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Media, information and the promise of new technologies in Knowledge Transfer (KT) practices

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Presented at the GLOBAL HEALTH RESEARCH INITIATIVE: TEASDALE-CORTI PROGRAM SYMPOSIUM - Innovations in Global Health Research -Global Social Justice and the Social Determinants of Health: Setting the …

Presented at the GLOBAL HEALTH RESEARCH INITIATIVE: TEASDALE-CORTI PROGRAM SYMPOSIUM - Innovations in Global Health Research -Global Social Justice and the Social Determinants of Health: Setting the Course for the Future
October 1-3, 2012 | Marriott Hotel | 100 Kent St, Ottawa, ON - http://www.mcgill.ca/trauma-globalhealth

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  • 1. Media, information and the promise of newtechnologies in Knowledge Transfer (KT) practicesMauricio DelfinTrauma and Global Health ProgramGLOBAL HEALTH RESEARCH INITIATIVE: TEASDALE-CORTI PROGRAM SYMPOSIUMInnovations in Global Health ResearchGlobal Social Justice and the Social Determinants of Health: Setting the Course for the FutureOctober 1-3, 2012 | Marriott Hotel | 100 Kent St, Ottawa, ONhttp://www.mcgill.ca/trauma-globalhealth
  • 2. Knowledge TransferKnolwedge TranslationKnolwedge DisseminationKnolwedge Transfer and ExchangeResearch-to-Action[…]
  • 3. trans-prefix meaning "across, beyond, to go beyond," fromL. trans-, from prep. trans "across, over, beyond,"probably originally prp. of a verb *trare-, meaning "tocross" (see through).
  • 4. “The common element among these different terms isa move beyond the simple dissemination ofknowledge into actual use of knowledge.”“Knowledge creation, knowledge distillation andknowledge dissemination are not enough on their ownto ensure the use of knowledge in decision-making.” Defining knowledge translation (2009) Sharon E. Straus MD MSc, Jacqueline Tetroe MA, Ian Graham PhD
  • 5. Vectors [carriers] of Knolwedge Transfer
  • 6. Vectors [carriers] of Knolwedge Transfer
  • 7. Vectors à Networks/Instances/ domains for the performance/ construction of Knowledge
  • 8. Greenhalgh, T., & Wieringa, S. (2011). Is it time todrop the “knowledge translation” metaphor? Acritical literature review. Journal of the RoyalSociety of Medicine, 104(12), 501–509. doi:10.1258/jrsm.2011.110285
  • 9. “To the extent that even “hard” science is sociallyconstructed, knowledge translation cannot beviewed as a politically neutral exercise in thetransmission of facts.”“…A wider range of metaphors and modelswould allow us to research the link betweenknowledge and practice in more creative andcritical ways.” Is it time to drop the ‘knowledge translation’ metaphor? A critical literature review (2011) Trisha Greenhalgh and Sietse Wieringa
  • 10. “Conceptualizing the generation, circulation andsharing of knowledge as ‘translation’ willinadvertently close our minds to alternativeframings which could add to the illumination andanalysis of this complex field”. Is it time to drop the ‘knowledge translation’ metaphor? A critical literature review (2011) Trisha Greenhalgh and Sietse Wieringa
  • 11. Translation: Assumptions Three assumptions underpin the knowledge translation metaphor: 1.  ‘Knowledge’ equates with objective, impersonal research findings. Knowledge is seen as un-problematically separable from the scientists who generate it and the practitioners who may use it. 2.  It is useful to conceptualize a ‘know – do’ gap between scientific facts and practice (whether in the clinical encounter, the management of staff or around the policy-making table). This implies that knowledge and practice can be cleanly separated both empirically and analytically. 1.  Practice consists more or less of a series of rational decisions on which scientific research findings can be brought to bear. These assumptions are widely held within the medical field, but they are also widely questioned by scholars outside this field. Is it time to drop the ‘knowledge translation’ metaphor? A critical literature review (2011) Trisha Greenhalgh and Sietse Wieringa
  • 12. But first, an example from this Symposium:
  • 13. New knowledge configurations:Strengthening Nurses’ Capacity in HIV Policy Developmentin Sub-Saharan Africa and the CaribbeanCanada, Kenya, Jamaica, Uganda, South Africa, and BarbadosCapacity Building Strategy (1 of 5) :•  Leadership Hubs: Three leadership hubs will be established in each country, fostering dynamic collaboration among front-line nurses and managers, researchers, decision makers and community representatives. Hubs will link nursing leaders with other stakeholders in government, NGOs and the community to build a sustainable infrastructure for leadership capacity in research, knowledge translation, and collaboration. They will function as a lever for change, or enabling mechanism, that translates enhanced capacity into action for policy and practice change on HIV and AIDS.
