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Jack Katz Seductionsof Crime
Jack Katz Seductionsof Crime
Jack Katz Seductionsof Crime
Jack Katz Seductionsof Crime
Jack Katz Seductionsof Crime
Jack Katz Seductionsof Crime
Jack Katz Seductionsof Crime
Jack Katz Seductionsof Crime
Jack Katz Seductionsof Crime
Jack Katz Seductionsof Crime
Jack Katz Seductionsof Crime
Jack Katz Seductionsof Crime
Jack Katz Seductionsof Crime
Jack Katz Seductionsof Crime
Jack Katz Seductionsof Crime
Jack Katz Seductionsof Crime
Jack Katz Seductionsof Crime
Jack Katz Seductionsof Crime
Jack Katz Seductionsof Crime
Jack Katz Seductionsof Crime
Jack Katz Seductionsof Crime
Jack Katz Seductionsof Crime
Jack Katz Seductionsof Crime
Jack Katz Seductionsof Crime
Jack Katz Seductionsof Crime
Jack Katz Seductionsof Crime
Jack Katz Seductionsof Crime
Jack Katz Seductionsof Crime
Jack Katz Seductionsof Crime
Jack Katz Seductionsof Crime
Jack Katz Seductionsof Crime
Jack Katz Seductionsof Crime
Jack Katz Seductionsof Crime
Jack Katz Seductionsof Crime
Jack Katz Seductionsof Crime
Jack Katz Seductionsof Crime
Jack Katz Seductionsof Crime
Jack Katz Seductionsof Crime
Jack Katz Seductionsof Crime
Jack Katz Seductionsof Crime
Jack Katz Seductionsof Crime
Jack Katz Seductionsof Crime
Jack Katz Seductionsof Crime
Jack Katz Seductionsof Crime
Jack Katz Seductionsof Crime
Jack Katz Seductionsof Crime
Jack Katz Seductionsof Crime
Jack Katz Seductionsof Crime
Jack Katz Seductionsof Crime
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Jack Katz Seductionsof Crime

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  • 1. Seductions of CrimeSeductions of Crime JackJack KatzKatz Ch. 1 Righteous SlaughterCh. 1 Righteous Slaughter  People murder to defend what they believePeople murder to defend what they believe is “good”is “good”  In this way, they justify their actions (atIn this way, they justify their actions (at least at the moment they act)least at the moment they act)  Murderers also justify their actions if theyMurderers also justify their actions if they feel their property rights have been violatedfeel their property rights have been violated
  • 2. Seductions of CrimeSeductions of Crime JackJack KatzKatz  overall, these murders emerge quickly, areoverall, these murders emerge quickly, are fiercely impassioned, and are conducted with anfiercely impassioned, and are conducted with an indifference to legal consequencesindifference to legal consequences  these murderers are unaffected by swift, certain,these murderers are unaffected by swift, certain, and severe punishment (Classical theory)and severe punishment (Classical theory)  most murders lack premeditationmost murders lack premeditation  most murderers make no attempt to escape andmost murderers make no attempt to escape and are quickly apprehendedare quickly apprehended
  • 3. Seductions of CrimeSeductions of Crime JackJack KatzKatz  How these murders occur?How these murders occur?  1. The would-be-killer interprets that the1. The would-be-killer interprets that the victim is attacking what he regards as anvictim is attacking what he regards as an eternal human value and that the situationeternal human value and that the situation requires a last stand in defense of his basicrequires a last stand in defense of his basic worth.worth.
