer incidence rates increased rapidly in the 1980s due to increased use of mammography and have increased gradually since that time. During the most recent time period (1998-2002), incidence rates of lung cancer have leveled off, while rates of colorectal cancer have decreased.
  • This slide shows trends in cancer incidence for all sites combined, for the years 1975-2002. I ncidence rates stabilized in men from 1995 to 2002 and increased in women by 0.3% per year from 1987 to 2002.
  • Cancer incidence rates are consistently higher in African-American men than white men. In contrast, cancer incidence rates are generally higher in white women than African-American women, although the difference is not as great.
  • Overall, cancer death rates are higher in men than women in every racial and ethnic group. African American men and women have the highest rates of cancer mortality. Asian and Pacific Islander men and women have the lowest cancer death rates, about half the rate of African American men and women, respectively. Note: Rates for populations other than white and African American may be affected by problems in ascertaining race/ethnicity information from medical records. This is likely to result in reported death rates that are lower than true death rates.
  • The next four slides look at the lifetime probability of developing cancer and relative survival rates of cancer.   Presently, the risk of an American man developing cancer over his lifetime is one in two. The leading cancer sites are prostate, lung, and colon and rectum.
  • Approximately one in three women in the United States will develop cancer over her lifetime. The leading sites are breast, lung, and colon and rectum.
  • The 5-year relative survival rate from cancer is 66% for whites and 56% for African Americans (taking normal life expectancy into consideration). For many sites, survival rates in African Americans are 10% to more than 20% lower than in whites. This is due, in part, to African Americans being less likely to receive a cancer diagnosis at an early, localized stage, when treatment can improve chances of survival. Additional factors that contribute to the survival differential include unequal access to medical care and a higher prevalence of coexisting medical conditions and other risk factors.
  • The survival rates for all cancers combined and for certain site-specific cancers have improved significantly since the 1970s, due, in part, to both earlier detection and advances in treatment. Survival rates markedly increased for cancers of the prostate, breast, colon, rectum, and for leukemia. With new treatment techniques and increased utilization of screening, there is hope for even greater improvements in the not-too-distant future.
  • The last set of slides describes at the prevalence of cancer risk factors, such as tobacco use and physical inactivity, and the prevalence of cancer screening, such as use of mammography.   Tobacco use is a major preventable cause of death, particularly from lung cancer. The year 2004 marks the anniversary of the release of the first Surgeon General’s report on Tobacco and Health, which initiated a decline of per capita cigarette smoking in the United States. As a result of the cigarette smoking epidemic, lung cancer death rates showed a steady increase through 1990, then began to decline among men. The lung cancer death rate among US women, who began regular cigarette smoking later than men, continues to increase slightly.
  • The reduction in cigarette consumption has been associated with a decrease in adult smoking prevalence in both men and women since 1965. The difference in cigarette smoking across gender narrowed from 1965 to 1985, a result of smoking becoming more popular among women and higher rates of quitting among male smokers following the Surgeon General’s Report.
  • The American Cancer Society recommends that individuals eat five or more servings of vegetables and fruits a day for cancer prevention. Fruit and vegetable consumption may protect against cancers of the mouth and pharynx, esophagus, lung, stomach, and colon and rectum. However, there has been little improvement in consumption since the mid-1990s. Less than one in four adults was eating the recommended servings in 2003.
  • The American Cancer Society recommends that adults engage in at least moderate physical activity for 30 or more minutes on 5 or more days of the week. However, similar to trends in nutrition, there has been little change in leisure-time physical activity during the 1990s. Almost one-fourth of adults do not engage in any leisure-time physical activity. Even more striking is that almost half of adults with less than a high school education do not participate in any leisure-time physical activity. It should be noted that leisure-time physical activity, as presented in this graph, does not reflect job-related physical activity for the currently employed population. While there has been little change in leisure-time physical activity since the early 1990s, data from other sources illustrates long-term social changes that have contributed to reduced total physical activity in US adults. For example, the number of trips outside the home made by walking has decreased by 42% between 1975 and 1995.
  • The American Cancer Society states that women aged 40 and older should have an annual mammogram and clinical breast exam (CBE) as part of a periodic health exam. Women should know how their breasts normally feel and report any changes to their health care provider. A breast self-examination (BSE) is an option for women starting in their 20s.