  • 14. Hubs/Networks/Gaps/Empowerment“…a center around whichother things revolve orfrom which they radiate;a focus of activity…”
  • 15. Hubs/Networks/Gaps/Empowerment
  • 16. Hubs/Networks/Gaps/Empowerment
  • 17. Hubs/Networks/Gaps/Empowerment
  • 18. Hubs/Networks/Gaps/Empowerment
  • 19. Hubs/Networks/Gaps/Empowerment
  • 20. Technology Today
  • 21. In 1983 Time magazinenominated the PC as the“Machine of the Year”.
  • 22. In 2006 “the cover is asymbol of the emancipationof the computer user fromthe alienated user of 1983 tothe “hero of the InformationAge” in 2006” (Schaefer,2008).
  • 23. Cover for Sep. 24, 2012, “TheAgents of Outrage”.
  • 24. Cover for Sep. 24, 2012, “TheAgents of Outrage”.
  • 25. The Wealth of Networks "The dramatic decline in the cost of the material means of producing and exchanging information, knowledge, and culture has substantially decreased the costs of information expression and exchange, and thereby increased the relative efficacy of non-market production. When these facts are layered over the fact that information, knowledge, and culture have become the central high-value-added economic activities of the most advanced economies, we find ourselves in a new and unfamiliar social and economic condition”. Benkler, 2006
  • 26. Impact of Technology on Knowledge and Action•  Networks for the performance/construction of knowledge are affected by todays networked society, through distributed flows of information that obfuscate traditional trajectories of knowledge generation and dissemination, mediated through emerging information and communication technologies.•  New technologies should challenge our vision of potential Knowledge Transfer and Exchange strategies, bringing renewed attention to the logics of networks, an emerging “sharing economy" and open source logics.•  The changing landscape of Knowledge Transfer politics, affected and influenced by technology, affects institutional contexts and established power structures.
  • 27. The Wealth of Networks (2)A restaurant owner shouts, with his clients behind him, at demonstrators to stop throwing stones at his restaurant, after a protest againstspending cuts and the government of Mariano Rajoy ended in riots acroos Madrid (Daily Telegraph, Australia).
  • 28. Protesta  en  Túnez,  el  14  de  Enero  2011  
  • 29. Protest  in  Tunisia  on  January  14th,  2011  (Le<)  and  at  midnight  on  January  26th,  2011  in  Cairo  (Right).    Sign  reads:  “Mubarak  GAME  OVER"  [Reuters]    
  • 30. EGYPT  
  • 31. SPAIN  España    
  • 32. USA  
  • 33. System  administrator,  rouWne  check-­‐up.  
  • 34. ACCESS  Internet  “Cabina”  in  Ventanilla,  Callao  -­‐  Peru  (2010)  
  • 35. Networks vs. Hierarchies
  • 36. Examples of new configurations (of power) •  Urban crowdsourcing •  Crisis mapping initiatives •  Open access protocols and infrastructures
  • 37. Urban crowdsourcing
  • 38. Crisis mapping
  • 39. Roundup  of  Global  Internet  AcWvism  Course  Trebor  Scholz,  New  School  University  (2009)  
  • 40. Roundup  of  Global  Internet  AcWvism  Course  Trebor  Scholz,  New  School  University  (2009)  
  • 41. Roundup  of  Global  Internet  AcWvism  Course  Trebor  Scholz,  New  School  University  (2009)  
  • 42. Developer Steve Mutinda displays a mobile application at crowdsource mapping platformUshahidis office in Nairobi, Kenya in 2008.
