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Church history intro fall 2012

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Fall 2013 updated Chruch History Class Intro-Bro. Maughan Logan LDS Institute of Religion adjacent to USU Campus

Fall 2013 updated Chruch History Class Intro-Bro. Maughan Logan LDS Institute of Religion adjacent to USU Campus

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  • With apostles and Bishops killed who held the keys?
  • 43,000 plus errors 500,000 textual deviations over 5,000 early “original manuscripts”
  • Fragment from Qumran the Book of Jubilee’s….Psuedopigraphic writting’s of Enoch 2000 year old fragment…
  • Emma also carried with her the manuscripts of Joseph's translation of the Bible carried in two cotton bags and tied under her long skirt which she received from Ann Scott. Ann had received the manuscripts from the Prophet's secretary James Mulholland (James giving the manuscripts to Ann in hopes the mobs wouldn't search her). 
  • Gutenberg's early printing process, and what tests he may have made with movable type , are not known in great detail. His later Bibles were printed six pages at a time, and would have required 100,000 pieces of type—making the type alone would take years. [12] Setting each page would take at least half a day, and considering all the work in loading the press, inking the type, hanging up the sheets, etc., it is thought that the Gutenberg–Fust shop might have employed about 25 craftsmen. Gutenberg's technique of making movable type remains unclear. In the following decades, punches and copper matrices became standardized in the rapidly disseminating printing presses across Europe. Whether Gutenberg used this sophisticated technique or a somewhat primitive version has been the subject of considerable debate. In the standard process of making type, a hard metal punch (with the letter carved back to front) is hammered into the soft metal copper, creating a mould or matrix . This is then placed into a holder, and cast by filling with hot type-metal, which cooled down to create a piece of type. The matrix can now be reused to create hundreds of identical letters, so that the same type appearing anywhere in the book will appear similar, giving rise to the growth of fonts . Subsequently, these letters are placed on a rack and inked; using a press, many hundred copies can be made. The letters can be reused in any combination, earning the process the name of 'movable type'.
  • Between 1450 and 1455, Gutenberg printed several texts, but details are not known; his texts did not bear the printer's name or date, so attribution is possible only through external references. Certainly several church documents including a papal letter and two indulgences were printed. Some printed editions of Ars Minor , a schoolbook on Latin grammar by Aelius Donatus may have been printed by Gutenberg; these have been dated either 1451–52 or 1455. In 1455 (possibly starting 1454), Gutenberg brought out copies of a beautifully executed folio Bible ( Biblia Sacra ), with 42 lines on each page. The pages of the books were not bound, and the date 1455 is documented on the spine by the binder for a copy bound in Paris. The Bible sold for 30 florins each, [9] which was roughly three years' wages for an average clerk. Nonetheless, it was significantly cheaper than a handwritten Bible that could take a single scribe over a year to prepare. After printing the text portions, each book was hand illustrated in the same elegant way as manuscript Bibles from the same period written by scribes. 48 substantially complete copies are known to exist, including two at the British Library that can be viewed and compared online. [10] The text lacks modern features such as pagination , indentations , and paragraph breaks . Another, 36-line edition of the Bible was also printed, some years after the first edition, and in large part set from a copy of it, thus disproving earlier speculation that this may have been the first Bible of the two. [11] There are countless rare books in the world, but by most expert's standards the rarest of them all is the Gutenberg Bible . It was the first book ever printed back in 1456, and although several hundred copies were originally printed finding a complete first edition would net you $25-$35 million. In today's market single pages alone go for $25,000 each, and several years ago just 1 volume (it's a 2 volume set) sold for $5.5 million.
  • Aquinas, the supreme theologian of Catholicism, was born near Naples in 1225 to a noble family, he was enrolled in the Benedictine monastery of Monte Cassino at the tender age of five, and at seventeen became a Dominican novice. Soon after this he was kidnapped and detained for nearly two years by his own brothers. At the instigation of his mother, they tried to turn him away from his vocation, and even tempted him with a woman. He drove her from his room with a brand snatched from the fire. After more than a year and a half of captivity, it became apparent that he would not relent, and he was released back to the Dominicans. After studies in Naples and Paris he was appointed as a master at the University of Paris in 1257. His period of writing was a brief sixteen years, but extraordinarily productive. On December 6 1273 , while celebrating mass in the chapel of St Nicholas in Naples, he had a heavenly revelation : From that day he wrote no more. He died shortly afterwards, on March 7, 1274, at the age of 49 .
  • The Luther Bible is a German Bible translation by Martin Luther , first printed with both testaments in 1534. This translation is considered to be largely responsible for the evolution of the modern German language . "The task of translating the Bible which he thus assumed was to absorb him until the end of his life." [1] While he was sequestered in the Wartburg Castle (1521–1522) Luther began to translate the New Testament into German in order to make it more accessible to all the people of the " Holy Roman Empire of the German nation." He used Erasmus 's second edition (1519) of the Greek New Testament— Erasmus 's Greek text would come to be known as the Textus Receptus . To help him in translating Luther would make forays into the nearby towns and markets to listen to people speak. He wanted to ensure their comprehension by a translation closest to their contemporary language usage. It was published in September 1522, six months after he had returned to Wittenberg. In the opinion of the 19th century theologian Philip Schaff The richest fruit of Luther's leisure in the Wartburg, and the most important and useful work of his whole life, is the translation of the New Testament, by which he brought the teaching and example of Christ and the Apostles to the mind and heart of the Germans in life-like reproduction. It was a republication of the gospel. He made the Bible the people's book in church, school, and house.
  • The Church forbade the publication of the scriptures, declaring both the writings and doctrines taught by Tyndale to be heretic. His reply was:
  • Marco Polo's travels may have had some impact on the development of European cartography, ultimately leading to the European voyages of exploration a century later. The 1453 Fra Mauro map is said by Giovanni Battista Ramusio to have been an improved copy of the one brought from Cathay by Marco Polo: "That fine illuminated world map on parchment, which can still be seen in a large cabinet alongside the choir of their monastery (The Calmoldese monastery of Santo Michele on Murano) was by one of the brothers of the monastery, who took great delight in the study of cosmography, diligently drawn and copied from a most beautiful and very old nautical map and a world map that had been brought from Cathay by the most honourable Messer Marco Polo and his father." Ramusio v.3. [14]
  • Although the Polos were by no means the first Europeans to reach China overland (see, for example, Giovanni da Pian del Carpine), thanks to Polo's book their trip was the first to be widely known, and the best-documented journey there of its time. Marco Polo's description of the Far East and its riches inspired Christopher Columbus' decision to try to reach those lands by a western route. A heavily annotated copy of Polo's book was among the belongings of Columbus. [12]
  • This is a Mariners compass from 1175 Compass as a Navigational Aid The first person recorded to have used the compass as a navigational aid was Zheng He (1371-1435), from the Yunnan province in China, who made seven ocean voyages between 1405 and 1433. A compass , magnetic compass or mariner's compass is a navigational instrument for determining direction relative to the Earth's magnetic poles. It consists of a magnetized pointer (usually marked on the North end) free to align itself with Earth's magnetic field. The compass greatly improved the safety and efficiency of travel, especially ocean travel. A compass can be used to calculate heading, used with a sextant to calculate latitude, and with a marine chronometer to calculate longitude. It thus provides a much improved navigational capability that has only been recently supplanted by modern devices such as the Global Positioning System (GPS). A compass is any magnetically sensitive device capable of indicating the direction of the magnetic north of a planet's magnetosphere. The face of the compass generally highlights the cardinal points of north, south, east and west. Often, compasses are built as a stand alone sealed instrument with a magnetized bar or needle turning freely upon a pivot, or moving in a fluid, thus able to point in a northerly and southerly direction. The compass was invented in ancient China sometime before the 2nd century, and was used for navigation …(much later). The dry compass was invented in medieval Europe around 1300. [1]
  • Marine chronometer Further information: Marine chronometer A traditional marine chronometer. In order to accurately measure longitude, the precise time of a sextant sighting (down to the second, if possible) must be recorded. Each second of error is equivalent to 15 seconds of longitude error, which at the equator is a position error of .29 mile, about the accuracy limit of manual celestial navigation. The spring-driven marine chronometer is a precision timepiece used aboard ship to provide accurate time for celestial observations. [10] A chronometer differs from a spring-driven watch principally in that it contains a variable lever device to maintain even pressure on the mainspring, and a special balance designed to compensate for temperature variations Until the mid 1750s, navigation at sea was an unsolved problem due to the difficulty in calculating longitudinal (east/west) position. Navigators could determine their latitude (north/south) position by measuring the sun's angle at noon (i.e., when it reached its highest point in the sky, or culmination). To find their longitude, however, they needed a portable time standard that would work aboard a ship. Observation of celestial, "clockwork" motions such as Galileo's method based on observing Jupiter's natural satellites was usually not possible aboard due to the ship's motion. Until the mid 1750s, navigation at sea was an unsolved problem due to the difficulty in calculating longitudinal (east/west) position. Navigators could determine their latitude (north/south) position by measuring the sun's angle at noon (i.e., when it reached its highest point in the sky, or culmination). To find their longitude, however, they needed a portable time standard that would work aboard a ship. Observation of celestial, "clockwork" motions such as Galileo's method based on observing Jupiter's natural satellites was usually not possible aboard due to the ship's motion. The Lunar Distance Method, initially proposed by Johannes Werner in 1514, was developed in parallel with the marine chronometer.
  • A sextant is an instrument generally used to measure the altitude of a celestial object above the horizon. Making this measurement is known as sighting the object, shooting the object, or taking a sight . The angle, and the time when it was measured, can be used to calculate a position line on a nautical or aeronautical chart. A common use of the sextant is to sight the sun at noon to find one's latitude. See celestial navigation for more discussion. Held horizontally, the sextant can be used to measure the angle between any two objects, such as between two lighthouses, which will, similarly, allow for calculation of a line of position on a chart. The scale of a sextant has a length of 1 ⁄ 6 of a full circle (60°); hence the sextant's name ( sextāns, -antis is the Latin word for "one sixth", "εξάντας" in Greek). An octant is a similar device with a shorter scale ( 1 ⁄ 8 of a circle, or 45°), whereas a quintant ( 1 ⁄ 5 , or 72°) and a quadrant ( 1 ⁄ 4 , or 90°) have longer scales. Sir Isaac Newton (1643-1727) invented the principle of the doubly reflecting navigation instrument (a reflecting quadrant - see Octant (instrument)), but never published it. Two men independently developed the octant around 1730: John Hadley (1682-1744), an English mathematician, and Thomas Godfrey (1704-1749), a glazier in Philadelphia. The octant and later the sextant, replaced the Davis quadrant as the main instrument for navigation.
  • Transcript

    • 1. Prelude to GloryPrelude to Glory Church History in the Fulness ofChurch History in the Fulness of TimesTimes Compiled by Bro Doug MaughanCompiled by Bro Doug Maughan Fall 2012Fall 2012
    • 2. What role will you, or have youWhat role will you, or have you played in Church History?played in Church History?