  • 4. Seductions of CrimeSeductions of Crime JackJack KatzKatz  a majority of murders occur at home or ata majority of murders occur at home or at recreational activities.recreational activities.  people are able to walk away from conflicts atpeople are able to walk away from conflicts at work; conflicts at home are harder to walk awaywork; conflicts at home are harder to walk away fromfrom  also, there are much greater emotionalalso, there are much greater emotional investments at homeinvestments at home  recreational places are often places of lastrecreational places are often places of last resort escape from other spheres of liferesort escape from other spheres of life
  • 5. Seductions of CrimeSeductions of Crime JackJack KatzKatz  2. The would-be-killer then transforms2. The would-be-killer then transforms what he initially senses as humiliation intowhat he initially senses as humiliation into rage. Doing this blinds the killer to hisrage. Doing this blinds the killer to his future. It forges a momentary sense offuture. It forges a momentary sense of eternal unity with the “good”eternal unity with the “good”
  • 6. Seductions of CrimeSeductions of Crime JackJack KatzKatz  First, people who become enraged create theirFirst, people who become enraged create their own emotionsown emotions  Then, they allow themselves to be seduced byThen, they allow themselves to be seduced by their emotions in order to act out violentlytheir emotions in order to act out violently  Similar to the sociology of emotionsSimilar to the sociology of emotions  Humiliation becomes rage when a personHumiliation becomes rage when a person senses that the way to resolve humiliation is tosenses that the way to resolve humiliation is to turn on its sourceturn on its source  The goal may not be to kill, but to obliterate theThe goal may not be to kill, but to obliterate the source of frustrationsource of frustration
  • 7. Seductions of CrimeSeductions of Crime JackJack KatzKatz  3. The would-be-killer organizes his3. The would-be-killer organizes his behavior to implement a particularbehavior to implement a particular project. The project honors what the killerproject. The project honors what the killer suffered through violence. If deathsuffered through violence. If death results, it comes as a sacrificial slaughter.results, it comes as a sacrificial slaughter.
  • 8. Seductions of CrimeSeductions of Crime Jack KatzJack Katz  the victim’s death is not a necessarythe victim’s death is not a necessary concern of the offenderconcern of the offender  through violence the offender defines andthrough violence the offender defines and defends his respectabilitydefends his respectability
  • 9. Seductions of CrimeSeductions of Crime JackJack KatzKatz Ch.2 Sneaky ThrillsCh.2 Sneaky Thrills  not many criminological theories attemptnot many criminological theories attempt to explain female criminalityto explain female criminality  models that have been used are crimemodels that have been used are crime specificspecific  the highest number of property crimesthe highest number of property crimes committed by women are shopliftingcommitted by women are shoplifting offensesoffenses
  • 10. Seductions of CrimeSeductions of Crime JackJack KatzKatz  Boosters- professional shoplifters; steal forBoosters- professional shoplifters; steal for the money, frequently “fencing” the itemsthe money, frequently “fencing” the items  Snitches- amateurs or occasionalSnitches- amateurs or occasional shoplifters; steal on impulse or if theshoplifters; steal on impulse or if the opportunity presents itselfopportunity presents itself  There is little proof for kleptomania (aThere is little proof for kleptomania (a neurotic compulsion to steal)neurotic compulsion to steal)
  • 11. Seductions of CrimeSeductions of Crime JackJack KatzKatz  occasional shoplifters steal foroccasional shoplifters steal for excitement or on a dareexcitement or on a dare  it is also possible that all shopliftersit is also possible that all shoplifters experience this “thrill”experience this “thrill”
  • 12. Seductions of CrimeSeductions of Crime JackJack KatzKatz  Three phases to shoplifting:Three phases to shoplifting:  1. Generating the experience of being1. Generating the experience of being seduced to shopliftseduced to shoplift  potential shoplifters often don’t know exactlypotential shoplifters often don’t know exactly what they are going to stealwhat they are going to steal  they are attracted or drawn to particular objectsthey are attracted or drawn to particular objects (almost a mystical attraction)(almost a mystical attraction)  shoplifting is shopping without moneyshoplifting is shopping without money  people are also seduced by how easy it wouldpeople are also seduced by how easy it would be to steal the itembe to steal the item
