Leveraging Your Data


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“Do I use a pie chart, a bar graph, or just a really big font size?” This presentation will cover a few tried-and-true and many novel ways to effectively present and leverage data to groups of students, parents, teachers, administrators, community members, and school board members. The presentation will also demonstrate some useful ways make data-driven decisions, and you will learn how to build a data wall displaying 350 students in a single weekend!

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Leveraging Your Data

  1. 1. Leveraging Your Data Matthew Matz Morrow County School District
  2. 2. Data in a minute http:// www.youtube.com/watch?v =ImAD8BOBOhw
  3. 3. Welcome <ul><li>First things first </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sit back </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Relax </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Please ask questions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Feel free to stop and discuss </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pay close attention... </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Because you don't want to miss anything... http:// www.youtube.com/watch?v =Ahg6qcgoay4
  5. 5. Perception is reality <ul><li>But is reality perceived? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Nope </li></ul></ul><ul><li>It can't be </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The brain has to filter out all kinds of stimuli before it can even begin to process the information it receives. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Part of that process in unconsciously selective </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>That's why statements like &quot;you only hear what you want to&quot; exist. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  6. 6. And if you need more proof... http:// www.youtube.com/watch?v = FWSxSQsspiQ
  7. 7. Integrity <ul><li>Because it's very easy to use slight-of-hand with data, we have an obligation to be honest. </li></ul><ul><li>Even with the best of intentions, it can be easy to skew reality with the wrong kind of chart or graph </li></ul>
  8. 8. The Shrinking Dollar <ul><li>This chart shrinks both dimensions of the bills to represent the change in a single value, therefore distorting the effect of inflation. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Worst Pie Chart Ever
  10. 10. Another example <ul><li>Is the world more or less dangerous than it was in the past? </li></ul><ul><li>Graph what you think </li></ul>
  11. 11. That's why he's so important! <ul><li>Data helps keep our perception of reality grounded </li></ul>
  12. 12. Adding shock value <ul><li>Think for a moment about the United States Senate </li></ul><ul><li>It's a representative body, right? </li></ul><ul><li>Is it ethnically/racially representative? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>How will you get anyone to care? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Shock them, of course. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>If you haven't already figured this out, the next slide may be offensive, so please take it lightly </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  13. 13. &quot;Senate Color by Numbers&quot; from America (The Book) by John Stewart
  14. 14. A dose of reality <ul><li>A note...the last slide is not entirely true. In 2004, there were 96 White, 1 Black, and 3 Native American/Pacific Islanders in the senate </li></ul><ul><li>Even so, the previous example is a shocking way to use data </li></ul>
  15. 15. Commercial Break – Pop Quiz! <ul><li>How many e-mails were in route? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Over 1 million </li></ul></ul><ul><li>What was the percentage of e-mails containing &quot;miracle banana diet&quot;? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>7% </li></ul></ul><ul><li>How many of those e-mails hit spam filters? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>36000 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>What percentage of people have no idea what Twitter is? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>26% </li></ul></ul><ul><li>How may people left their phones in a cab? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>29 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>How many e-mails were being sent during a business meeting? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Over 2 million </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Pop Quiz <ul><li>How did you do? </li></ul><ul><li>People don't generally don't remember numbers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>So what was the point of that commercial? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sprint's network is big </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sprint's network is fast </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lot's of people already use Sprint </li></ul></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Cool stuff, but how do I use it? <ul><li>You have a bunch of data </li></ul>
  18. 18. Cool stuff, but how do I use it? <ul><li>So you summarize it </li></ul>
  19. 19. Cool stuff, but how do I use it? <ul><li>And you find what you want to highlight </li></ul><ul><li>If you think that's bad, the year before was 77% </li></ul>