    • 3. LDS BranchLDS Branch Copan, Honduras July 2011Copan, Honduras July 2011
    • 4.  The fingerprints of God on the parchment of history, reveal a love story, fraught with enough faith, sacrifice and divine intervention, to ignite an everlasting flame of gratitude, and patriotism in the hearts of all who seek to understand the invisible hand of divine providence. (Douglas Maughan , CES Utah North Area Inservice June 26, 2002)
    • 5. Prelude to the Restoration (Douglas Maughan) Eph. 1:9-10; D&C 5:10; Dan. 2:44;Moses 7:58-62; 1 Ne. 13:10, 13, 15-16, 17, 18-20 1 Ne. 13:35-40; 1 Ne.14:25-26; D&C 107:56; Ether 3:25-26; Joel 2:28-29; Isa. 2:1-2; Isa. 29; Isa. 49:1; Dan 7 Ezekiel 37:15-17; Gen. 49:26
    • 6. 9 Having made known unto us the mystery of his will, according to his good pleasure which he hath purposed in himself: 10 That in the dispensation of the fulness of times he might gather together in one all things in Christ, both which are in heaven, and which are on earth; even in him: (New Testament | Ephesians 1:9 - 10)
    • 7. 10 But this generation shall have10 But this generation shall have my word through you;my word through you;  Doctrine andDoctrine and Covenants |SectionCovenants |Section 5:105:10
    • 8. Apostasy:Apostasy: What was lost?What was lost?  Apostolic AuthorityApostolic Authority  Priesthood KeysPriesthood Keys  Church OrganizationChurch Organization  Holy Scripture (Bible)Holy Scripture (Bible) The Result:The Result: RetrocessionRetrocession  EducationEducation  MedicineMedicine  Standard of LivingStandard of Living  RenaissanceRenaissance  Gutenberg PressGutenberg Press  ReformationReformation  AquinasAquinas  WycliffeWycliffe  TyndaleTyndale  LutherLuther
    • 9. 1 Nephi 13:1-3 1 Nephi 13:4-9 1 Nephi 13:10-12 1 Nephi 13:13-15 1 Nephi 13:16-19 1 Nephi 13:20-29 1 Nephi 13:30-42 Many Nations The Great and abominable Church Columbus Pilgrims early settlers American Revolution The Bible and Apostasy The Restoration and coming forth of latter-day scripture
    • 10.  Apostasy-What was lost?Apostasy-What was lost?  ChurchChurch  Priesthood KeysPriesthood Keys  Bible?Bible?  RetrocessionRetrocession  EducationEducation  MedicineMedicine  Standard of LivingStandard of Living  RenaissanceRenaissance  Gutenberg PressGutenberg Press  ReformationReformation  AquinasAquinas  WycliffeWycliffe  TyndaleTyndale  LutherLuther  Age of DiscoveryAge of Discovery  CompassCompass  Dead ReckoningDead Reckoning  QuadrantQuadrant  SextantSextant  ChronometerChronometer  Explorers Marco PoloExplorers Marco Polo  MagellanMagellan  ColumbusColumbus  Pilgrims Mayflower-WinthropPilgrims Mayflower-Winthrop  The Establishment of a Free Nation-The Establishment of a Free Nation-  The Tribe of Ephriam…The Tribe of Ephriam…  Declaration of IndependenceDeclaration of Independence  American RevolutionAmerican Revolution  The great Awakening of ReligionThe great Awakening of Religion The Industrial RevolutionThe Industrial Revolution The RestorationThe Restoration
    • 11. The Great and Abominable Church 1 Nephi 13:4-9 4 And it came to pass that I saw among the nations of the Gentiles the formation of a great church. 5 And the angel said unto me: Behold the formation of a church which is most abominable above all other churches, which slayethslayeth the saints of God, yea, and torturethtortureth them and bindeth them down, and yokethyoketh them with a yoke of ironyoke of iron, and bringeth them down into captivitybringeth them down into captivity.
    • 12. 1 Ne. 13:4-51 Ne. 13:4-5 1481-1808 340,0000 Tortured 32,000 Burned at the stake Nations captive to false doctrine and priestcrafts… The Hand of Providence E. Ward p.121
    • 13. Apostasy Prevailed Paul’s letters cried out for strength among the followers of Christ, lest They fall into the ways of the wicked one. Ignorance and evil enveloped the world, resulting in what is known as the Dark Ages. Isaiah had predicted: “Darkness shall cover the earth, and gross darkness the people” (Isa. 60:2). For centuries, disease wasFor centuries, disease was rampant and poverty reigned.rampant and poverty reigned.
    • 14. Apostasy Amos 8:11 2 Timothy 3:Heading – 1 Isa. 60:2 1 Ne. 13:4-9; 20-29
    • 15. Apostasy:Apostasy: What was lost?What was lost?  Lives ! Apostles and saints tortured and killedLives ! Apostles and saints tortured and killed  Apostolic AuthorityApostolic Authority  Priesthood KeysPriesthood Keys  Church OrganizationChurch Organization  Holy Scripture (Bible)Holy Scripture (Bible)  Ordinances and Covenants,Ordinances and Covenants,  Plain and Precious Doctrines lostPlain and Precious Doctrines lost The Result:The Result: RetrocessionRetrocession  EducationEducation  MedicineMedicine  Standard of LivingStandard of Living  RenaissanceRenaissance  Gutenberg PressGutenberg Press  ReformationReformation  AquinasAquinas  WycliffeWycliffe  TyndaleTyndale  LutherLuther
    • 16. Pope Adrian VI -1522 to the Diet of Nuremburg “At every level of church life…there were signs of grave disorganization and decay.”…every thing could be obtained for money…however hurtful it might be to the general welfare of the Church”. (Wide as the Waters, The Story of the English Bible and the Revolution it Inspired; Benson Bobrick. P.31)
    • 17. The Great and Abominable Church 1 Nephi 13:4-9 6 And it came to pass that I beheld this great and abominable church; and I saw the devil that he was the founder of itdevil that he was the founder of it. 7 And I also saw gold, and silver, and silks, and scarlets, and fine-twined linen, and all manner of precious clothing; and I saw many harlotsmany harlots.
    • 18. The Great and Abominable Church 1 Nephi 13:4-9 8 And the angel spake unto me, saying: Behold the gold, and the silver, and the silks, and the scarlets, and the fine-twined linen, and the precious clothing, and the harlots, are the desires of this great and abominable church. 9 And also for the praise of the world do they destroy the saints of God, and bring them down into captivity. (Book of Mormon | 1 Nephi 13:4 - 9)
    • 19. Francesco Petrarch (a devout Catholic) Described the Papal court as, “ a receptacle of all that is most wicked and abomnible. What I tell you is not from hearsay, but from my own knowledge and experience. In this city there is no piety, no reverance or fear of God, no faith, no charity, nothing that is holy, just, equitable, or humane.” (Wide as the Waters, The Story of the English Bible and the Revolution it Inspired; Benson Bobrick. P.34)
    • 20. Martyrdom of the ApostlesMartyrdom of the Apostles ((The Great Apostasy, James Talmage;The Great Apostasy, James Talmage; Foxe’sFoxe’s Book of Christian MartyrsBook of Christian Martyrs))  33 AD33 AD Judas committed suicideJudas committed suicide (Matt. 27:3-5)(Matt. 27:3-5)  54 AD54 AD Philip was scourgedPhilip was scourged thrown into prison and afterwards crucifiedthrown into prison and afterwards crucified at Heliopolis in Phyrgiaat Heliopolis in Phyrgia  60 AD60 AD Matthew was slain with a Halberd (battle Axe)Matthew was slain with a Halberd (battle Axe) at Nadabahat Nadabah EthiopiaEthiopia  ?? James the LessJames the Less was beat and stoned by the Jews and had hiswas beat and stoned by the Jews and had his brains dashed out with a fullers clubbrains dashed out with a fullers club  ?? MatthiasMatthias (chosen to replace Judas) was stoned at Jerusalem then(chosen to replace Judas) was stoned at Jerusalem then beheadedbeheaded  ?? AndrewAndrew (brother of Peter) was crucified at Edessa(brother of Peter) was crucified at Edessa  After 65 ADAfter 65 AD MarkMark was dragged to pieces I the streets of Alexandriawas dragged to pieces I the streets of Alexandria  64-65 AD64-65 AD Peter crucified upside downPeter crucified upside down in Romein Rome  Spring 65ADSpring 65AD Paul was beheaded at Rome by order of NeroPaul was beheaded at Rome by order of Nero  72 AD72 AD Thaddeus CrucifiedThaddeus Crucified (Brother of James) at Edessa(Brother of James) at Edessa  ?? Matthew was beaten and crucifiedMatthew was beaten and crucified by impatient idolaters ofby impatient idolaters of IndiaIndia  ?? ThomasThomas (called Didimus) preached in Parthia and India where(called Didimus) preached in Parthia and India where exciting the rage of pagan priests, he wasexciting the rage of pagan priests, he was thrust through with athrust through with a spear.spear.  ?? LukeLuke is supposed to have been hanged on an olive tree by theis supposed to have been hanged on an olive tree by the idolatrous Priests of Greece.idolatrous Priests of Greece.  74 AD74 AD Simon Zelotes was Crucified in BritainSimon Zelotes was Crucified in Britain  73 AD73 AD Barnabas (we no details)Barnabas (we no details)  Still AliveStill Alive John (see D&C 7)John (see D&C 7)
    • 21. The Church of Jesus ChristThe Church of Jesus Christ Death of the ApostlesDeath of the Apostles The ApostasyThe Apostasy
    • 22. John the BelovedJohn the Beloved  The Apostle John who wrote the Book of Revelation,The Apostle John who wrote the Book of Revelation, was sentenced by the Roman Emperor Domitian, towas sentenced by the Roman Emperor Domitian, to be scalded to death in a cauldron of boiling oil; …be scalded to death in a cauldron of boiling oil; … The cauldron of oil was heated to boilingThe cauldron of oil was heated to boiling heat, and the great apostle was submerged in theheat, and the great apostle was submerged in the scalding fluid, but through Divine interposition he wasscalding fluid, but through Divine interposition he was delivered like Daniel from the “lion’s den,” anddelivered like Daniel from the “lion’s den,” and Shadrach, Meshack and Abednego from the “fieryShadrach, Meshack and Abednego from the “fiery furnace,” by the power of that God, whom he servedfurnace,” by the power of that God, whom he served and obeyed; so that he suffered no harm and simplyand obeyed; so that he suffered no harm and simply looked like he had been anointed. The cruellooked like he had been anointed. The cruel Emperor was so enraged at this wonderfulEmperor was so enraged at this wonderful deliverance, that he instantly sentenced the doomeddeliverance, that he instantly sentenced the doomed Apostle to banishment on the Isle of Patmos.Apostle to banishment on the Isle of Patmos.  (Journal of Discourses, Vol. 20, pg. 205, Elder C.W.Stayner)(Journal of Discourses, Vol. 20, pg. 205, Elder C.W.Stayner)
    • 23. Apostasy led to ConfusionApostasy led to Confusion  In the absence of Apostles who shouldIn the absence of Apostles who should lead Christ’s Church?lead Christ’s Church?  Who can interpret doctrine?Who can interpret doctrine?