  • 13. Seductions of CrimeSeductions of Crime JackJack KatzKatz  2. Reconquering ones fears in an effort to2. Reconquering ones fears in an effort to produce normal appearancesproduce normal appearances  the shoplifter must be on guard that theythe shoplifter must be on guard that they are not being watched or followedare not being watched or followed  they must also be careful not to actthey must also be careful not to act suspiciouslysuspiciously  they must act like they are shopliftingthey must act like they are shoplifting when they are stealingwhen they are stealing
  • 14. Seductions of CrimeSeductions of Crime JackJack KatzKatz  3. The euphoric thrill of accomplishment3. The euphoric thrill of accomplishment  what has been stolen is of less importance thanwhat has been stolen is of less importance than the psychological boost the accomplishmentthe psychological boost the accomplishment bringsbrings  often the item is discarded or given away; theseoften the item is discarded or given away; these shoplifters do not develop deviant identities; willshoplifters do not develop deviant identities; will stop if caughtstop if caught  career shoplifters consider being caught thecareer shoplifters consider being caught the price one must payprice one must pay
  • 15. Seductions of CrimeSeductions of Crime JackJack KatzKatz  For various reasons, shoplifting can beFor various reasons, shoplifting can be particularly attractive to adolescentsparticularly attractive to adolescents  Also, the role of social class andAlso, the role of social class and shoplifting is not clear cutshoplifting is not clear cut  both poor and wealthy people steal;both poor and wealthy people steal; stealing is not always for monetarystealing is not always for monetary purposespurposes
  • 16. Seductions of CrimeSeductions of Crime JackJack KatzKatz Ch.3 Ways of the BadassCh.3 Ways of the Badass The process of becoming a badass or adolescentThe process of becoming a badass or adolescent tough guy willing to use violence:tough guy willing to use violence:  1. He must appear tough and unwilling to be1. He must appear tough and unwilling to be changed or dominated by the opinions of others.changed or dominated by the opinions of others. He must appear to be in command of situationsHe must appear to be in command of situations and unwilling to back down.and unwilling to back down.
  • 17. Seductions of CrimeSeductions of Crime JackJack KatzKatz  may be accomplished in many waysmay be accomplished in many ways  dress: leather or black clothing, heavydress: leather or black clothing, heavy boots, metal adornments, darkboots, metal adornments, dark sunglassessunglasses  language use or lack thereof; silence islanguage use or lack thereof; silence is important, so are profanitiesimportant, so are profanities  doesn’t make eye contact, greets othersdoesn’t make eye contact, greets others with a punch or slap, etc.with a punch or slap, etc.
  • 18. Seductions of CrimeSeductions of Crime JackJack KatzKatz  2. He must appear alien and not part of civilized2. He must appear alien and not part of civilized society. His dress, demeanor, and behaviorsociety. His dress, demeanor, and behavior must reflect this. His presence must bemust reflect this. His presence must be unnerving for others.unnerving for others.  body language (walking postures) are importantbody language (walking postures) are important  tattoos and body piercingstattoos and body piercings  graffiti writings demonstrate an alien presencegraffiti writings demonstrate an alien presence
  • 19. Seductions of CrimeSeductions of Crime JackJack KatzKatz  3. He must appear mean; willing to back up3. He must appear mean; willing to back up his meanness with violence if necessary. Hehis meanness with violence if necessary. He can’t fly off the handle and risk beingcan’t fly off the handle and risk being labeled a “punk”labeled a “punk”  others must simply believe that physicalothers must simply believe that physical violence is imminentviolence is imminent  must appear as being irrational in theirmust appear as being irrational in their commitment to violence, when they aren’tcommitment to violence, when they aren’t
  • 20. Seductions of CrimeSeductions of Crime JackJack KatzKatz  1. “soulful chaos”1. “soulful chaos”  Attempt to convince others that theirAttempt to convince others that their violent presence represents chaos; take aviolent presence represents chaos; take a sadistic pleasure in violencesadistic pleasure in violence  2. “paraphernalia of purposiveness”2. “paraphernalia of purposiveness”  Knives, guns, etc.Knives, guns, etc.