  20. 20. The secret ingredient <ul><li>Contrast </li></ul><ul><ul><li>People can't remember numbers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sometimes they can't even remember other people </li></ul></ul><ul><li>They can remember sharp differences </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Before and After photos (or even charts) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Outliers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Comparisons to others </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inequities (Unfairness) </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. Let's try one – Before and After <ul><li>The school calendar </li></ul><ul><ul><li>It's easy to forget to look at other data besides achievement. Doing so may clue others into the effects a system has on achievement. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>180 days </li></ul><ul><li>Minus: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Conferences </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Half-day in-service </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Assemblies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Emergency Drills </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Testing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Field Trips </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Spirit Weeks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>School days before a 3-day weekend </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Equals 131 uninterrupted school days </li></ul>
  22. 22. Comparison <ul><li>Comparing the master schedule against diploma requirements </li></ul><ul><ul><li>This could be used to help determine staffing priorities </li></ul></ul><ul><li>In case you were wondering about the math: Each bar = </li></ul><ul><ul><li>(HS FTE) x (sections per FTE) x (% of diploma requirement) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>i.e. English = 4/24 = 17% </li></ul></ul></ul>
  23. 23. Scaling <ul><li>The last slide might seem a little dull, but it introduces a trick called scaling </li></ul><ul><li>Scaling is important because it lets you put unintelligible data in understandable (and more human) terms. </li></ul><ul><li>It works by using percentages to create metaphors for the data you are trying to convey. </li></ul><ul><li>Here's an example from Stephen Covey's The 8 th Habit </li></ul>
  24. 24. From The 8 th Habit <ul><li>Harris Interactive recently polled 23,000 U.S. residents employed full-time within key industries and in key functional areas. Consider a few of their most stunning findings: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Only 37% said they have a clear understanding of what their organization is trying to achieve and why. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Only one in five was enthusiastic about their team's and organization's goals. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Only one in five said they have a clear &quot;line of sight&quot; between their tasks and their team's and organization's goals. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Only 15% felt that their organization fully enables them to execute key goals. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Only 20% fully trusted the organization they work for. </li></ul></ul>
  25. 25. From The 8 th Habit <ul><li>If this were a soccer team... </li></ul><ul><li>Only 4 of the 11 players would know which goal is theirs. </li></ul><ul><li>Only 2 of the 11 would care. </li></ul><ul><li>Only 2 of the 11 would know what they are supposed to do. </li></ul><ul><li>And 9 of the players would be competing against their own team members rather than the opponent. </li></ul>
  26. 26. You could do this with PBS SET data
  27. 27. You could do this with PBS SET data <ul><li>If that school were a Football team </li></ul><ul><ul><li>All 11 players would know that there were rules </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>But only 3 players would actually know them </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No player feels the need to make a touchdown </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>And 6 players know not to get penalties </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>10 players know decisions are made by coaches </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>But 5 players don't trust the coach </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>And nobody feels any support from the owners </li></ul></ul>
  28. 28. The Class-O-Gram Remedial Math 1 Algebra 1 Remedial Math 2 Geometry Algebra 1 Algebra 1 Algebra 2 Geometry Dropout/Alt Geometry Pre-Calc Algebra 2
  29. 29. Scale with Flair <ul><li>You are all 8th graders registering for 9 th grade classes. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The registration form states that your math teacher will select your freshman math class. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Each teacher will start with a class (a card) and will either pass or fail that class </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Passing or failing determines what class is next, and after four classes (years/cards), the teacher will (or won't) &quot;graduate&quot; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In the end, a semi-arbitrary choice by staff may determine whether the student graduates, whether they go to college (and if they do, how many thousands of $$ will be spent taking remedial math courses) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>To set this up, you need a lot of data scaled to the audience/staff you are presenting to. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The &quot;Math Map&quot; for your school </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>OAKS scores (disaggregated if you are so inclined) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Historical Pass/Fail rates for each math section offered </li></ul></ul>