  • The prevalence of women reporting a mammogram within the past year increased from 50% in 1991 to 64% in 2000, and has since declined to 58% in 2004. During this time, mammogram utilization varied considerably by educational attainment. The prevalence of women with less than a high school education reporting a recent mammogram was approximately 9 percentage points lower than the prevalence for all women. Even more striking is that the prevalence for women with no health insurance is approximately 25 percentage points lower than the prevalence for all women.
  • The American Cancer Society cervical cancer screening guidelines state that women should begin screening approximately three years after she begins having vaginal intercourse, but no later than 21 years of age. Screening should be done every year with regular Pap tests or every two years using liquid-based tests. At or after age 30, women who have had three normal tests in a row may get screened every 2-3 years. Women 70 and older who have had three or more consecutive normal Pap tests in the last 10 years may choose to stop cervical cancer screening.
  • This graph shows that the prevalence of women who have had a Pap test within the past three years has remained high, and has increased during the late 1990s. Throughout the decade, the prevalence among women with less than a high school education as well as the prevalence among women with no health insurance was approximately 10 percent lower than the percentage for all women.
  • The American Cancer Society recommends that beginning at age 50, men and women should receive a fecal occult blood test (FOBT) every year, or a flexible sigmoidoscopy (FSIG) every five years, or an annual FOBT and FSIG every five years (preferred to either method alone), or a double-contrast barium enema every five years, or a colonoscopy every ten years.
  • In 2004, approximately 19% of US adults 50 and older had a fecal occult blood test (FOBT) in the previous year. Adults with less than a high school education are less likely to report a recent FOBT. The prevalence for adults with no health insurance is approximately 10 percentage points lower than the prevalence for all adults.
  • While there has been a downward trend during recent years in the use of FOBT, the prevalence of flexible sigmoidoscopy (FSIG) or colonoscopy increased from 1999 to 2004. Adults with less than a high school education were less likely to report FSIG or colonoscopy than all adults. Even more striking is that the prevalence for adults with no health insurance is approximately 26 percentage points lower than the prevalence for all adults. Continuing efforts are needed to address health system barriers to colon cancer screening, to encourage health care practitioners to promote screening to their patients, and to raise awareness among eligible adults about the importance of getting screened for CRC.
  • The prostate-specific antigen (PSA) test and the digital rectal exam (DRE) should be offered annually, beginning at age 50, to men who have a life expectancy of at least 10 years.
  • This graph shows that the percentage of men who have had a PSA test within the past year decreased by 6 percentage points from 2001. Men with less than a high school education and men with no health insurance were less likely to report a PSA test than all men 50 and older.
  • This graph shows that the percentage of men who have had a DRE within the past year decreased by approximately seven percentage points from 2001. Men with less than a high school education and men with no health insurance were less likely to report a DRE than all men 50 and older. The American Cancer Society suggests that men speak with their physician to make an informed decision on prostate cancer screening.
  • The vast majority of skin cancers are the result of unprotected and excessive ultraviolet radiation exposure. The American Cancer Society estimates that UV exposure is associated with more than one million cases of basal and squamous cell cancers and 62,190 cases of malignant melanoma in 2006. Sunburns, a short-term consequence of unprotected or excessive UV exposure, were reported more frequently by men than women. Variations by race, ethnicity, and gender were observed with the highest prevalence of sunburns among white non-Hispanic males and females.
  • Adolescence is a period of heightened unprotected sun exposure. Sunburn during childhood and intense intermittent unprotected sun exposure increases the risk of melanoma and other skin cancers. 72% of youth reported getting sunburned during the summer months. Sunburn prevalence varied by race and sun sensitivity.