    • 24. Apostolic SuccesionApostolic Succesion  The Church traces itsThe Church traces its history tohistory to JesusJesus and theand the Twelve ApostlesTwelve Apostles, and, and sees thesees the bishopsbishops of theof the Church as the successorsChurch as the successors of the Apostles inof the Apostles in general, and the Pope asgeneral, and the Pope as the successor ofthe successor of Saint PeterSaint Peter, leader of the, leader of the ApostlesApostles
    • 25. The Bishop Divide over authority…The Bishop Divide over authority… Bishops are not Apostles!Bishops are not Apostles!  Bishop of ConstantinopleBishop of Constantinople  Bishop of Rome –Clement, Linus, Cletus,Bishop of Rome –Clement, Linus, Cletus, PeterPeter  (Modern Italy-Roman Catholic Church)(Modern Italy-Roman Catholic Church)  Bishop of AntiochBishop of Antioch  (Modern Turkey-Eastern Greek Catholic)(Modern Turkey-Eastern Greek Catholic)  Bishop of AlexandriaBishop of Alexandria  ( Modern Egypt-Africa Eastern Orthodox)( Modern Egypt-Africa Eastern Orthodox)
    • 26. John the last ApostleJohn the last Apostle  Eusebius recordedEusebius recorded that John the belovedthat John the beloved returned from Patmosreturned from Patmos and continued toand continued to govern the churches.govern the churches.  Historia EcclesiaticaHistoria Ecclesiatica 3.23.6, in PG 20:2573.23.6, in PG 20:257
    • 27. Without the Scriptures and Continuing RevelationWithout the Scriptures and Continuing Revelation Civilization went into a period of RetrocessionCivilization went into a period of Retrocession During this long period of confusion Christianity could only be taught from handwritten manuscripts, which had been translated and laboriously copied from other languages than those with which the translator was familiar. It is unreasonable to suppose that at a much later period these manuscripts could be collected together, again translated and written by hand into our own language without error, or deviation from the original. Anthony W. Ivins, Relationship of "Mormonism" and Freemasonry, p.64
    • 28. Error in scripture and Corrupt Control of truth and light
    • 29. The Wicked Bible, sometimes called The Adulterous Bible or The Sinners' Bible, is a term referring to the Bible published in 1631 by Robert Barker and Martin Lucas, the royal printers in London, which was meant to be a reprint of the King James Bible. The name is derived from the compositors' mistake: the word not in the sentence "Thou shalt not commit adultery" was omitted, thus changing the sentence into "Thou shalt commit adultery".
    • 30. Ecumenical CouncilsEcumenical Councils This chart lists the 21 ecumenical councils in the history of the Roman Catholic church. The Pope calls and presidesThis chart lists the 21 ecumenical councils in the history of the Roman Catholic church. The Pope calls and presides over these ecumenical councils, which gather Roman Catholic delegates from all over the world. Other Christianover these ecumenical councils, which gather Roman Catholic delegates from all over the world. Other Christian denominations hold similar ecumenical meetings, designed to address matters of worldwide ecclesiastical significance.denominations hold similar ecumenical meetings, designed to address matters of worldwide ecclesiastical significance.  Council of Nicaea ICouncil of Nicaea I 325325  Council of Constantinople ICouncil of Constantinople I 381381  Council of EphesusCouncil of Ephesus 431431  Council of ChalcedonCouncil of Chalcedon 451451  Council of Constantinople IICouncil of Constantinople II 553553  Council of Constantinople IIICouncil of Constantinople III 680-681680-681  Council of Nicaea IICouncil of Nicaea II 787787  Council of Constantinople IVCouncil of Constantinople IV 869-870869-870  Council of Lateran ICouncil of Lateran I 11231123  Council of Lateran IICouncil of Lateran II 11391139  Council of Lateran IIICouncil of Lateran III 11791179  Council of Lateran IVCouncil of Lateran IV 12151215  Council of Lyons ICouncil of Lyons I 12451245  Council of Lyons IICouncil of Lyons II 12741274  Council of VienneCouncil of Vienne 1311-13121311-1312
    • 31. Doctrines? Doctrines?Doctrines? Doctrines? Ecumenical CouncilsEcumenical Councils  Council of ConstanceCouncil of Constance 1414-14181414-1418  Council of Basel FerraraCouncil of Basel Ferrara 1431-14421431-1442 Council of Lateran VCouncil of Lateran V 1512-15171512-1517 Council of TrentCouncil of Trent 1545-15631545-1563 Vatican Council IVatican Council I 1869-18701869-1870 Vatican Council IIVatican Council II 1962-19651962-1965
    • 32. The Church of Jesus ChristThe Church of Jesus Christ Death of the ApostlesDeath of the Apostles The ApostasyThe Apostasy The Church ofThe Church of Jesus ChristJesus Christ of Latter Day Saintsof Latter Day Saints
    • 33. Apostasy Prevailed The Black Death killed some 50 million people during the 14th century. Was not this a season of terrible peril? I wonder how humanity survived. President Gordon B. Hinckley, The Dawning of a Brighter Day, Ensign (CR), May 2004, p.81
    • 34. 1 AND it came to pass that the angel spake unto me, saying: Look! And I looked and beheld many nations and kingdoms. 2 And the angel said unto me: What beholdest thou? And I said: I behold many nations and kingdoms. 3 And he said unto me: These are the nations and kingdoms of the Gentiles. (Book of Mormon | 1 Nephi 13:Heading - 3)
    • 35. Galileo In 1633 Galileo was formally interrogated for 18 days and on April 30 Galileo confesses that he may have made the Copernican case in the Dialogue too strong and offers to refute it in his next book. Unmoved, the Pope decides that Galileo should be imprisoned indefinitely. Soon after, with a formal threat of torture, Galileo is examined by the Inquisition and sentenced to prison and religious penances, the sentence is signed by 6 of the 10 inquisitors. In a formal ceremony at a the church of Santa Maria Sofia Minerva, Galileo abjures his errors. He is then put in house arrest in Sienna. After these tribulations he begins writing his Discourse on Two New Sciences. Galileo remained under house arrest, despite many medical problems and a deteriorating state of health, until his death in 1642. The Church finally accepted that Galileo might be right in 1983.
    • 36. Joan of Arc Inquisition The French patriot and martyr, Joan of Arc, was born the daughter of well-off peasants at Domrémy, a hamlet on the borders of Lorraine and Champagne, January 6. The English conquered the area in 1421 but their forces withdrew in 1424. Joan received no formal education but was endowed with an argumentative nature and shrewd common senses.
    • 37. Apostasy:Apostasy: What was lost?What was lost?  Apostolic AuthorityApostolic Authority  Priesthood KeysPriesthood Keys  Church OrganizationChurch Organization  Holy Scripture (Bible)Holy Scripture (Bible) The Result:The Result: RetrocessionRetrocession  EducationEducation  MedicineMedicine  Standard of LivingStandard of Living  RenaissanceRenaissance  Gutenberg PressGutenberg Press  ReformationReformation  AquinasAquinas  WycliffeWycliffe  TyndaleTyndale  LutherLuther
    • 38. Retrocession It is a well known historical fact that from about 400 to 800 A. D., a period known as the Dark Ages, a period during which the Roman Empire was crumbling, and finally fell to the invading armies of Northern Europe, there was a retrocession in the civilization of the Old World.
    • 39. RetrocessionRetrocession Schools became almost extinct, war was continuous, literature was forgotten, priceless records were wilfully destroyed, a chaotic condition pervaded the civilized world. Both the church and state were drunken with debauchery, licentiousness and unbridled ambition.
    • 40. The Bible… 24 And the angel of the Lord said unto me: Thou hast beheld that the book proceeded forth from the mouth of a Jew; and when it proceeded forth from the mouth of a Jew it contained the fulness of the gospel of the Lord, of whom the twelve apostles bear record; and they bear record according to the truth which is in the Lamb of God. 25 Wherefore, these things go forth from the Jews in purity unto the Gentiles, according to the truth which is in God.
    • 41. The Bible… 26 And after they go forth by the hand of the twelve apostles of the Lamb, from the Jews unto the Gentiles, thou seest the formation of that great and abominable church, which is most abominable above all other churches; for behold, they havefor behold, they have taken away from the gospel of the Lamb many partstaken away from the gospel of the Lamb many parts which are plain and most precious; and also manywhich are plain and most precious; and also many covenants of the Lord have they taken away.covenants of the Lord have they taken away. 27 And all this have they done that they might pervert the right ways of the Lord, that they might blind the eyes and harden the hearts of the children of men.
    • 42. The Bible… 28 Wherefore, thou seest that after the book hath gone forth through the hands of the great and abominable church, that there are many plain and precious things taken away from the book, which is the book of the Lamb of God. (Book of Mormon | 1 Nephi 13:24 - 28)
    • 43. "A Bible! A Bible! We have got a Bible, and there cannot be any more Bible." And then the Lord said, "... what thank they the Jews for the Bible?" (2 Ne. 29:3-4.)
    • 44. In the centuries that followed, God’s children had the Light of Christ, could pray, and could feel the influence of the Holy Ghost. But the fulness of the gospel had been lost.
    • 45. 11 ¶ Behold, the days come, saith the Lord GOD, that I will send a famine in the land, not a famine of bread, nor a thirst for water, but of hearing the words of the LORD: (Old Testament | Amos 8:11)
    • 46. 1 Nephi 13:22-29 Many Plain and Precious….
    • 47. Apostasy Specifics Plain and Precious Truths Dueteronomists- Anthropomorphic God Intimate personal Heavenly Father Names of the Father and the Son Nature of God Moses 1:39 Bible in ancient non common languages
    • 48. The oldest Old Testament manuscript Masoretic Text (MT, �, or ) …is the authoritative Hebrew text of the Jewish Bible regarded almost universally as the official version The Hebrew word mesorah (‫,מסורה‬ alt. ‫)מסורת‬ refers to the transmission of a tradition. In a very broad sense it can refer to the entire chain of Jewish tradition (see Oral law),
    • 49. but in reference to the Masoretic Text the word mesorah has a very specific meaning: the diacritic markings of the text of the Hebrew Bible and concise marginal notes in manuscripts (and later printings) of the Hebrew Bible which note textual details, usually about the precise spelling of words.
    • 50. The Masoretic Text (MT, �, or ) The oldest extant manuscripts of the Masoretic Text date from approximately the ninth century AD,[2] and the Aleppo Codex (once the oldest complete copy of the Masoretic Text, but now missing its Torah section) dates from the tenth century…
    • 51. The Oldest Old TestamentThe Oldest Old Testament Manuscript…SeptuagintManuscript…Septuagint The Septuagint (pronounced / s ptu .əd nt/ˈ ɛ ː ʒɪ ), 2] It was begun by the third century BC and completed before 132 BC.[3] It is the oldest of several ancient translations of the Hebrew Bible into Greek.
    • 52. Oldest New testament texts… Erasmus of Rotterdam had established a text from a handful of manuscripts dating from the later Middle Ages. Unfortunately he used only manuscripts of inferior quality for his edition of 1516
    • 53. Other older Books… Apocrypha…. Lost Books?... Psuedopigrapha… Canonized Scripture… Other Writtings to come…
    • 54. Nag Hammadi is best known for being the site where local farmers found a sealed earthenware jar containing thirteen leather-bound papyrus codices, together with pages torn from another book, in December 1945. The farmers burned one of the books and parts of a second (including its cover). Thus twelve of these books (one missing its cover) and the loose pages survive[1] . The writings in these codices, dating back to the 2nd century AD,[2] comprised 52 mostly Gnostic tractates (treatises)
    • 55. Though there are many documents that could be included among the gnostic gospels, the term most commonly refers to the following: Gospel of Mary (recovered in 1896)[23] Gospel of Thomas (versions found in Oxyrhynchus, Egypt in 1898, and again in the Nag Hammadi Library)[24] Gospel of Truth (Nag Hammadi Library) Gospel of Philip (Nag Hammadi Library) Gospel of Judas (recovered via the antiquities black market in 1983, and then reconstructed in 2006)
    • 56. The Dead Sea scrolls consist of about 900 documents, including texts from the Hebrew Bible, discovered between 1947 and 1956 in eleven caves in and around the Qumran Wadi near the ruins of the ancient settlement of Khirbet Qumran, on the northwest shore of the Dead Sea. The texts are of great religious and historical significance, as they include some of the only known surviving copies of Biblical documents made before 100 B.C.