  30. 30. A &quot;Math Map&quot; <ul><li>From Spaulding HS in Rochester, NH </li></ul>
  31. 31. How to scale this activity <ul><li>If you have a staff of 40 teachers, and a graduating class of 120 students, all of your numbers are divided by 3. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>For instance, if 21 students are assigned to Advanced Math, 60 students are assigned Algebra 1, and 39 will be assigned Remedial Math, than it's 7, 20, and 13, respectively. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If 15 of the 60 kids will likely fail Algebra 1, than 5 of your teachers will &quot;fail&quot; it. </li></ul></ul>
  32. 32. How to really shock them... <ul><li>Disaggregate this activity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Scale the activity using pass/fail and OAKS scores for subgroups such as Latino, ELL, SPED, etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Or just disaggregate for your largest subgroup. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Label your teachers as &quot;Economically Disadvantaged&quot; or not... </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>And in the end, let them reflect on what their status meant in their school. </li></ul></ul>
  33. 33. The Disaggregated Class-O-Gram Remedial Math 1 Algebra 1 Remedial Math 2 Geometry Algebra 1 Geometry Pre-Calc Algebra 2 Algebra 1 Algebra 2 Geometry Dropout/Alt
  34. 34. Tips and Tricks <ul><li>Primacy-Recency </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Data to Story works if the data doesn't have to be &quot;processed&quot; by the audience, i.e. just giving a few large numbers out </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Story to Data is better if the data does have to be &quot;processed&quot; i.e. different types of data are presented and compared </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Don't dwell on the in-between. It's less likely to be remembered anyway. </li></ul>??? Data Data Data Data Data Personal Story Data Data Data Data Data Personal Story
  35. 35. Tell Stories <ul><li>Tell a bunch of stories and leave the charts at home (If you can) </li></ul><ul><li>The human brain is wired for stories, and retention of stories can reach 100% if it's delivered well. </li></ul><ul><li>Hands-on activities have retention rates around 50% </li></ul><ul><li>Numbers and charts have retention rates around 20% </li></ul>
  36. 36. If you must use a chart <ul><li>Remember: Contrast </li></ul><ul><li>Also remember: Clarity </li></ul><ul><li>Oh yeah: Consistency </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What is the Main point you want to highlight? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Make sure it's a different shade/color </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Is your graph clear, simple, and easy to read? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Don't try to show 5 things on a graph. Show 5 graphs that only show 1 or 2 things each. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Every graph should look the same </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Same color scheme, same scale, same font. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>You want the data to stick out, not the y-axis . </li></ul></ul></ul>
  37. 37. Charts that don't work
  38. 38. Charts that work
  39. 39. Because I promised it <ul><li>The weekend Data Wall </li></ul><ul><ul><li>When you are looking at a large amount of data, it's helpful for people to have intuitive visual cues that reflect the data so that it can be understood quickly and easily. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stoplights are a good place to start: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Red, Yellow, Green </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Poor, Warning, Good </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Add brown=no data and blue=excellent </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Apply this to each student, and before you know it, you'll have a data wall. </li></ul></ul>
  40. 40. Fast Data Wall
  41. 41. Want to know more? <ul><li>Perception </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Blink by Malcolm Gladwell </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Back to School... and The Cognitive Art of Educational Technology by Patrick Crispin </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>http:// www.netsquirrel.com/powerpoint/pedagogy.html </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Crime </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The First Measured Century by PBS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>http://www.pbs.org/fmc </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Political Humor </li></ul><ul><ul><li>America (The Book) by John Stewart </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Excellence </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The 8 th Habit by Stephen Covey </li></ul></ul>
  42. 42. Want to know more? <ul><li>Designing Good Graphs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Visual Display of Quantitative Information by Edward Tufte </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>http:// www.edwardtufte.com/tufte/books_vdqi Tips for Presentations </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Resources by Chip and Dan Heath </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>http:// heathbrothers.com /resources/ </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Looking at Systems Data </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Updraft Downdraft by Marilyn Crawford </li></ul></ul>
  43. 43. Thank you!