Cancer estadisticas-Dr peñaloza Cancer estadisticas-Dr peñaloza Presentation Transcript

  • INCIDENCIA DEL CÁNCER En el mundo hay aproximadamente 10 millones de personas diagnosticadas con cáncer y cada año mueren alrededor de 6 millones. Todas las comunidades se afligen por el cáncer, pero hay marcadas diferencias en las diversas partes del mundo, siendo los tumores más comunes: los de pulmón, colon, mama, próstata, estómago En países en desarrollo hasta un 25 % de los tumores están asociados a infecciones crónicas por ejemplo; Hepatitis B (cáncer de hígado), Virus Papiloma (cáncer de útero), Helicobacter Pylori (cáncer de estómago). En algunos países del mundo occidental, la mortalidad promedio está declinando debido a la reducción del hábito de fumar , la mejora en la detección temprana y los avances en el tratamiento.
  • Hablamos de países más desarrollados : toda Europa, Japón, Australia, Nueva Zelanda y Norte América. Es interesante ver en las estadísticas que en los países desarrollados son más frecuentes algunos tipos de cáncer. Por ejemplo: -Hombres: pulmón, próstata, colon. -Mujeres: mama, colon. Como menos desarrollados : África, Latino América, Caribe, Asia. Mientras que en los países menos desarrollados se destacan: -Hombres: estómago, hígado e igualmente pulmón. -Mujeres: prevalece el útero, como también mama.
  • ¿Cuál es la razón para que se dé una alta tasa de específicas clases de cáncer en ciertos países? En teoría, las diferencias hereditarias o los factores de riesgo del medio ambiente podrían ser la causa de las distintas tasas de incidencia de cáncer observada en los distintos países. Estudios realizados sobre poblaciones que se han trasladado de un país a otro sugieren que la exposición a los factores de riesgo a contraer cáncer varían según la ubicación geográfica. Por ejemplo en Japón la tasa de cáncer de colon es baja y la de cáncer de estómago es más alta que en USA, pero se ha encontrado que estas diferencias desaparecen en familias japonesas que emigran a USA. Esto sugiere que el riesgo de desarrollar los distintos tipos de cáncer no está determinada primordialmente por la herencia .
  • ¿En general, cuáles son las causas más comunes de cáncer? En orden de importancia: dieta, tabaco, obesidad, falta de actividad física. ¿Cuántos casos de los tipos más comunes de cáncer están relacionados con la obesidad y la dieta? 20-30% de los cánceres de mama, colon, endometrio, próstata están relacionados con la obesidad y la dieta El estilo de vida y el medio ambiente (rayos ultravioletas del sol, herbicidas, pesticidas, agentes químicos industriales, gases de automotores, etc.) provocan también en cada país o zonas del mismo país, los diferentes tipos de cáncer.
  •  
  • Cancer Statistics 2009 A Presentation From the American Cancer Society ©2009, American Cancer Society, Inc.
  • US Mortality, 2006
    • 1. Heart Diseases 631,636 26.0
    • 2. Cancer 559,888 23.1
    • 3. Cerebrovascular diseases 137,119 5.7
    • 4. Chronic lower respiratory diseases 124,583 5.1
    • 5. Accidents (unintentional injuries) 121,599 5.0
    • 6. Diabetes mellitus 72,449 3.0
    • 7. Alzheimer disease 72,432 3.0
    • 8. Influenza & pneumonia 56,326 2.3
    • Nephritis* 45,344 1.9
    • 10. Septicemia 34,234 1.4
    *Includes nephrotic syndrome and nephrosis. Source: US Mortality Data 2006, National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2009. Rank Cause of Death No. of deaths % of all deaths
  • US Mortality, 2003
    • 1. Heart Diseases 685,089 28.0
    • 2. Cancer 556,902 22.7
    • 3. Cerebrovascular diseases 157,689 6.4
    • 4. Chronic lower respiratory diseases 126,382 5.2
    • 5. Accidents (Unintentional injuries) 109,277 4.5
    • 6. Diabetes mellitus 74,219 3.0
    • 7. Influenza and pneumonia 65,163 2.7
    • 8. Alzheimer disease 63,457 2.6
    • Nephritis 42,453 1.7
    • 10. Septicemia 34,069 1.4
    Source: US Mortality Public Use Data Tape 2003, National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2006. Rank Cause of Death No. of deaths % of all deaths