    • 57. The Dead Sea Scrolls are traditionally divided into three groups: "Biblical" manuscripts (copies of texts from the Hebrew Bible), which comprise roughly 40% of the identified scrolls; "Apocryphal" or "Pseudepigraphical" manuscripts (known documents from the Second Temple Period like Enoch, Jubilees, Tobit, Sirach, non-canonical psalms, etc., that were not ultimately canonized in the Hebrew Bible), which comprise roughly 30% of the identified scrolls; and "Sectarian" manuscripts
    • 58. 10 But this generation shall have my word through you; D&C 5:10
    • 59. Protected Texts… 56 Thou shalt ask, and my scriptures shall be given as I have appointed, and they shall be preserved in safety; (Doctrine and Covenants | Section 42:56)
    • 60. There was no one left on earth with the power and authority to lead the Church or perform sacred ordinances such as baptism, conferral of the gift of the Holy Ghost, and the saving ordinances of the temple. Almost everyone was denied access to the scriptures, and most people were illiterate.
    • 61. A Restoration of Truth….Margaret barkerA Restoration of Truth….Margaret barker Old Testament ScholarOld Testament Scholar From widely scattered surviving fragments, it is possible to reconstruct the world view of the first Christians, and to restore to their original setting such key concepts as the Messiah, divine Sonship, covenant, atonement, resurrection, incarnation, the Second Coming and the Kingdom of God.
    • 62. Israel’s Second God… There were many in first-century Palestine who still retained a world-view derived from the more ancient religion of Israel [that of the First Temple] in which there was a High God and several Sons of God, one of whom was Yahweh, the Holy One of Israel. Yahweh, the Lord, could be manifested on earth in human form, as an angel or in the Davidic king. It was as a manifestation of Yahweh, the Son of God, that Jesus was acknowledged as Son of God, Messiah and Lord. Margaret Barker
    • 63. Making the scriptures available and helping God’s children learn to read them was the first step to the Restoration of the gospel. Originally the Bible was written in Hebrew and Greek, languages unknown to common people throughout Europe. Then, about 400about 400 years after the Savior’s death, the Bible wasyears after the Savior’s death, the Bible was translated by Jerome into Latin. But still thetranslated by Jerome into Latin. But still the scriptures were not widely available.scriptures were not widely available. Copies had to be written by hand, usually by monks, each taking years to complete.
    • 64. Apostasy Specifics Plain and Precious Truths Dueteronomists- Anthropomorphic God Intimate personal Heavenly Father Names of the Father and the Son Nature of God Moses 1:39 Bible in ancient non common languages
    • 65. From Birth of Plenty p. 33-34 "Bishops and cardinals amassed fabulous fortunes from the sale of tithes and indulgences. . . . John XXII, who wore the papal tiara from 1316 to 1334, exhibited a legendary appetite for gold cloth and fur. [that's right - cloth made of gold!] Noble families purchased appointments to the priesthood for small children, and twenty-year-old archbishops were not unknown. Of 624 papal dispensations of legitimacy granted in 1342-43, 484 went to the offspring of clergy. In parts of sixteenth-century England, the clergy were indicted for almost a quarter of all sex crimes, more than ten times their proportion of the population Standard of LivingStandard of Living During the dark ages…During the dark ages…
    • 66. "Beyond the city walls, lawlessness reigned absolute. . . Highwaymen plied their trade . . . with near impunity. Soldiers, when not engaged in Crusades, dynastic feuds, or papal ambitions, periodically swelled the ranks of highwaymen. Only walls provided a town with effective protection against its lawless environs. Since walls were expensive, town life crammed itself into as little space as possible. The streets, nothing more than narrow, open sewers, teemed with townspeople and disease; the first demographers documented death rates from infectious diseases that were twice as high inside the walls as they were outside. Standard of LivingStandard of Living During the Dark AgesDuring the Dark Ages
    • 67. "Most people lived in tiny villages and worked small adjacent fields. Not until 1500 did farmers clear the wolf-infested forests. Everyone, from toddlers to the aged, performed backbreaking field work, usually unaided by the plow. Until A.D. 900, it was the rare peasant who could afford to harness horses and oxen with collars for fieldwork. Standard of LivingStandard of Living During the Dark AgesDuring the Dark Ages
    • 68. "The squalor of medieval dwellings was unimaginable. According to the greatest of all Renaissance humanists, Erasmus of Rotterdam, 'Almost all the floors are of clay and rushes from the marshes, so carelessly renewed that the foundation sometimes remains for twenty years, harboring, there below, spittle and vomit and wine of dogs and men, beer . . . remnants of fishes, and other filth unnamable. Hence, with the change of weather, a vapor exhales which in my judgment is far from wholesome.' Standard of LivingStandard of Living During the Dark AgesDuring the Dark Ages
    • 69. "Families slept together in one foul bed, and chimneys were almost unknown. Soot covered the walls of all but the newest huts. Lack of proper exhaust resulted in house fires that brought roaring death to large numbers of villagers, particularly women, who, clad in highly flammable dresses, tended wood-fired pits and stoves. Standard of LivingStandard of Living During the Dark AgesDuring the Dark Ages
    • 70. "The past few paragraphs describe the circumstances of peasants who were relatively well-off. The less fortunate had little or no shelter at all. In the subsistence-level premodern society, famine and pestilence knocked constantly at the door. During times of extreme famine, cannibalism was not unknown; travelers were occasionally killed for their flesh, and there were even reports of gallows being attacked for sustenance. Standard of LivingStandard of Living During the Dark AgesDuring the Dark Ages
    • 71. "Pestilence regularly engulfed the continent. The most famous episode occurred in 1347 . . . Within a few decades it [bubonic plague] had killed nearly one in three Europeans. (William Berenstien, Birth of Plenty) Standard of LivingStandard of Living During the Dark AgesDuring the Dark Ages
    • 72. I rule …in the earth beneath and…Bring forth my word… 7 Know ye not that there are more nations than one? Know ye not that I, the Lord your God, have created all men, and that I remember those who are upon the isles of the sea; and that I rule in the heavens above and in the earth beneath; and I bring forth my word unto the children of men, yea, even upon all the nations of the earth? (Book of Mormon | 2 Nephi 29:7)
    • 73.  Apostasy-What was lost?Apostasy-What was lost?  ChurchChurch  Priesthood KeysPriesthood Keys  Bible?Bible?  RetrocessionRetrocession  EducationEducation  MedicineMedicine  Standard of LivingStandard of Living  RenaissanceRenaissance  Gutenberg PressGutenberg Press  ReformationReformation  AquinasAquinas  WycliffeWycliffe  TyndaleTyndale  LutherLuther  Age of DiscoveryAge of Discovery  CompassCompass  Dead ReckoningDead Reckoning  QuadrantQuadrant  SextantSextant  ChronometerChronometer  Explorers Marco PoloExplorers Marco Polo  MagellanMagellan  ColumbusColumbus  Pilgrims Mayflower-WinthropPilgrims Mayflower-Winthrop  The Establishment of a Free Nation-The Establishment of a Free Nation-  The Tribe of Ephriam…The Tribe of Ephriam…  Declaration of IndependenceDeclaration of Independence  American RevolutionAmerican Revolution  The great Awakening of ReligionThe great Awakening of Religion The Industrial RevolutionThe Industrial Revolution The RestorationThe Restoration
    • 74. 20 And he shall send Jesus Christ, which before was preached unto you: 21 Whom the heaven must receive until the times of restitution of all things, which God hath spoken by the mouth of all his holy prophets since the world began. (New Testament | Acts 3:20 - 21)
    • 75. I maintain that had there been no restoration of the gospel, and no organization of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter- day Saints, there would have been no radio; there would have been no airplane, and there would not have been the wonderul discoveries in medicine, chemistry, electricity, and the many other things wherein the world has been benefited by such discoveries.
    • 76. Under such conditions these blessings would have been withheld, for they belong to the Dispensation of the Fulness of Times of which the restoration of the gospel and the organization of the Church constitute the central point, from which radiates the Spirit of the Lord throughout the world.
    • 77. … Now let me say briefly that I do not believe for one moment that these discoveries have come by chance, or that they have come because of superior intelligence possessed by men today over those who lived in ages that are past. They have come and are coming because the time is ripe, because the Lord has willed it, and because he has poured out his Spirit on all flesh. Elder Joseph Fielding Smith (October 1926)
    • 78. Woven into the annals of history is the unmistakable hand of the Lord. The Apsotasy and Restoration were not a series of serendipitous acts. They were part of the master plan, pieces in a divine puzzle—carefully, meticulously, and lovingly laid out by the Master Designer. They were decreed in the premortal existance and forretold by prophets. These inspried events have become dostrinal pillars that help define our faith, fire our resolve and spur us on to more Godlike works. (Ted R. Callister, The Ineveitable Apostasy and the Promised Restoration)
    • 79. The age of Renaissance and Reformation The age of Renaissance brought with it a Flowering of learning, art, and science. There came a movement of bold and courageous men and women who looked heavenward in acknowledgment of God and His divine Son. We speak of it as the Reformation. President Gordon B. Hinckley, The Dawning of a Brighter Day, Ensign (CR), May 2004, p.81
    • 80. A candle was lighted. … somehow, in that long season of darkness, a candle was lighted. President Gordon B. Hinckley, The Dawning of a Brighter Day, Ensign (CR), May 2004, p.81
    • 81. 21 For the LORD shall rise up … that he may do his work, his strange work; and bring to pass his act, his strange act. (Old Testament | Isaiah 28:21)
    • 82. The age of Renaissance …brought with it a Flowering of learning, art, and science. There came a movement of bold and courageous men and women who looked heavenward in acknowledgment of God and His divine Son. We speak of it as the Reformation. President Gordon B. Hinckley, The Dawning of a Brighter Day, Ensign (CR), May 2004, p.81
    • 83. Robert D. Hales, “Preparations for the Restoration and the Second Coming: ‘My Hand Shall Be over Thee’,” Liahona, Nov 2005, 88–92 Then, through the influence of the Holy Ghost, an interest in learning began to grow in the hearts of people. This Renaissance or “rebirth”Renaissance or “rebirth” spread throughout Europe.spread throughout Europe. In the late 1300s, a priest named John Wycliffe initiated a translation of the Bible from Latin into English.
    • 84. Because English was then an emerging, unrefined language, church leaders deemed it unsuitable to convey God’s word. Some leaders were certain that if people could read and interpret the Bible for themselves, its doctrine would be corrupted; others feared that people with independent access to the scriptures would not need the church and would cease to support it financially. Robert D. Hales, “Preparations for the Restoration and the Second Coming: ‘My Hand Shall Be over Thee’,” Liahona, Nov 2005, 88–92
    • 85. Robert D. Hales, “Preparations for the Restoration and the Second Coming: ‘My Hand Shall Be over Thee’,” Liahona, Nov 2005, 88–92 Consequently, Wycliffe was denounced as a heretic and treated accordingly. After he died and was buried, his bones were dug up and burned. But God’s work could not be stopped.
