Sustainable Fishery Management / Sustainable Fishery Management

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Sustainable Fishery Management
Lessons from Japanese Fishery Management
Proposal to sound fishery management

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Sustainable Fishery Management / Sustainable Fishery Management

  1. 1. 1 Sustainable Fishery Management lessons from Japanese management system Takashi Matsuishi At SERD, AIT, Thailand 24Feb-14Mar, 2014
  2. 2. Japanese Fisheries Management 2  Top Down Control  TAC management (7 species)  TAE management (9 sp)  Fishery Rights and Licensing (All fishery / fisher)  Bottom up Control  Community Based Fishery Management  Fishery Cooperative Associations (Almost all)  Fisher’s Group  Expansion and Education  Fishery Agency (ABC for 44 species 83 stocks )  Local Government
  3. 3. 3 TAC and ABC Regulation Outline  Data collection by Prefectural Fishery Experimental Centres and Fisheries Research Agency (FRA)水産試験 場・水産研究所  Stock assessment by FRA and determine the Allowable Biological Catch (ABC)生物学的許容漁獲量  Determine theTotal Allowable Catch (TAC) 漁獲可能量by Fishery Agency of Japan 水産庁, and distribute the quota to fisheries
  4. 4. 4 Data Collection  Target stocks  44 species 83 stocks (2009)  Coastal stocks (excluding International Stocks such as salmon, tunas etc)  Fisheries Experimental Centre  46 of 47 prefectures has fisheries research centres  They collect catch statistics, catch fish composition (length, age, sex ratio, maturity etc)
  5. 5. 5 Stock Assessment Sheet  Basic biology and ecology of the stock  Current stock and fisheries status 資源水準・漁獲現況  Population Estimation 資源評価  Virtual Population Analysis  Acoustic Survey Analysis etc.  Prediction of the future population dynamics  Allowable Biological Catch ABC 生物学的許容漁獲量  Researchers in Universities also make advices for determining the ABC
  6. 6. 6 ABC  ABC is calculated following the guideline of the stock assessment made by FRA.  ABClimit,ABCtarget and other options are indicated.  ABClimit: Biological upper limit of catch  ABCtarget: Biologically preferable catch  Other options: Following Fcurrent, Fsim etc.
  7. 7. 7 Total Allowable Catch 漁獲可能量  Target stocks: 8 species 19 stocks  Determined based on ABC taking into account the socio-economic considerations  TAC sometimes exceeds ABClimit  Yearly total catch of the species should be underTAC, and fishery will be stopped by orders of government when the total catch reaches to TAC.
  8. 8. 8 ABC and TAC  ABC:Allowable Biological Catch  Recommended maximum catch by scientist  For 44 species  TAC:Total Allowable Catch  Set by Nation  Based on ABC  Consider the socio-economic aspect  For 8 very important species
  9. 9. 9 Species under TAC regulation (2009) http://abchan.job.affrc.go.jp/digests21/index.html
  10. 10. 10 Sardine 鰯 マイワシ Sardinops melanostictus Pacific Stock  Sea of Japan Stock Pacific Stock Sea of Japan Stock
  11. 11. 11 Horse mackerel 鰺 アジ Trachurus japonicus Pacific Stock Tsushima Stock Pacific Stock Tsushima Stock
  12. 12. 12 Common Mackerel 鯖 マサバ Scomber japonicus  Pacific Stock Tsushima Stock Pacific Stock Tsushima Stock
  13. 13. 13 Blue Mackerel 鯖 ゴマサバ Scomber australasicus  Pacific Stock Tsushima Stock Pacific Stock Tsushima Stock
  14. 14. 14 Pacific saury 秋刀魚 サンマ Cololabis saira
  15. 15. 15 Walleye Pollock 介党鱈 スケトウダラ Theragra chalcogramma Pacific Stock Sea of Japan Stock Pacific Stock Sea of Japan Stock
  16. 16. 16 Snow crab 楚蟹 ズワイガニ Chionoecetes opilio Pacific StockSea of Japan A Stock Pacific StockSea of Japan A Stock
  17. 17. 17 Japanese flying squid 鯣烏賊 Todarodes pacificusスルメイカ Winter spawning population Autumn spawning population Winter pop. Autumn pop.