  • Change in the US Death Rates* by Cause, 1950 & 2003 * Age-adjusted to 2000 US standard population. Sources: 1950 Mortality Data - CDC/NCHS, NVSS, Mortality Revised. 2003 Mortality Data: US Mortality Public Use Data Tape, 2003, NCHS, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2006 Heart Diseases Cerebrovascular Diseases Pneumonia/ Influenza Cancer 1950 2003 Rate Per 100,000
  • 2009 Estimated US Cancer Deaths = 562,340 ONS=Other nervous system. Source: American Cancer Society, 2009. Men 292,540 Women 269,800 26% Lung & bronchus 15% Breast 9% Colon & rectum 6% Pancreas 5% Ovary 4% Non-Hodgkin lymphoma 3% Leukemia 3% Uterine corpus 2% Liver & intrahepatic bile duct 2% Brain/ONS 25% All other sites Lung & bronchus 30% Prostate 9% Colon & rectum 9% Pancreas 6% Leukemia 4% Liver & intrahepatic 4% bile duct Esophagus 4% Urinary bladder 3% Non-Hodgkin 3% lymphoma Kidney & renal pelvis 3% All other sites 25%
  • 2006 Estimated US Cancer Deaths* ONS=Other nervous system. Source: American Cancer Society, 2006. Men 291,270 Women 273,560 26% Lung & bronchus 15% Breast 10% Colon & rectum 6% Pancreas 6% Ovary 4% Leukemia 3% Non-Hodgkin lymphoma 3% Uterine corpus 2% Multiple myeloma 2% Brain/ONS 23% All other sites Lung & bronchus 31% Colon & rectum 10% Prostate 9% Pancreas 6% Leukemia 4% Liver & intrahepatic 4% bile duct Esophagus 4% Non-Hodgkin 3% lymphoma Urinary bladder 3% Kidney 3% All other sites 23%
  •  
  •  
  •  
  •  
  •  
  •  
  • 2009 Estimated US Cancer Cases* *Excludes basal and squamous cell skin cancers and in situ carcinomas except urinary bladder. Source: American Cancer Society, 2009. Men 766,130 Women 713,220 27% Breast 14% Lung & bronchus 10% Colon & rectum 6% Uterine corpus 4% Non-Hodgkin lymphoma 4% Melanoma of skin 4% Thyroid 3% Kidney & renal pelvis 3% Ovary 3% Pancreas 22% All Other Sites Prostate 25% Lung & bronchus 15% Colon & rectum 10% Urinary bladder 7% Melanoma of skin 5% Non-Hodgkin 5% lymphoma Kidney & renal pelvis 5% Leukemia 3% Oral cavity 3% Pancreas 3% All Other Sites 19%
  • 2006 Estimated US Cancer Cases* *Excludes basal and squamous cell skin cancers and in situ carcinomas except urinary bladder. Source: American Cancer Society, 2006. Men 720,280 Women 679,510 31% Breast 12% Lung & bronchus 11% Colon & rectum 6% Uterine corpus 4% Non-Hodgkin lymphoma 4% Melanoma of skin 3% Thyroid 3% Ovary 2% Urinary bladder 2% Pancreas 22% All Other Sites Prostate 33% Lung & bronchus 13% Colon & rectum 10% Urinary bladder 6% Melanoma of skin 5% Non-Hodgkin 4% lymphoma Kidney 3% Oral cavity 3% Leukemia 3% Pancreas 2% All Other Sites 18%
  • Cancer Incidence Rates* for Men, 1975-2002 *Age-adjusted to the 2000 US standard population. Source: Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Program, 1975-2002, Division of Cancer Control and Population Sciences, National Cancer Institute, 2005. Prostate Lung Colon and rectum Urinary bladder Non-Hodgkin lymphoma Rate Per 100,000 Melanoma of the skin
  • Cancer Death Rates*, for Men, US,1930-2002 *Age-adjusted to the 2000 US standard population. Source: US Mortality Public Use Data Tapes 1960-2002, US Mortality Volumes 1930-1959, National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2005. Lung Colon & rectum Stomach Rate Per 100,000 Prostate Pancreas Liver Leukemia
  • Cancer Death Rates*, for Women, US,1930-2002 *Age-adjusted to the 2000 US standard population. Source: US Mortality Public Use Data Tapes 1960-2002, US Mortality Volumes 1930-1959, National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2005. Lung Colon & rectum Uterus Stomach Breast Ovary Pancreas Rate Per 100,000
  • Cancer Incidence Rates* for Women, 1975-2002 *Age-adjusted to the 2000 US standard population. Source: Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Program, 1975-2002, Division of Cancer Control and Population Sciences, National Cancer Institute, 2005. Colon and rectum Rate Per 100,000 Breast Lung Uterine Corpus Ovary Non-Hodgkin lymphoma