    • 86. While some were inspired to translate the Bible, others were inspired to prepare the means to publish it. By 1455 Johannes Gutenberg had invented a press with movable type, and the Bible was one of the first books he printed. For the first time it was possible to print multiple copies of the scriptures and at a cost many could afford. Robert D. Hales, “Preparations for the Restoration and the Second Coming: ‘My Hand Shall Be over Thee’,” Liahona, Nov 2005, 88–92
    • 87. Moveable Type…
    • 88. Gutenberg Bible 1455
    • 89. The Common folk… Some paid whatever they could for the scriptures in English, “to taste the sweetness of God’s Holy Word…Some paid more, some paid less: some gave a load of hay for few chapters of St. Paul or St. James. Thousands (perhaps tens of Thousands) read of went into secret readings of them… ((Wide as the Waters, The Story of the English Bible and the Revolution it Inspired; Benson Bobrick. P.73)
    • 90. The Forbidden Book… The Bible was worth more than life itself to many of these ancient Christians, and so it is today to those who understand its true value. “The forbidden book was often read by night, and those who had not been themselves educated listened with eagerness to the reading of others; but to read it, and to hear it read, were alike forbidden.
    • 91. The Forbidden Book… Copies of the New Testament were also borrowed from hand to hand through a wide circle, and poor people gathered their pennies and formed copartneries for the purchase of the sacred volume. Those who could afford it gave five marks for the coveted manuscript (a very large amount of money in that day), and others in their penury gave gladly for a few leaves of St. Peter and St. Paul a load of hay. …
    • 92. The Forbidden Book… Some committed portions to memory, that they might recite them to relatives and friends. Thus Alice Colins was commonly sent for to the meetings, ‘to recite unto them the Ten Commandments and the Epistles of Peter and James.’ …(Eadie, History of the English Bible, I, pp. 91, 92, 93).
    • 93. Ballard, M. Russell, The Miracle of the Holy Bible , CR April 2007 William Tyndale gave his life because he believed so deeply in the power of the Bible. He said, "The nature of God's word is, that whosoever read it, or hear it reasoned and disputed before him, it will begin immediately to make him every day better and better, till he be grown into a perfect man" (in S. Michael Wilcox, Fire in the Bones: William Tyndale-Martyr, Father of the English Bible [2004], xv).
    • 94. Thomas Fuller… “To Lutterworth they come, Sumner, Commissarie, Official, Chancellour, Proctors, Doctors, and the Servants … take, what was left, out of the grave, and burnt them to ashes, and cast them into Swift a Neighbouring Brook running hard by. Thus this Brook hath conveyed his ashes into Avon; Avon into Severn; Severn into the narrow Seas; they, into the main Ocean. And thus the Ashes of Wickliff are the Emblem of his Doctrine, which now, is dispersed all the World over.”
    • 95. In 1382, a synod of Bishops met at Blackfriars in London to discuss Wycliffe’s literary achievements. It was theater and not very good theater at that. Their minds were made up before the meeting began. Wycliffe’s translation was declared heretical…
    • 96. Burning of Wycliffe To make sure the skull and bones were burned to ashes, the executioner broke them up with a mattock. At last the ashes were carefully swept into a barrow and taken to the little bridge and cast into the Swift, a tributary of the Avon. The vexation was deep. And old The Catholic Church understood exactly what Wycliffe’s presence meant, that there was something insidious and unstoppable about this trouble making little man. (David Teems, Majestie: The King behind the King James Bible, P.220-222)
    • 97. John Wycliffe The Council of Constance declared Wycliffe (on 4 May 1415) a stiff-necked heretic and under the ban of the Church. It was decreed that his books be burned and his remains be exhumed. The exhumation was carried out in 1428 when, at the command of Pope Martin V, his remains were dug up, burned, and the ashes cast into the River Swift, which flows through Lutterworth.
    • 98. John Wycliffe This is the most final of all posthumous attacks on John Wycliffe, but previous attempts had been made before the Council of Constance. The Anti-Wycliffite Statute of 1401 extended persecution to Wycliffe's remaining followers. The "Constitutions of Oxford" of 1408 aimed to reclaim authority in all ecclesiastical matters, specifically naming John Wycliffe in a ban on certain writings, and noting that translation of Scripture into English is a crime punishable by charges of heresy.
    • 99. So Much StrawSo Much Straw "I can do no more."I can do no more. Such things haveSuch things have been revealed to mebeen revealed to me that all that I havethat all that I have written seems to mewritten seems to me as so much straw."as so much straw."
    • 100. Martin LutherMartin Luther 1483-15461483-1546 Great German Reformer, posted 95 thesis on the door at Wittenberg; Wrote out spoke out against the Papacy for the sale of indulgences and the churches material preoccupations. He translated the New Testament form Greek into German so that the Bible might be read by the common people. Spoke against Holy Relics and worshipping saints. When Luther was ordered to give up his work, he boldly declared:
    • 101. Martin LutherMartin Luther 1483-15461483-1546 “Unless I be refuted by Scriptural testimonies, or by clear arguments—for I believe neither the Pope nor the councils alone, since it is clear that they have often erred and contradicted one another—I am convinced by the passages of Scripture, which I have cited, and my conscience is bound in the word of God. I cannot and will not recant anything; since it is insecure and dangerous to act against conscience.”
    • 102. Martin LutherMartin Luther 1483-15461483-1546 “Unless I be refuted by Scriptural testimonies, or by clear arguments—for I believe neither the Pope nor the councils alone, since it is clear that they have often erred and contradicted one another—I am convinced by the passages of Scripture, which I have cited, and my conscience is bound in the word of God. I cannot and will not recant anything; since it is insecure and dangerous to act against conscience.”
    • 103. Dieter F. Uchtdorf Ensign May 2008 In fact, my son recently discovered that one of our family lines connects back to Martin Luther himself.
    • 104. Joseph Saw them… The things the Prophet beheld in vision were many and varied. After reading a book on the Christian martyrs, he returned it to its owner with the comment, "I have, by the aid of the Urim and Thummim, seen those martyrs, and they were honest, devoted followers of Christ, according to the light they possessed, and they will be saved." Stevenson, op. cit., p. 46
    • 105. Joseph Saw them… By vision Joseph beheld that he and several of his associates descended through related blood lines that ran back through the aristocracy of Europe. (Hyrum L. Andrus, Joseph Smith, the Man and the Seer, p.110)
    • 106. He called the Epistle of James "an epistle of straw," finding little in it that pointed to Christ and His saving work. Martin Luther : The Book of James
    • 107. “Such were the teachings and lives of the great reformers. Their deeds were heroic, their contributions many, their sacrifices great —but they did not restore the gospel of Jesus Christ.” —President Thomas S. Monson, First Counselor in the First Presidency, “They Showed the Way,” Ensign, May 1997, 51.
    • 108. A Plowboy to know more than theA Plowboy to know more than the Pope…William TyndalePope…William Tyndale "I defy the Pope and all"I defy the Pope and all his laws, and declaredhis laws, and declared that if God would sparethat if God would spare his life he would makehis life he would make the plow-boy to knowthe plow-boy to know more of the scripturesmore of the scriptures than the Pope himselfthan the Pope himself knew.”knew.”
    • 109. William TyndaleWilliam Tyndale William Tyndale, who gave us the first printed English Bible, was brought before the church after having been betrayed by a supposed friend, strangled, and then burned at the stake. Such has been the fate of many martyrs who have dared declare the truth to a bigoted and unbelieving world.
    • 110. Anglican Church of England… Turbulent political times brought change. Because of a disagreement with the church in Rome, King Henry VIII declared himself the head of the church in England and required that copies of the English Bible be placed in every parish church. Hungry for the gospel, people flocked to these churches, reading the scriptures to one another until their voices gave out.
    • 111. A Candle… The Bible was also used as a primer to teach reading. Though martyrdoms continued across Europe, the dark night of ignorance was coming to an end. Declared one preacher before being burned, “We shall this day light such a candle, by God’s Grace, in England, as I trust shall never be put out.”
    • 112. The Hand of Divine Providence ApostasyApostasy RetrocessionRetrocession RenaissanceRenaissance ReformationReformation Age of DiscoveryAge of Discovery The Establishment of a Free Nation-Through the Tribe ofThe Establishment of a Free Nation-Through the Tribe of Ephriam…Ephriam… Declaration of IndependenceDeclaration of Independence American RevolutionAmerican Revolution The great Awakening of ReligionThe great Awakening of Religion The RestorationThe Restoration
    • 113. Marco Polo The Polos stayed in Kubilai's court for a year, answering his questions about the rulers of Europe and the Christian religion. Kubilai Khan became sufficiently intrigued by Christianity to dispatch them back to Europe with a request to the Pope for 100 doctors of divinity to teach him and his people about this strange religion. In addition the Khan, who was a great collector of religious relics of all kinds, asked them to bring back a sample of holy oil from Jerusalem. When the Polos arrived back in Europe they found that Pope Gregory had died and the religious situation was in a disarray.
    • 114. Handwritten notes by Christopher Columbus on the latin edition of Marco Polo's Le livre des merveilles.
    • 115. Finally after numerous arrangements for acquiring religious instructors fell through, the brothers concluded they had no choice but to return to Cathay and explain their failure to the Khan. However, according to researcher Richard Humble, they were able to obtain the holy oil he had requested, a feat which much impressed the Khan and deepened his trust in them (Marco Polo 111). Marco Polo
    • 116. When was the Chronometer invented?...what does it do?
    • 117. The Light Grew Brighter… By God’s grace, the light grew brighter. Aware of the divisions within his own country, English King James I agreed to a new official version of the Bible. It has been estimated that over 80 percent of William Tyndale’s translations of the New Testament and a good portion of the Old Testament (the Pentateuch, or Genesis through Deuteronomy, and Joshua through Chronicles) were retained in the King James Version.
    • 118. The Light Grew Brighter… In time, that version would find its way to a new land and be read by a 14-year-old plowboy named Joseph Smith. Is it any wonder that the King James Version is the approved English Bible of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter- day Saints today?
    • 119. The Light Grew Brighter… Religious persecution in England continued under James’s son Charles, and many were prompted to seek freedom in new lands. Among them were the Pilgrims, who landed in the Americas in 1620, the very part of the world Columbus had explored over 100 years earlier.
    • 120. When was the Sextant invented?
    • 121. Columbus was inspired: (1 Nephi 13; Ether 2:12;2 Ne.1:6) And I looked an beheld a man among the Gentiles, who was separated from the seed of my brethren by the many waters; and I beheld that the spirit of God came downthe spirit of God came down and wrought upon the manand wrought upon the man; and he went forth upon the many waters, even unto the seed of my brethren, who were in the promised land. (See 1 Nephi 13:12)
    • 122. Gen. 49:1 The Book of Prophecies is a compilation of apocalyptical religious revelations written by Christopher Columbus in the 15th and 16th centuries C.E. This journal of sorts conveys the medieval notion that… 1. Christianity must be spread throughout the world 2. The Garden of Eden must be found - It was the common belief in the Middle Ages that the biblical Garden of Eden must have been on the top of a crag or mountaintop so that it would not have been affected by the first destruction of the world by flood. Upon arriving in Venezuela in 1498, Columbus must have surely thought that the verdant crags of Venezuela bore the garden of the Old Testament of the Bible. Columbus and Biblical Prophecy?