  18. 18. ABC for Sardine 18
  19. 19. 19 Sardine イワシ 鰯 Sardinops melanostictus  20cm at age 4  Very common in 1980’s but disappeared from latter 1990’s
  20. 20. 20 Catch of Sardine in JapanCatch(1000t)
  21. 21. 21 Catch of Sardine in Japan (cont.)Catch(1000t)
  22. 22. 22 Procedure of Stock Assessment Catch at Age(1976-2010) Estimated Population at Age(1976-2010) Estimated Fishing Mortality(1976-2010) Predicted Population(2011) Predicted Population Dynamics Predicted Recruitment Assumed Fishing Operation Allowable Biological Catch Total Allowable Catch Virtual Population Analysis
  23. 23. 23 Procedure of Stock Assessment Catch at Age(1976-2010) Estimated Population at Age(1976-2010) Estimated Fishing Mortality(1976-2010) Predicted Population(2011) Predicted Population Dynamics Predicted Recruitment Assumed Fishing Operation Allowable Biological Catch Total Allowable Catch Virtual Population Analysis
  24. 24. Catch at age 24 Catchatage(1E9) Year
  25. 25. 25 Procedure of Stock Assessment Catch at Age(1976-2010) Estimated Population at Age(1976-2010) Estimated Fishing Mortality(1976-2010) Predicted Population(2011) Predicted Population Dynamics Predicted Recruitment Assumed Fishing Operation Allowable Biological Catch Total Allowable Catch Virtual Population Analysis
  26. 26. 26 Estimated Biomass (B) and Exploitation Ratio (E)Biomass(1000t) ExploitationRate(%) B E
  27. 27. 27 Estimated Biomass (B) and Exploitation Ratio (E) cont.Biomass(1000t) ExploitationRate(%) B E
  28. 28. 28 Stock Recruitment RelationshipRecruitment(million) SSB (1000t)
  29. 29. 29 Procedure of Stock Assessment Catch at Age(1976-2010) Estimated Population at Age(1976-2010) Estimated Fishing Mortality(1976-2010) Predicted Population(2011) Predicted Population Dynamics Predicted Recruitment Assumed Fishing Operation Allowable Biological Catch Total Allowable Catch Virtual Population Analysis
  30. 30. 30 Example of a prediction in future population dynamicsCatch(1000t) 90%tile median 10%tile
  31. 31. 31 Procedure of Stock Assessment Catch at Age(1976-2010) Estimated Population at Age(1976-2010) Estimated Fishing Mortality(1976-2010) Predicted Population(2011) Predicted Population Dynamics Predicted Recruitment Assumed Fishing Operation Allowable Biological Catch Total Allowable Catch Virtual Population Analysis
  32. 32. 32 Allowable Biological Catch  ABC is predicted catch in the fishing mortality that the population is sustainable. Scenarios F/Fcur E C2015 Aver. C2011- 2015 Prob. B>Blimit Prob. SSB>SSB cur ABC 2012 Current Fisheries 1.0 18% 116-826Kt 265Kt 100% 84% 135Kt SSB rehabilitation 1.75 29% 91-765Kt 296Kt 71% 45% 210Kt Keep current SSB 2.06 32% 77-614Kt 283Kt 58% 33% 236Kt
  33. 33. 33 Total Allowable Catch TAC  TAC was also decided based on ABC by Fisheries Agency Japan with taking into account economical and social considerations.  Fishing operation will be stopped when the cumulative landing exceed the TAC.
  34. 34. TAC, ABC, and Catch of Sardine 34
  35. 35. 35 Data used in this scheme  Catch statistics for all region and all fisheries for very long time.  Result of age determination for every year from large sampling work.  Real time monitoring of the landing in every ports to know the achievement of the cumulative catch to TAC.