  • Cancer Incidence Rates*, All Sites Combined, All Races, 1975-2002 *Age-adjusted to the 2000 US standard population and adjusted for delay in reporting. Source: Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Program, 1973-2002, Division of Cancer Control and Population Sciences, National Cancer Institute, 2005. Both Sexes Men Women Rate Per 100,000
  • Cancer Incidence Rates* by Sex and Race, All Sites, 1975-2002 *Age-adjusted to the 2000 US standard population. Source: Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Program, 1975-2002, Division of Cancer Control and Population Sciences, National Cancer Institute, 2005. African-American men White men White women African-American women Rate Per 100,000
  • Cancer Death Rates*, by Race and Ethnicity, US,1998-2002 *Per 100,000, age-adjusted to the 2000 US standard population. † Hispanic is not mutually exclusive from whites, African Americans, Asian/Pacific Islanders, and American Indians/ Alaska Natives. Source: Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Program, 1975-2002, Division of Cancer Control and Population Sciences, National Cancer Institute, 2005.
  • Lifetime Probability of Developing Cancer, by Site, Men, 2000-2002* * For those free of cancer at beginning of age interval. Based on cancer cases diagnosed during 2000 to 2002. Source: DevCan: Probability of Developing or Dying of Cancer Software, Version 6.0 Statistical Research and Applications Branch, NCI, 2005. http://srab.cancer.gov/devcan Site Risk All sites † 1 in 2 Prostate 1 in 6 Lung and bronchus 1 in 13 Colon and rectum 1 in 17 Urinary bladder ‡ 1 in 28 Non-Hodgkin lymphoma 1 in 46 Melanoma 1 in 52 Kidney 1 in 64 Leukemia 1 in 67 Oral Cavity 1 in 73 Stomach 1 in 82 † All Sites exclude basal and squamous cell skin cancers and in situ cancers except urinary bladder . ‡ Includes invasive and in situ cancer cases
  • Lifetime Probability of Developing Cancer, by Site, Women, US, 2000-2002* Site Risk All sites † 1 in 3 Breast 1 in 8 Lung & bronchus 1 in 17 Colon & rectum 1 in 18 Uterine corpus 1 in 38 Non-Hodgkin lymphoma 1 in 55 Ovary 1 in 68 Melanoma 1 in 77 Pancreas 1 in 79 Urinary bladder ‡ 1 in 88 Uterine cervix 1 in 135 Source: DevCan: Probability of Developing or Dying of Cancer Software, Version 6.0 Statistical Research and Applications Branch, NCI, 2005. http://srab.cancer.gov/devcan * For those free of cancer at beginning of age interval. Based on cancer cases diagnosed during 2000 to 2002. † All Sites exclude basal and squamous cell skin cancers and in situ cancers except urinary bladder . ‡ Includes invasive and in situ cancer cases
  • Cancer Survival*(%) by Site and Race,1995-2001 All Sites 66 56 10 Breast (female) 90 76 14 Colon 65 55 10 Esophagus 16 10 6 Leukemia 49 38 11 Non-Hodgkin lymphoma 61 52 9 Oral cavity 62 40 22 Prostate 100 97 3 Rectum 65 56 9 Urinary bladder 83 64 19 Uterine cervix 75 66 9 Uterine corpus 86 62 24 *5-year relative survival rates based on cancer patients diagnosed from 1995 to 2001 and followed through 2002. Source: Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Program, 1975-2002, Division of Cancer Control and Population Sciences, National Cancer Institute, 2005. Site White % Difference African American
  • Five-year Relative Survival (%)* during Three Time Periods By Cancer Site
    • All sites 50 53 65
    • Breast (female) 75 78 88
    • Colon 50 58 64
    • Leukemia 34 41 48
    • Lung and bronchus 12 14 15
    • Melanoma 80 85 92
    • Non-Hodgkin lymphoma 47 54 60
    • Ovary 37 41 45
    • Pancreas 3 3 5
    • Prostate 67 75 100
    • Rectum 49 55 65
    • Urinary bladder 73 78 82
    *5-year relative survival rates based on follow up of patients through 2002. † Recent changes in classification of ovarian cancer have affected 1995-2001 survival rates. Source: Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Program, 1975-2002, Division of Cancer Control and Population Sciences, National Cancer Institute, 2005.       Site 1974-1976 1983-1985 1995-2001 †