    • 123. The Age of Discovery The Promised land and a covenant Lineage (Gen. 12:3; Abr. 2:8-11) Role of Ephraim: Gen. 49:26, Isa. 2:1 Columbus: Isa. 49:1 Magellan Mayflower: Isa. 29:13-14
    • 124. Brought to a land of Liberty 6 Wherefore, I, Lehi, prophesy according to the workings of the Spirit which is in me, that there shall none come into this land save theythere shall none come into this land save they shall be brought by the hand of the Lord .shall be brought by the hand of the Lord . 7 Wherefore, this land is consecrated unto himthis land is consecrated unto him whom he shall bring. And if it so be that theywhom he shall bring. And if it so be that they shall serve him according to theshall serve him according to the commandments which he has given, it shall becommandments which he has given, it shall be a land of liberty unto them; therefore they shalla land of liberty unto them; therefore they shall never be brought down into captivitynever be brought down into captivity; if so it shall be because of iniquity; for if iniquity shall abound cursed shall be the land for their sakes, but unto the righteous it shall be blessed forever.(see 2 Nephi 1:6-7)
    • 125. How has God used the Blood of Ephraim? . . .and the remnants of the seed of Ephraim who were scattered from Palestine and who colonized the shores of the Caspian Sea and thence made their way into the north of Europe, western Scandinavia and northern Germany, penetrating Scotland and England, and conquering those nations and reigning as monarchs of Great Britain, and mingling their seed with the Anglo Saxon‑ race, and spreading over the waters a fruitful vine, as predicted by Jacob, whose branches should run over the wall. Their blood has permeated European society, and it coursed in the veins of the early colonists of America.
    • 126. And when the books shall be opened and the lineage of all men is known, it will be found that they have been first and foremost in everything noble among men in the various nations in breaking off the shackles of kingcraft and priestcraft and oppression of every kind, and the foremost among men in upholding and maintaining the principles of liberty and freedom upon this continent and establishing a representative government, and thus preparing the way for the coming forth forth of the fullness of the everlasting Gospel. Ephraim?
    • 127. … these are they that will be found in the front ranks of all that is noble and good in their day and time, and who will be found among those whose efforts are directed in establishing upon the earth those heaven born principles which tend‑ directly to blessing and salvation, to ameliorating the condition of their fellow men, and elevating them in the scale‑ of their being; and among those also who receive the fullness of the Everlasting Gospel, and the keys of Priesthood in the last days, through whom God determined to gather up again unto himself a peculiar people, a holy nation, a pure seed that shall stand upon Mount Zion as saviors, not only to the house of Israel but also to the house of Esau.. ( Erastus Snow J.D. 23:186-7) God had His Eye on Ephraim
    • 128. Columbus was inspired: (1 Nephi 13; Ether 2:12;2 Ne.1:6) And I looked an beheld a man among the Gentiles, who was separated from the seed of my brethren by the many waters; and I beheld that the spirit of God came downthe spirit of God came down and wrought upon the manand wrought upon the man; and he went forth upon the many waters, even unto the seed of my brethren, who were in the promised land. (See 1 Nephi 13:12)
    • 129. From my first youth onward, I was a seaman and have so continued until this day . . . Wherever on the earth a ship has been, I have been. I have spoken and treated with learned men, priests, and laymen. Latin’s and Greeks, Jews and Moors, and with many men of other faiths. The Lord was wellThe Lord was well disposed to my desire, and he bestowed upon medisposed to my desire, and he bestowed upon me courage and understanding. Knowledge of seafaring He gave me in abundance, of astrology as much as was needed, and of geometry and astronomy likewise. Columbus’s Journal
    • 130. Further, He gave me joy and cunning in drawing maps and thereon cities, mountains, rivers islands, and harbors each one in its place. I have seen and truly studied all books--cosmographies, histories, chronicles, and philosophies, and other arts, for which the Lord unlocked my mind, sent me upon the sea,Lord unlocked my mind, sent me upon the sea, and gave me fire for the deed.and gave me fire for the deed. Those who heard of my enterprise called it foolish, mocked me and laughed. But who can doubt but that the Holy Ghost inspiredBut who can doubt but that the Holy Ghost inspired meme? (Boston: Little, Brown, and Co., 1930, pp.19-20)
    • 131. Columbus Spencer W. Kimball In 1950, Elder Spencer W. Kimball testified that God "inspired a little boy, Christopher Columbus, to stand on the quays in Genoa, Italy, and yearn for the sea. He was filled with the desire to sail the seas, and he fulfilled a great prophecy made long, long ago that this land, chosen above all other lands, should be discovered. And so when he was mature, opportunity was granted to him to brave the unknown seas, to find this land . . . and to open the door, as it were" (Kimball 427).
    • 132. The Hand of Divine ProvidenceThe Hand of Divine Providence ApostasyApostasy RetrocessionRetrocession RenaissanceRenaissance ReformationReformation Age of DiscoveryAge of Discovery The Establishment of a Free NationThe Establishment of a Free Nation Through the Tribe of Ephriam…Through the Tribe of Ephriam… Declaration of IndependenceDeclaration of Independence American RevolutionAmerican Revolution The Great Religious AwakeningThe Great Religious Awakening The RestorationThe Restoration
    • 133. Nephi saw in Vision: The Lords hand in leading the Pilgrims to the land of Promise 13. And it came to pass that I beheld the spirit of the God, that it wrought upon other gentiles; and they went forth out of captivity, upon the many waters... 15. And I beheld the spirit of the Lord, that it was upon the Gentiles, and they did prosper and obtain the Land for their inheritance...( 1 Nephi 13:13, 15)
    • 134. Mayflower Families: The Lord was writing the story of the restoration and the birth of this nation long before the ink was dry on the parchment of the Mayflower compact. Hidden among those signatures were men and women whose foreordained descendant’s would fulfill the prophecies of the ancients, revolutionize religious and political thought, and change the course of history forever. God had his eyes upon these families from before the foundations of the earth.
    • 135. Brigham Young explained: It was decreed in the councils of eternity long before the foundations of the earth were laid, that he, Joseph Smith, should be the man in the last dispensation of the world, to bring forth the word of God to the people, and receive the fulness of the keys and powers of the priesthood of the son of God. The Lord had His eyes upon him, and upon his father, and upon his fathers father, and upon his progenitors clear back to Abraham, and from Abraham to the flood, and from the flood to Enoch, and from Enoch to Adam. He has watched that family and that blood as it has circulated from its fountain to the birth of that man. (JD 7:289-90)
    • 136. Plymouth: The Mayflower
    • 137. John Howland During their Atlantic voyage John, fifth great grandfather of the Prophet Joseph, narrowly escaped drowning at sea. During a violent storm, the Mayflower was pitching and rolling with the waves, young John was walking above the gratings on deck, his youthful body was hurled into the briny sea. “But it pleased God wrote the ‘Pilgrim Chronicler’, “that he caught hold of the top sail Halliards which hung overboard”. Holding with a vice like grip to the rope, he was plunged into the water.
    • 138. In the fury of the storm he hung on until some of his friends managed to rescue him by pulling him back into the boat. For days he suffered after this harrowing experience. The ship finally arrive in Cape Cod on a Saturday. However the did not disembark until Monday so they could worship God on Sunday. Him whom they had come to trust and serve. As a youth John Howland was a servant of John Carver first governor of Plymouth colony. John Howland died at Plymouth in February 1673, in his words he described why he had come to America: “to keep a good conscience, and to walk in such a way as God has prescribed in His words is the thing to which I prefer to life itself.(Walter C. Erdman, Sources of Power in Famous lives, (Nashville Cokesbury Press, 1937))
    • 139. Stephen Hopkins One of Gordon B. Hinckley’s ancestors Stephen Hopkins sailed on the Mayflower in 1620, he was the forth signature on the Mayflower compact. (Note:Thomas Hinckley progenitor of President Hinckley became governor of Plymouth colony) Seven of Joseph Smiths progenitors sailed with the Pilgrims on the Mayflower; three of the seven signed the Mayflower Compact which contained the words “in the Name of God”. This would prove the beginning of American Religious Democracy. The Saints had arrived at the Peninsula of Living Waters.
    • 140. The Hinckley’s The first Hinckley to arrive in America was Samuel Hinckley, in 1635, fifteen years after the Mayflowers landing at Plymouth bay. Samuel’s son Thomas would become the Governor of the Plymouth Colony from 1681-1692. He was considered “a man of more than ordinary ability and influence”(see Governors of New Plymouth, p.202)
    • 141. Roger Williams and New Apostles Dear Elder Holland, thank you for the testimony you bore in this conference of the Savior and His love. Forty-one years ago I prayed earnestly to the Lord and told Him I wished I had lived on earth when the Apostles walked upon it, when there had been a true Church, and when Christ’s voice was still heard. Within a year of that prayer Heavenly Father sent two LDS missionaries to me, and I found that all those hopes could be realized. Perhaps some hour when you are tired or troubled, this note will help you remember why hearing your voice and shaking your hand is so important to me and to millions just like me. Your sister in love and gratitude, Gloria Clements.”
    • 142. Roger Williams and New Apostles Well, Sister Clements, your very tender note recalled for me a similar hope and almost the same language once used in my own family. In the tumultuous years of the first settlements in this nation, Roger Williams, my volatile and determined 10th great-grandfather, fled—not entirely of his own volition—from the Massachusetts Bay Colony and settled in what is now the state of Rhode Island. He called his headquarters Providence, the very name itself revealing his lifelong quest for divine interventions and heavenly manifestations. But he never found what he felt was the true New Testament church of earlier times. Of this disappointed seeker the legendary Cotton Mather said, “Mr. Williams [finally] told [his followers] ‘that being himself misled, he had [misled them,’ and] he was now satisfied that there was none upon earth that could administer baptism [or any of the ordinances of the gospel], … [so] he advised them therefore to forego all … and wait for the coming of new apostles.” 8 Roger Williams did not live to see those longed-for new Apostles raised up, but in a future time I hope to be able to tell him personally that his posterity did live to see such
    • 143. Cotton Mather said, “ Mr. Williams finally told his followers ‘that being misled himself, he had misled them, and he was now satisfied that there was none upon the earth that could administer baptism or any other ordinance of the gospel…so he advised them therefore to forego all… and wait for the coming of new apostles. ”Roger Williams did not live to see those longed for new Apostles raised up.
    • 144. … these are they that will be found in the front ranks of all that is noble and good in their day and time, and who will be found among those whose efforts are directed in establishing upon the earth those heaven born principles which tend‑ directly to blessing and salvation, to ameliorating the condition of their fellow men, and elevating them in the scale‑ of their being; and among those also who receive the fullness of the Everlasting Gospel, and the keys of Priesthood in the last days, through whom God determined to gather up again unto himself a peculiar people, a holy nation, a pure seed that shall stand upon Mount Zion as saviors, not only to the house of Israel but also to the house of Esau.. ( Erastus Snow J.D. 23:186-7) God had His Eye on Ephraim
    • 145. John Lathrup or Lothropp Reverend Lathrup was a minister in the town of Egerton in the early 17th century. When he could no longer assent to what was taught by the church of England he became the leader to a large group of “Seekers”. So called because they were seeking for the a religion which taught the faith of the ancients with apostles, prophets the Holy Ghost and a fulness of the truths found in the scriptures.
    • 146. The seekers who followed Lathrup were called Independents. For eight years they met in London until the persecution got so bad they could no longer meet publicly. When the hiding place of the Independents was discovered by the Bishop of London. During the beginning of the evening service of rev. Lathrup the officers of the state church of London rushed in and arrested Rev. Lathrup and 42 members of the Independent faith. They were fettered and taken to the old Clink Prison in Newgate. Two years later all were released except Rev. Lathrup.
    • 147. While he languished in the filthy old prison his wife succumbed to a terminal sickness. He was allowed to see her before her death and provide tender comfort as she passed away. After his wife’s internment he returned to the loathsome confinement of the Clink Prison. His children were now left without a father or mother, orphaned, wretched and starving, and uncared for by the community, perhaps because of the threat of state reprisal...