  • 43. “Crisis  Room”  in  Boston,  Massachusse`s  
  • 44. Disaster  Relief  2.0:  The  Future  of  InformaWon  Sharing  in  Humanitarian  Emergencies  (2011)  
  • 45. Open access protocols and infrastructures
  • 46. The cost of knowledge: The Elsevier Boycott
  • 47. The cost of Knowledge (1) “Refusing to submit papers to all overpriced publishers is a reasonable further step, which some of us have taken, but the focus of this boycott is on Elsevier because of the widespread feeling among mathematicians that they are the worst offender.”. Source: http://thecostofknowledge.com
  • 48. The cost of Knowledge (2) “Recently, Elsevier has lobbied for the Research Works Act, a proposed U.S. law that would undo the National Institutes of Health’s public access policy, which guarantees public access to published research papers based on NIH funding within twelve months of publication (to give publishers time to make a profit). Although most lobbying occurs behind closed doors, Elsevier’s vocal support of this act shows their opposition to a popular and effective open access policy”. Source: http://thecostofknowledge.com
  • 49. The cost of Knowledge (3) “Some people would like to see the journal system eliminated completely and replaced by something else more adapted to the internet and the possibilities of electronic distribution. Others see journals as continuing to play a role, but with commercial publishing being replaced by open access models. Still others imagine a more modest change, in which commercial publishers are replaced by non-profit entities such as professional societies”. Source: http://thecostofknowledge.com
  • 50. Open Data
  • 51. Open  Government  Partnership  Anual  MeeWng  in  Brasilia  (April,  2012)  
  • 52. Open Data Open data is the idea that certain data should be freely available to everyone to use and republish as they wish, without restrictions from copyright, patents or other mechanisms of control. The goals of the open data movement are similar to those of other "Open" movements such as open source, open content, and open access. (open data, open standards, and open source)Source: Wikipedia.org
  • 53. Open Data•  “We-Government” (seems oriented towards “gadgetization”)•  “App” fever (which requires a particular economy)And/or:•  Vigilancia Ciudadana (Citizens monitoring)•  Denuncia (Denunciation)•  Knowledge interaction
  • 54. Extensible Markup Language (XML) The comma-separated values (CSV) “set of rules for encoding documents “pseudo-file format; a set of file formats in machine-readable form. used to store tabular data in which numbers and text are stored in The design goals of XML emphasize plain-text form that can be simplicity, generality, and usability easily written and read in a text editor” over the Internet.”Source: Wikipedia.org
  • 55. Information is power.
  • 56. Sometimes, information is power.
  • 57. What are particular configurations/formationsthat facilitate positive (fair, equal, transparent, mutually beneficial…) construction and/or performance of knowledge transfer and exchange?
  • 58. The Future According to Greenhalgh and Wieringa (2011), research should move beyond a narrow focus on the ‘know–do gap’ to cover a richer agenda, including: 1.  the situation- specific practical wisdom (phronesis) that underpins clinical judgement 2.  the tacit knowledge that is built and shared among practitioners (“mindlines”) 3.  the complex links between power and knowledge; and 4.  approaches to facilitating macro-level knowledge partnerships between researchers, practitioners, policymakers and commercial interests.”
  • 59. Conclusions•  The science of knowledge translation is a relatively new field and requires a critical approach.•  A kind of Meta-KTE is required.•  Future research should focus on: •  The harnessing of specific configurations/formations/domains that impact positively in the KTE process. •  Analysis of the impact of KTE strategies firmly grounded on sharing/open economies, comparing them with traditional ones) •  The effects of open data initiatives in global health research •  “Transdisciplinarity” as political action•  How are institutional contexts and established power structures affected by KTE understood as a transformation (challenge) of established political and institutional cultures?
  • 60. Thank you
  • 61. More information at: http://www.mcgill.ca/trauma-globalhealth Support provided by:Teasdale Corti Team Grant and the Global Health Research Initiative This file can be shared under the following license: Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported license (CC BY)