  • Tobacco Use in the US, 1900-2002 *Age-adjusted to 2000 US standard population. Source: Death rates: US Mortality Public Use Tapes, 1960-2002, US Mortality Volumes, 1930-1959, National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2005. Cigarette consumption: US Department of Agriculture, 1900-2002. Per capita cigarette consumption Male lung cancer death rate Female lung cancer death rate
  • Trends in Cigarette Smoking Prevalence* (%), by Gender, Adults 18 and Older, US, 1965-2004 *Redesign of survey in 1997 may affect trends. Source: National Health Interview Survey, 1965-2004, National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2005. Men Women
  • Trends in Consumption of Five or More Recommended Vegetable and Fruit Servings for Cancer Prevention, Adults 18 and Older, US, 1994-2003 Note: Data from participating states and the District of Columbia were aggregated to represent the United States. Source: Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System CD-ROM (1984-1995, 1996, 1998) and Public Use Data Tape (2000, 2003), National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 1997, 1999, 2000, 2001, 2004.
  • Trends in Prevalence (%) of No Leisure-Time Physical Activity, by Educational Attainment, Adults 18 and Older, US, 1992-2004 Note: Data from participating states and the District of Columbia were aggregated to represent the United States. Educational attainment is for adults 25 and older. Source: Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System CD-ROM (1984-1995, 1996, 1998) and Public Use Data Tape (2000, 2002, 2004), National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 1997, 1999, 2000, 2001, 2003, 2005. Adults with less than a high school education All adults
  • Screening Guidelines for the Early Detection of Breast Cancer, American Cancer Society
    • Yearly mammograms are recommended starting at age 40.
    • A clinical breast exam should be part of a periodic health exam, about every three years for women in their 20s and 30s, and every year for women 40 and older.
    • Women should know how their breasts normally feel and report any breast changes promptly to their health care providers. Breast self-exam is an option for women starting in their 20s.
    • Women at increased risk (e.g., family history, genetic tendency, past breast cancer) should talk with their doctors about the benefits and limitations of starting mammography screening earlier, having additional tests (i.e., breast ultrasound and MRI), or having more frequent exams.
  • Mammogram Prevalence (%), by Educational Attainment and Health Insurance Status, Women 40 and Older, US, 1991-2004 *A mammogram within the past year. Note: Data from participating states and the District of Columbia were aggregated to represent the United States. Source: Behavior Risk Factor Surveillance System CD-ROM (1984-1995, 1996-1997, 1998, 1999) and Public Use Data Tape (2000, 2002, 2004), National Centers for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 1997, 1999, 2000, 2000, 2001, 2003, 2005. Women with less than a high school education Women with no health insurance All women 40 and older
  • Screening Guidelines for the Early Detection of Cervical Cancer, American Cancer Society
    • Screening should begin approximately three years after a women begins having vaginal intercourse, but no later than 21 years of age.
    • Screening should be done every year with regular Pap tests or every two years using liquid-based tests.
    • At or after age 30, women who have had three normal test results in a row may get screened every 2-3 years. However, doctors may suggest a woman get screened more frequently if she has certain risk factors, such as HIV infection or a weakened immune system.
    • Women 70 and older who have had three or more consecutive Pap tests in the last ten years may choose to stop cervical cancer screening.
    • Screening after a total hysterectomy (with removal of the cervix) is not necessary unless the surgery was done as a treatment for cervical cancer.