    • 148. When their destitute circumstances were made known to the Bishop of London, he had sympathy on John and released him. Rev. Lathrup fled with his children to America where he could worship God according to the dictates of his own conscience. In New England he became widely known as the “Beloved Pastor”. (Archibald F. Bennett, Lathrup genealogy, The Utah Genealogical and Historical Magazine, Salt Lake City Utah: The Utah genealogical Society. April 1929 p. 49-51)
    • 149. Rev. JOHN LATHROP 1584 - 1653 (md. Hannah House) Jane Lathrop (md. Samuel Fuller, son of Edward of the Mayflower) Thomas Lathrop Mary Fuller John Fuller Ann Lathrop Mary Lathrop John Williams John Fuller Shubael Fuller Hannah Hough Hannah French Joseph Williams William Fuller Lydia Fuller Christopher Pratt Hannah Child Wm. W. Williams Rebecca Fuller Lydia Gates Obadiah Pratt Jonathan Fay Frederick G. WILLIAMS Oliver COWDERY Lucy Mack Jared Pratt Jonathan Fay, Jr. Hyrum and Joseph SMITH Anson, Wm. D., Parley P. Orson & Nelson PRATT Samuel Prescott Philips Fay Pres. Joseph F. SMITH Helaman Pratt Samuel Howard Fay Pres. Joseph Fielding SMITH Anne Amelia Pratt Harriet Eleanor Fay George ROMNEY Samuel Prescott Bush Prescott Sheldon Bush George Herbert Walker BUSH George W. BUSH 49th Pres
    • 150. Rev. JOHN LATHROP 1584 - 1653 (md. Hannah House) Samuel Lathrop (md. Elizabeth Scudder) Joseph Lathrop Martha Lathrop John Lathrop Joseph Lathrop Abigale Lathrop Samuel Lathrop Elizabeth Lathrop Thomas Lathrop John Moss Ruth Lathrop Hannah Lathrop Temperance Lathrop Martha Huntington Hannah Lathrop Martha Royce Elizabeth Lathrop Joseph Moss Ruth Post Samuel Thompson Temperance Bishop Noah Grant Hannah Perkins Sarah North Elizabeth Bartlett Amos Morse Jeremiah Bingham Lot Thompson Rev. Ariel Holmes Noah Grant Lydia Huntington Joseph Woodford Zilpah Wadsworth Wm Amos Morse Jeremiah Bingham Beulah Thompson Oliver Wendell HOLMES Poet Jesse R. Grant Lydia Bill Dinah Woodford Henry Wadsworth LONGFELLOW (poet) Teressa Morse Lucius A. Bingham Wilford WOODRUFF Oliver Wendell HOLMES Supreme Court Justice Ulysses S. GRANT 18th Pres Susan Howland Aphek Woodruff Serial L. Chamberlain Levi Perry Bingham Mary Rebecca Aspinwall Wilford WOODRUFF Teressa A. Redd Perry C. Bingham James Roosevelt Marion G. ROMNEY Louisa E. Bingham Franklin Delano ROOSEVELT 32nd Pres. Pres. Harold B. LEE
    • 151. Selected Descendants of John Lothropp  Samuel Huntington Signer of Declaration  of Independence George Bush & Son Ulysses S. Grant Franklin D. Roosevelt US Presidents Frederick Augustus Porter  Barnard(Columbia) Kingman Brewster, Jr. (Yale) Daniel Coit Gilman (University  of California and John  Hopkins) John Hiram Lathrop (First and  Fifth President of the  University of Missouri;  President of Wisconsin and  Indiana) Charles Seymour (Yale) Amasa Leland Stanford  (Founder of Stanford) University Presidents 
    • 152. OTHER PROMINENT PEOPLE: Louis Staunton Auchincloss (novelist) Robert Bacon (Secretary of State) Terrel Bell (U.S. Secretary of Education) Sir Robert Laird Borden (Prime Minister of Canada) Harold Hart Crane (essayist) Charlotte Saunders Cushman (actress) Thomas E. Dewey (twice presidential candidate) Allen Dulles (director of the C.I.A.) John Foster Dulles (Secretary of State) Alfred Carl Fuller (founder, Fuller Brush Company) Melville Weston Fuller (Chief Justice, U.S. Supreme Court) Franklin Henry Giddings (sociologist) Oliver Wendell Holmes (U.S. Supreme Court Justice) Charles Edward Ives (composer) Donald Lines Jacobus (genealogist) George Frost Kennan (diplomat, Soviet affairs expert) Barnabas Lothrop (Assistant Governor to Governor Thomas Hinckley of the Plymouth  Colony) Eli Whitney (inventor of the cotton gin)
    • 153. The Hand of Divine Providence ApostasyApostasy RetrocessionRetrocession RenaissanceRenaissance ReformationReformation Age of DiscoveryAge of Discovery The Establishment of a Free Nation-Through the Tribe ofThe Establishment of a Free Nation-Through the Tribe of Ephriam…Ephriam… Declaration of IndependenceDeclaration of Independence American RevolutionAmerican Revolution The great Awakening of ReligionThe great Awakening of Religion The RestorationThe Restoration
    • 154. In That little Hall in Philadelphia: Thomas Jefferson tells that on the day of our  nations birth in the little hall in Philadelphia,  debate had raged for hours. The men gathered  there were honorable men hard pressed by a king  who had flouted the very laws they were willing to  obey. Even so to sign a declaration of  independence was such an irretrievable act that the  walls resounded with the words “treason, the  gallows the  headman’s axe” and the issue  remained in doubt. Then a man rose and spoke.  Jefferson described him as not a young man but  one who had to summon all his energy for an  impassioned plea. 
    • 155.      He cited the grievances that had  brought them to this moment and  finally his voice failing, he said they  may turn every tree into a gallows,  every home into a grave, and yet the  words of that parchment can never  die. To the mechanic in the  workshop they speak hope; To the  slave in the mines, freedom. Sign  that parchment if the next moment  the noose is around your neck. For  that parchment will be the textbook  of freedom, the bible of the rights of  man forever.” He fell back  exhausted, 
    • 156. Who was He? the 56 delegates swept up by his eloquence,  rushed forward and signed a document destined to  be as immortal as a work of man can be. When  they turned to thank him for his timely oratory, he  was not to be found, not could any one be found  who knew who he was or how he had come in or  gone out through the locked and guarded doors.  Fifty six men, a little band so unique, we have  never seen their like since, had pledged their lives,  their fortunes and their sacred honor.” (Ronald Reagan  -Seattle Wash., Oct. 12, 1968)
    • 157. Common Sense was first published anonymously by Thomas Paine It is regarded as the most  influential piece of literature  leading to the American  Revolution. Paine wrote that :  ““We have it in our power toWe have it in our power to Begin the world overBegin the world over again.”again.”  
    • 158. Thomas Jefferson Thomas Jefferson wrote a  Letter to a friend about the  need for restoration…. “I  hope that the genuine and  simple religion of Jesus  Christ may be restored, for  it hath become so muffled  up in mysteries that it is  concealed from the vulgar  eyes. (Ivan J. Barrett,  Joseph Smith and the Restoration ,p.5)
    • 159. John Adams D&C 101:78-80 [I]t is religion and morality alone which can  establish the principles upon which freedom  can securely stand. The only foundation of a  free constitution is pure virtue. (Source: John Adams, The Works of John Adams, Second President of the United States,  Charles Francis Adams, editor (Boston: Little,  Brown, 1854), Vol. IX, p. 401, to Zabdiel  Adams on June 21, 1776.) 
    • 160. [W]e have no government armed with power  capable of contending with human passions  unbridled by morality and religion. . . . Our  constitution was made only for a moral and  religious people. It is wholly inadequate to the  government of any other. (Source: John Adams, The Works of John Adams, Second President of the United States,  Charles Francis Adams, editor (Boston: Little,  Brown, and Co. 1854), Vol. IX, p. 229,  October 11, 1798.) 
    • 161. John Hancock .   John Hancock who  pledged  his life his  fortune and his sacred  honor would associate  with the Smith’s of  Topsfield. Latter his  relative Levi Hancock   would become a member  of the first quorum  70's in  this dispensation.  Levi as a missionary  defended religious freedom  in the name of his ancestor  John Hancock to further the  work of the Lord,  spellbinding an angry  mob,  who many of which would  latter join the cause of  Christ.                              John 
    • 162. Revolutionary War:    16 And it came to pass that I, Nephi, beheld that  the Gentiles who had gone forth out of captivity  did humble themselves before the Lord; and the power of the Lord was with them. 17 And I beheld that their mother Gentiles were gathered together upon the many waters,  and upon the land also, to battle against them. 18 And I beheld that the power of God was with them, and also that the wrath of God was  upon all those who had gathered against them to  battle. 19 And I, Nephi, beheld that the Gentiles that had gone out of captivity were delivered by the power of God out of the hands of all other nations.(see 1 Nephi 13:16-19)
    • 163. Peter Francisco No one knows for sure where Peter Francisco  came from. It is thought that he may have been  kidnapped from the island of Terceira, in the  Azores, by Portuguese sailors who hoped to  sell him in the American colonies as an  indentured servant. If that was the plan  something went wrong with it, because they  abandoned him on the wharf at Hopewell,  Virginia, a few miles downriver from  Richmond. He was five years old.      
    • 164. Boyd K. Packer, Let Not Your Heart Be Troubled ,  p.57-58 Peter was taken into the  home of Judge Anthony  Winston, an uncle of Patrick  Henry's. Peter was present  when the famous "Give me  liberty or give me death"  speech was given. It did  something to the boy. He  was sixteen years old and a  strapping six feet six inches  when he joined Company  Nine of the Virginia Tenth  Regiment on 10 October  1776.      
    • 165. Boyd K. Packer, Let Not Your Heart Be Troubled ,  p.57-58 His first fight was the ill-fated Battle of  Brandywine Creek. There he was wounded in  the leg and removed to a Moravian farmhouse  for treatment. General Lafayette was there  being treated for a bullet wound. The general  asked the boy if he could do something for  him. Peter requested a sword big enough to  match his physical stature. The general sent  him one. It was five feet long.      
    • 166. Boyd K. Packer, Let Not Your Heart Be Troubled ,  p.57-58 Peter fought at Germantown and suffered  through Valley Forge. At Monmouth he took a  musket ball in his thigh. At the British  stronghold at Stony Point he was the second  man over the wall and fought on despite a  nine-inch bayonet slash across his abdomen.        At nineteen he returned home with a musket  ball in one of his legs. It would cause him pain  for the rest of his life. 
    • 167. Boyd K. Packer, Let Not Your Heart Be Troubled ,  p.57-58 Within a year he had re- enlisted and was  fighting with the  Virginia militia in the  South. At Camden,  South Carolina, the  militia was defeated.  Peter rescued a cannon  and a colonel from  behind enemy lines.      
    • 168. At Guilford Courthouse  a British soldier stabbed  through the calf of  Peter's leg with a  bayonet. Later another  pierced his other leg at  the knee, slicing all the  way to the hip bone  before Peter fell from  his horse.
    • 169.  He stayed conscious long enough to crawl to a  tree. He was then twenty-one.       Near the end of the war he emerged from a  tavern at Burkeville, Virginia, to face nine  British soldiers who were scavenging for  supplies. Peter was completely unarmed.  While some of them looted the tavern, two  soldiers held him at sword point. One of them  took an interest in Peter's silver knee-buckles.  Presently the soldier was dead and Peter held  the sword. Six British survivors fled to the  advance guard of Tarleton's Legion. 
