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Right realism powerpoint def

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  • 1. Right Realism (opposite to Left Realism)
  • 2. Realist Criminology • The realisation that crime (especially street crime) can be nasty, brutal, damaging and violent • The acknowledgment that the crime problem is a real one for many people in Britain today – it destroys communities, undermines social cohesion and threatens the work ethic
  • 3. RIGHT REALISM Sought practical crime CONTROL measures – worry less about finding the causes of crime but concentrate on CONTROLLING IT – this is a CONTROL theory: - “GET TOUGH” - Labelling and Critical criminologists are far too sympathetic to criminals and excuse criminal behaviour with reference to police labelling and poverty/inequality/capitalism
  • 4. RIGHT REALISM – crime does not result from poverty: • James Q. Wilson (1975) – in the 1960s in the US anti- poverty programmes were accompanied by enormous crime increases • Ron Clarke - since the end of World War II (1945) there have been steadily rising incomes in the UK – but this has been accompanied by rising not falling crime rates • If the Marxists are right and crime is caused by poverty why is it that the old tend to be poor yet they have a very low crime rate
  • 5. THE CAUSES OF CRIME • Although Right Realists say they are not as interested in finding the causes of crime as controlling it they argue that there are THREE FACTORS which cause crime. • We can remember these three by using the acronym memory jogger BUS R • BIOLOGICAL differences • UNDERCLASS/ (faulty) SOCIALISATION • RATIONAL Choice Theory
  • 6. EACH TABLE WILL DEAL WITH CAUSE OF CRIME Biological Differences Page 93 Wilson & Herrnstein Murray & Herrnstein Rational Choice Theory Page 94 Ron Clarke Wilson (Faulty) Socialisation and the Underclass Page 93 Murray Dilulio & Walters Rational Choice Theory Page 94 Felson
  • 7. RIGHT REALISM CAUSES OF CRIME 1 BIOLOGICAL DIFFERENCES • Herrnstein & Murray (1994) argue that the main cause of crime is low intelligence (this they argue is biologically determined) • Wilson & Herrnstein (1985) use a biosocial theory (crime is caused by a combination of biological and social factors) – some people are innately more strongly predisposed to commit crime – get this from personality traits like extroversion and aggressiveness which makes them risk-takers without self-control who act on impulse
  • 8. RIGHT REALISM CAUSES OF CRIME 2 SOCIALISATION AND THE UNDERCLASS • Faulty socialisation means that kids do not learn self- control and do not internalise moral values of right and wrong (they remain feral children) • Charles Murray (1994) of New Right – argument that misguided generous welfare benefits have created a ‘new rabble’ or underclass and a mass of single parent families which spawn delinquents. The Underclass live in different world to respectable people, their lifestyles characterised by deplorable and reckless and feckless behaviour.
  • 9. Underclass Behaviour Effect Illegitimate births rising especially among lower class women. There is no longer a stigma attached to divorce, cohabitation, illegitimacy. Father’s absence means kids ‘run wild’; cohabitation does not provide a stable childrearing environment Rising crime rates among lower class males Destroys communities by creating suspicion/fear. Boys follow the only role models they know (gangsters) and turn to crime Unemployment: many young lower class males are unwilling to take paid work Young fathers cannot support a family so don’t get married – rising illegitimacy. Young barbarians prove themselves through criminality instead of paid work.
  • 10. Bennett, Dilulio & Walters (1996) Crime is the result of ‘growing up surrounded by deviant, delinquent and criminal adults in a practically perfect criminogenic environment – that is, [one] that seems almost consciously designed to produce vicious, predatory unrepentant street criminals’.
  • 11. RIGHT REALISM CAUSES OF CRIME 3 RATIONAL CHOICE THEORY • In this idea the criminal is seen as essentially rational • Crime is committed when the chances are highest of getting the maximum reward with the minimum risk • If you can get away with it crime will rise • If crime is more profitable than taking a job then crime will rise • It’s a form of "cost / benefit" analysis i.e. constantly weighing up the costs and benefits of any action
  • 12. RATIONAL CHOICE THEORY • Right realists argue that the perceived costs crime are low – that is why the crime rate has increased. There is too little chance of being caught, and when they are caught they are treated leniently • Marcus Felson (1998) argues that the presence of ‘capable guardians’ like policemen or neighbours deter crime because they tip the cost-benefit analysis of crime in favour of not offending
  • 13. Jeremy Bentham (1748-1832) English philosopher Utilitarianism:Utilitarian Principle • Humans are concerned with the search for pleasure and the avoidance of pain • The individual constantly takes stock of or reflects on his or her actions, situation and choices • The individual is seen as a calculating being who assesses the sum total of pleasure and pain in every action before acting • If a given action will lead to a surplus of profit or pleasure, then this path will be chosen
  • 14. Right Realism – TACKLING CRIME Given the view that crime is caused by biological differences, faulty socialisation and rational choice the wisest course of action is thus for society to BOTH: • Lessen the risks of the innocent being victimised i.e. PREVENT • Increase the costs of crime to those who perpetrate it by swift and severe penalties i.e. PUNISH - Certainty, swiftness and severity of punishment of penalty can deter and reduce crime
  • 15. PREVENT and PUNISH RIGHT REALISM: Practical Solutions 1. Pro-active policing – Regulation/Zero-Tolerance 2. Broken Windows Policy 3. Strong Communities – naming and shaming 4. Target hardening 5. Situation management/Defensible space 6. Crime Deterrence 7. Swift and lengthy imprisonment for those who won’t obey the laws
  • 16. 1 Pro-active Policing / Zero Tolerance • In this sense, the role of the police is seen to be "pro-active" involving such things as: • Maintaining a strong presence "on the ground / on the beat". • Keeping in close touch / working with "local people" to prevent crime. • Keeping the streets clear of "potential criminals" (youths, drug abusers, beggars, prostitutes and so forth).
  • 17. Zero Tolerance of this?
  • 18. 2 ‘Broken Windows’ policy Wilson & Kelling (1982) • Essential to maintain the character of neighbourhoods, so all signs of deterioration must be dealt with immediately • Repair broken windows • Remove graffiti
  • 19. 3 Strong Communities and ‘Naming and Shaming’ • If the community is strong, involvement in crime should result in disgrace and loss of standing in the community through ‘naming and shaming’ • Based in Etzioni’s theory of Communitarianism which argues that only by their own efforts can communities solve social problems
  • 20. 4 Target Hardening • Control approach to crime • Attempts to limit the frequency of crime by a policy of target-hardening i.e. moving potential law-breakers on towards harder targets in the hope that the effort involved will deter them altogether
  • 21. Target Hardening
  • 22. 5 Situation management • involves the management, design or manipulation of the immediate environment to prevent crime or reduce the opportunity • E.g. more street lighting, blocking off back access to houses, making public spaces visible, CCTV
  • 23. 6 Crime Deterrence • Highly visible car locks • Burglar alarms on houses • Bars on windows • All these things will deter the rational criminal who will look for a softer target • nothing deters more than the certainty of detection
  • 24. 7 PUNISHMENT Prison - put criminals out of circulation
  • 25. Control Theory • New Right Realism is often linked to so-called Control Theory • i.e. its more about controlling and managing crime than actually trying to find the causes or solving it • If we accept that humans are selfish, rational calculating individuals then crime will always be with us and keeping the levels of crime down is perhaps the best we can hope for!

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