  • Trends in Recent* Pap Test Prevalence (%), by Educational Attainment and Health Insurance Status, Women 18 and Older, US, 1992-2004 * A Pap test within the past three years. Note: Data from participating states and the District of Columbia were aggregated to represent the United States. Educational attainment is for women 25 and older. Source: Behavior Risk Factor Surveillance System CD-ROM (1984-1995, 1996-1997, 1998, 1999) and Public Use Data Tape (2000, 2002, 2004), National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Center for Disease Control and Prevention, 1997, 1999, 2000, 2000, 2001, 2003, 2005. Women with no health insurance Women with less than a high school education All women 18 and older
  • Screening Guidelines for the Early Detection of Colorectal Cancer, American Cancer Society
    • Beginning at age 50, men and women should follow one of the following examination schedules:
    • A fecal occult blood test (FOBT) every year
    • A flexible sigmoidoscopy (FSIG) every five years
    • Annual fecal occult blood test and flexible sigmoidoscopy every five years*
    • A double-contrast barium enema every five years
    • A colonoscopy every ten years
    • *Combined testing is preferred over either annual FOBT or FSIG every 5 years alone.
    People who are at moderate or high risk for colorectal cancer should talk with a doctor about a different testing schedule
  • Trends in Recent* Fecal Occult Blood Test Prevalence (%), by Educational Attainment and Health Insurance Status, Adults 50 Years and Older, US, 1997-2004 *A fecal occult blood test within the past year. Note: Data from participating states and the District of Columbia were aggregated to represent the United States. Source: Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System CD-ROM (1996-1997, 1999) and Public Use Data Tape (2001, 2002, 2004), National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and Prevention, 1999, 2000, 2002, 2003, 2005.
  • Trends in Recent* Flexible Sigmoidoscopy or Colonoscopy Prevalence (%), by Educational Attainment and Health Insurance Status, Adults 50 Years and Older, US, 1997-2004 *A flexible sigmoidoscopy or colonoscopy within the past five years. Note: Data from participating states and the District of Columbia were aggregated to represent the United States. Source: Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System CD-ROM (1996-1997, 1999) and Public Use Data Tape (2001, 2002, 2004), National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and Prevention, 1999, 2000, 2002, 2003, 2005.
  • Screening Guidelines for the Early Detection of Prostate Cancer, American Cancer Society
    • The prostate-specific antigen (PSA) test and the digital rectal examination (DRE) should be offered annually, beginning at age 50, to men who have a life expectancy of at least 10 years.
    • Men at high risk (African-American men and men with a strong family history of one or more first-degree relatives diagnosed with prostate cancer at an early age) should begin testing at age 45.
    • For men at average risk and high risk, information should be provided about what is known and what is uncertain about the benefits and limitations of early detection and treatment of prostate cancer so that they can make an informed decision about testing.
  • Recent* Prostate-Specific Antigen (PSA) Test Prevalence (%), by Educational Attainment and Health Insurance Status, Men 50 Years and Older, US, 2001-2004 *A prostate-specific antigen (PSA) test within the past year. Note: Data from participating states and the District of Columbia were aggregated to represent the United States. Source: Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System Public Use Data Tape (2001, 2002, 2004), National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2002, 2003, 2005.
  • Recent* Digital Rectal Examination (DRE) Prevalence (%), by Educational Attainment and Health Insurance Status, Men 50 Years and Older, US, 2001-2004 *A digital rectal examination (DRE) within the past year. Note: Data from participating states and the District of Columbia were aggregated to represent the United States. Source: Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System Public Use Data Tape (2001, 2002, 2004), National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2002, 2003, 2005.
  • Sunburn* Prevalence (%) in the Past Year, Adults 18 and Older, US, 1999 *Reddening of any part of the skin (regardless of size) for more than 12 hours. Source: Saraiya et al. Am J Prev Med 2002;23(2). Note: The overall prevalence of sunburn among adult males is 39.7% and among females is 28.8%. Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System CD-ROM, 1999. National Center for Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2000.
  • Sunburn* Prevalence (%) During the Past Summer, Youth 11-18, US, 1998 *Any reddening of the skin that lasts for at least 12 hours from either exposure to the sun or from a tanning booth or sunlamp. Note: Prevalence estimates for racial/ethnic categories other than white may not be stable due to small sample sizes and have wide confidence intervals. Source: Davis et al. Pediatrics 2002;110(1).