    • 170. The entire guard, four hundred strong, retreated, not  knowing that the "ambush" was only one man.       There is more, much more, but that should suffice.  Question: Why isn't Peter Francisco remembered?  Answer: Because he wasn't general, even an officer.  He was offered a battlefield commission but had to  refuse-literacy was required for a commission. Peter  Francisco could neither read nor write.       Peter lived to raise a family and died 16 JanuaryPeter lived to raise a family and died 16 January 1830, when he was about seventy years old.1830, when he was about seventy years old. Boyd  K. Packer, Let Not Your Heart Be Troubled , p.57- 58     
    • 171. Orson Hyde: Moroni the Prince of America  In those early times, our men were few and our  resources limited. Poverty was among the most  potent enemies we had to encounter; yet our arms  were successful; and it may not be amiss to ask  here, by whose power victory so often perched on our banner? It was by the agency of that same angel of that appeared unto Joseph Smith and  revealed to him the history of the early inhabitants  of this country...that same angel presides over the  destinies of America, and feels a lively interest in  all our doings.
    • 172. Moroni-Washington He was in the camp of Washington, and by the invisible  hand led on our Fathers to conquest and victory, and all this to  open and prepare the way for the church and Kingdom of God  to be established on the western hemisphere, for the  redemption of Israel and the salvation of the world.
    • 173. This same angel was with Columbus and  gave him impressions,  by dreams and by  visions...regarding this  new world.... 
    • 174. Columbus… "The angel of God  helped him-was with  him on the stormy deep,  calmed the troubled  elements, and guided his  frail vessel to the  desired haven" (JD  6:368)
    • 175. Under the guardianship of this same angel, or prince of America, have the United states grown, increased and flourished like the Sturdy oak by the rivers of water. But since the prophets have been slain, the Saints  persecuted, despoiled of their goods, banished from their  homes, and no earthly arm to interpose for their rescue... the  Guardian Angel of the United States will fly to a remote  distance from their borders, and the anger of the Almighty  wax hot against them in causing them to drink from the cup of  bitterness and division, and the very dregs stirred up by the  hands of the enemies of the saints in the day of great distress  and anguish; 
    • 176. Moroni? and all this because they  laid not to heart the  martyrdom of the saints  and the prophets,  avenged not their blood  by punishing the  murderers, neither  succored nor aided the  saints after they were  despoiled of their goods  and homes....
    • 177. Moroni ...when justice is satisfied and the blood of the  martyrs atoned for, the Guardian Angel of America will return to his station, resume his  charge, and restore the Constitution of our  country to the respect and veneration of the  people; for it was given by the inspiration of  God. (Journal of Discourses, Vol. 6, p.368-369)
    • 178. Revolutionary WarRevolutionary War: :   16 And it came to pass that I, Nephi, beheld that  the Gentiles who had gone forth out of captivity  did humble themselves before the Lord; and the power of the Lord was with them. 17 And I beheld that their mother Gentiles were gathered together upon the many waters,  and upon the land also, to battle against them. 18 And I beheld that the power of God was with them, and also that the wrath of God was  upon all those who had gathered against them to  battle. 19 And I, Nephi, beheld that the Gentiles that had gone out of captivity were delivered by the power of God out of the hands of all other nations.(see 1 Nephi 13:16-19)
    • 179. General George WashingtonGeneral George Washington July 2, 1776July 2, 1776 The fate of unborn  millions will now  depend, under God,  on the courage and  conduct of this  army.(1776, p.
    • 180. George Washington Red Hair…about 6’2’’ Teeth Uniform French and Indian War…3 horses, 4 balls Indian Chief came to Mt. Vernon His inauguration… Harvard Yard brawl (Trask) Prayer Journal…
    • 181. Washington wrote… it was an  instance of divine favor 1776 p.64 Captain John Manley on the Lee Captured  the British Brigg Nancy off Cape Ann. (2,500 stands of arms, cannon, mortars,  flints, 40 tons of shot, 2,000 bayonets)
    • 182. George Washington to Reed January 14, 1776 p.79 The reflection upon my situation and that of this  army produces many uneasy hour when all around  me are wrapped in sleep….too little powder and  still no money…. I shall most religiously believe that the finger of  divine providence is in it, to blind the eyes of our  enemies; for if we get well through this month, it  must be for want of their knowing the  disadvantage we labor under. 
    • 183. King George’s speech to Parliament reaches  America… Common Sense 
    • 184. 1776 January Common Sense was first published anonymously by Thomas Paine It is regarded as the most influential  piece of literature leading to the  American Revolution. Paine wrote that  :  “We have it in our power to begin the world over again.” March 4-5 Americans fortify Dorchester  Heights, overlooking Boston from the  south March 17               Evacuation Day the British troops and  government officials and loyalists  sail out of Boston Harbor, never to  return.
    • 185. Dorchester Heights  Knox and Benedict Arnold Capture fort  Ticonderoga in New York and drag 58 mortars and  cannon (12 and 18lbs…300 miles)-one giant brass  24 lb. cannon weighing 120,000 lbs. Lake George  Albany to Boston four crossings of the Hudson  River…heavy winds cruel thaw…lost some in the  River and pulled them out… Blizzard came on  Christmas day…then they had to go over the Mt. 
    • 186.  General Knox-January 9, 1776 p.84 “It appeared to me almost a miracle that the  people with heavy loads should be able to  get up and down such hills”
    • 187. Dorchester Heights 58 Artillery and works of pickets were all  erected in a single night without noticiable  noise…on the high ground overlooking and  in range of the British…
    • 188. Battle of TrentonBattle of Trenton (McCullough, 1776, p.281)(McCullough, 1776, p.281) 2400 Continental Army- Battle set for 6AM arrived 3 hrs. late Battle was over in 45 min. 900 prisoners 21 killed 90 wounded Hessians 4 Americans Wounded none Killed On their feet all night wet cold weapons soaked 2  died frozen to death Sheets of ice in the river
    • 189.  CHAPTER 57 Helaman recounts the taking of Antiparah and the surrender and later the defense of Cumeni—His Ammonite striplings fight valiantly and all are wounded, but none are slain—Gid reports the slaying and the escape of the Lamanite prisoners. About 63 B.C 25  And it came to pass that there were two  hundred, out of my two thousand and sixty, who  had fainted because of the loss of blood;  nevertheless, according to the goodness of God,  and to our great astonishment, and also the joy of  our whole army, there was not one soul of them  who did perish; yea, and neither was there one  soul among them who had not received many  wounds. (Book of Mormon | Alma 57:25)
    • 190. George Washington: No people can be bound to acknowledge and adore the Invisible hand which conducts the affairs of men more than the people of the United States. Every step by which they have  advanced to the character of an independent nation  seems to have been distinguished by some token  of providential agency…along with an humble  anticipation of the future blessings which the past  seem to presage. (See first inaugural address, 30 April 1789, New  York City; in Jay M. Todd, A Standard of Freedom for This Dispensation, En.  Sept. 1987, p.17) 
    • 191. The Constitution of the United States of America 77. According to the Laws and constitution of the  people, which I have suffered to be established,  and should be maintained for the rights and  protection of all flesh, according to just and Holy  principles;  78. That every man may act in doctrine  pertaining to futurity , according to the moral  agency which I have given unto him, that every  man may be accountable for his own sins in the  day of judgment.
    • 192. 79. Therefore, it is not right that any man should                     be in bondage one to another. 80.  And for this purpose have I established the  Constitution Of this land , by the hands of wise  men whom I raised up unto this very purpose,  and redeemed the land by the shedding of  blood…           95.  That I may proceed to bring to pass my act,  my strange act, and perform my work, my  strange work that men may discern between the  righteous and the wicked , saith your God. (See D&C 101:77- 80, 95)
    • 193. James Madison:   It is impossible for the man of pious  reflection not to perceive in [the  Constitution] a finger of that Almighty hand  which has been so frequently and signally  extended to our relief in the critical stages  of the revolution. ( The Federalist, ed. Henry Cabot Lodge, New York : G.P.  Putnam’s Sons, 1983, no. 37, p.222)
    • 194. Wilford Woodruff:  I am going to bear my testimony to this assembly,  if I never do it again in my life, that those men  who laid the foundation of the American  government and signed the Declaration of  Independence were the best spirits the God of  Heaven could find on the face of the earth. They  were choice spirits, not wicked men. General  Washington and all the men that labored for the  purpose were inspired of the Lord. Another thing I  am going to say here, because I have a right to say  it. 
    • 195. Every one of those men that signed the Declaration of Independence with General Washington called me as an apostle of the Lord Jesus Christ, in the temple at St. George two consecutive nights, and demanded at my hands that I should go forth and attend to the ordinances of the house of God for them. ...would those spirits have called  upon me, as an Elder in Israel, to perform that work if they  had not been noble spirits before God? They would not. I bear  this testimony because it is true. The spirit of God bore record  to myself and the brethren while we were laboring in that way.  (LDS General Conference, April 10, 1898, p.89-90; see also Wilford Woodruff’s Journal, Church Historians Office under call # Ms f 115 )
    • 196. Joseph Smith: Even this nation will be on the verge of  crumbling to pieces and tumbling to the  ground when the Constitution is on the  brink of ruin this people will be the staff  upon which the nation shall lean and they  shall bear the Constitution away from the  very verge of destruction. (Joseph Smith papers LDS  Church Historical Archives. Box 1, March 10, 1844. ) 
    • 197. John Taylor: When the people shall have torn to shreds the  Constitution of the United States the Elders of  Israel will be found holding it up to the nations of  the earth and proclaiming liberty and equal rights  to men, and extending the hand of fellowship to  the oppressed of all nations. This is part of the  program, and as long as we do what is right and  fear God, He will help us and stand by us under all  circumstances. (Journal of Discourses, vol. 21, p.8)                
    • 198. The Church of Jesus ChristThe Church of Jesus Christ The Church of Jesus Christ Of Latter Day SaintsThe Church of Jesus Christ Of Latter Day Saints The RestorationThe Restoration
    • 199. The Morning Breaks the shadows flee And then, after many generations had walked the  earth—so many of them in conflict, hatred, darkness,  and evil—there arrived the great, new day of the  Restoration. This glorious gospel was ushered in with  the appearance of the Father and the Son to the boy  Joseph. The dawn of the dispensation of the fulness  of times rose upon the world. All of the good, the  beautiful, the divine of all previous dispensations was  restored in this most remarkable season.
    • 200.  Apostasy-What was lost?Apostasy-What was lost?  ChurchChurch  Priesthood KeysPriesthood Keys  Bible?Bible?  RetrocessionRetrocession  EducationEducation  MedicineMedicine  Standard of LivingStandard of Living  RenaissanceRenaissance  Gutenberg PressGutenberg Press  ReformationReformation  AquinasAquinas  WycliffeWycliffe  TyndaleTyndale  LutherLuther  Age of DiscoveryAge of Discovery  CompassCompass  Dead ReckoningDead Reckoning  QuadrantQuadrant  SextantSextant  ChronometerChronometer  Explorers Marco PoloExplorers Marco Polo  MagellanMagellan  ColumbusColumbus  Pilgrims Mayflower-WinthropPilgrims Mayflower-Winthrop  The Establishment of a Free Nation-The Establishment of a Free Nation-  The Tribe of Ephriam…The Tribe of Ephriam…  Declaration of IndependenceDeclaration of Independence  American RevolutionAmerican Revolution  The great Awakening of ReligionThe great Awakening of Religion The Industrial RevolutionThe Industrial Revolution The RestorationThe Restoration