  36. 36. 36 Walleye Pollock Sea of Japan Stock
  37. 37. 37 Walleye Pollock Sea of Japan Stock  One of the most important fisheries resources in Japan  Mainly for Roe (egg) products and Fish Cake (Surimi)  Korean eat it as hot-pot food (Chige) http://www.marusui.co.jp/shop/38_9.html http://www.gyoren.or.jp/melma/041120mag_g.html http://wpedia.search.goo.ne.jp/
  38. 38. 38 Data Collection  Widely sampled and aged  Acoustic Survey  Interview to Fishers  Virtual Population Analysis withTuning
  39. 39. 39 Catch of Walleye Pollock (JS)Catchin1000t Year Korea Main land Gillnet Trawler
  40. 40. 40 Reproduction Rate
  41. 41. 41 Result of Simulation Predicted Catch Predicted Spawning Stock Biomass
  42. 42. 42 Result of Stock Assessment Catch Prob.1 Prob.2 Fcurrent F=0.57 21,900t 0.0% 85.1% Fsus F=0.26 10,400t 0.2% 0.7% ABC F=0.24 9,700t 0.4% 0.2% Frec10y F=0.02 900t 41.5% 0.0% Catch: Expected Catch in 2010 Prob.1: Probability to recover Preferable Stock Level 140,000t in 2020 Prob.2: Probability to fall to the full ban stock level 30,000t in 2020
  43. 43. 43 TAC of Walleye Pollock JS 2010 Catch Prob.1 Prob.2 TAC 16,000t 0.0% 50% ABC 9,700t 0.4% 0.2% Catch: Expected Catch in 2010 Prob.1: Probability to recover Preferable Stock Level 140,000t in 2020 Prob.2: Probability to fall to the full ban stock level 30,000t in 2020
  44. 44. 44 Procedure of TAC Decision  The procedure is not opened.  TAC sometimes does not based on ABC but other option  The socio-economic consideration is not quantified and unclear
  45. 45. 45 An proposal for the TAC decision
  46. 46. 46 Fishery System  Fishery system consisted from fishers and fish stock.  Both of them are necessary for making sound fishery and stock management.  The success probability of the system is the production of  the success probability of fishery  and success probability of fish stock
  47. 47. 47 Probability of Management Success  For Success of management  Both success are necessary  Biological success:Maintaining Spawning stock biomass and/or Stock Biomass  Economical Success:Maintaining Net Revenue  Suppress of Fishery Activity  Increase Biological Success  Decrease Economical Success
  48. 48. 48 Stock with high biomass Fishing Pressure SuccessProb. Proper range ABC TAC =
  49. 49. 49 Stock with low biomass Fishing Pressure SuccessProb. Econ. Suc. ProbBiol. Suc. Prob. ABC TAC
  50. 50. 50 Stock with low demand Fishing Pressure SuccessProb. Proper range ABCTAC
  51. 51. 51 Estimating Proper Fishing Pressure  Estimate of Biological Success Probability  Already calculated  Precision should be increase  Estimation of Economic Success Prob.  Unclear  Develop the method  Data collection
  52. 52. 52 Widen the proper area  Increase Biol. Suc. Prob.  Care the spawning grounds  Avoid Ocean Pollution etc.  Increase the precision of the stock assessment  Increase Econ. Suc. Prob.  Lower the costs  Increase Effectiveness  Find new markets  AddedValue,Advertisement
  53. 53. 53 Stock with low biomass Fishing Pressure SuccessProb. Econ. Suc. ProbBiol. Suc. Prob. ABC TAC
  54. 54. 54 Increaseing Success Probability Fishing Pressure SuccessProb. ABC TAC =
  55. 55. 55 ΔBiomass=Recruitment+Growth -Catch-Natural Mortality Net Income=Unit Price×Catch -Costs

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