  • 21. Seductions of CrimeSeductions of Crime JackJack KatzKatz  Weapon/No WeaponWeapon/No Weapon  Between 1979 and 1991, almost 400,000 youthBetween 1979 and 1991, almost 400,000 youth aged 15-19 died as the result of firearmsaged 15-19 died as the result of firearms  In 1991 the offender was armed in 67% ofIn 1991 the offender was armed in 67% of serious violent crimesserious violent crimes  4 times as many juveniles were killed with a gun4 times as many juveniles were killed with a gun in 1994 than in 1984. Guns now account for 82%in 1994 than in 1984. Guns now account for 82% of homicides by juveniles.of homicides by juveniles.
  • 22. Seductions of CrimeSeductions of Crime JackJack KatzKatz  3. “mind fucking”3. “mind fucking”  Use of the phrase “fuck you” expressesUse of the phrase “fuck you” expresses the badass’s attitude towards othersthe badass’s attitude towards others  The “bump”– can be an excuse to initiateThe “bump”– can be an excuse to initiate violenceviolence  ““whachulookinat”– even unobtrusivewhachulookinat”– even unobtrusive invasion of space may be consideredinvasion of space may be considered legitimate grounds for reprisallegitimate grounds for reprisal
  • 23. Seductions of CrimeSeductions of Crime JackJack KatzKatz Ch.4 Street ElitesCh.4 Street Elites  Being a tough guy is one way gangBeing a tough guy is one way gang members demonstrate they are “bad” tomembers demonstrate they are “bad” to themselves and othersthemselves and others  The major problem teen gangs face isThe major problem teen gangs face is being taken seriouslybeing taken seriously  These youth may have conflicting roles onThese youth may have conflicting roles on the street and at homethe street and at home
  • 24. Seductions of CrimeSeductions of Crime JackJack KatzKatz  Lower-class gang behavior is muchLower-class gang behavior is much different from middle-class gang behaviordifferent from middle-class gang behavior  Punks come from the middle-class butPunks come from the middle-class but deny their roots; they adopt lower-classdeny their roots; they adopt lower-class dress, etc. but deny the territorydress, etc. but deny the territory  Turf wars have escalated with an increaseTurf wars have escalated with an increase in crack dealingin crack dealing
  • 25. Seductions of CrimeSeductions of Crime JackJack KatzKatz  Middle-class kids deny their higher statusMiddle-class kids deny their higher status and adopt lower-class street behaviorand adopt lower-class street behavior  Lower-class gang member considerLower-class gang member consider themselves elites (Knights, Kings)themselves elites (Knights, Kings)  Middle-class gangs are more likely toMiddle-class gangs are more likely to include girls whereas lower-class gangsinclude girls whereas lower-class gangs are almost all maleare almost all male
  • 26. Seductions of CrimeSeductions of Crime JackJack KatzKatz  Ghetto gangs are a major reason suchGhetto gangs are a major reason such neighborhoods are so dangerousneighborhoods are so dangerous  Kids join gangs to protect themselvesKids join gangs to protect themselves from gangsfrom gangs  Violence is a way of showing elite statusViolence is a way of showing elite status
  • 27. Seductions of CrimeSeductions of Crime JackJack KatzKatz  Gangs as childlikeGangs as childlike  They stick to their own neighborhoodsThey stick to their own neighborhoods  Turf wars suggest child-like king-of-the-hillTurf wars suggest child-like king-of-the-hill gamesgames  Graffiti are used to mark territoryGraffiti are used to mark territory
  • 28. Seductions of CrimeSeductions of Crime JackJack KatzKatz Ch.5-7 Robbery as LearnedCh.5-7 Robbery as Learned  Explains the persistence of robbery (stick-up) asExplains the persistence of robbery (stick-up) as learned behaviorlearned behavior  Persistent robbers cannot be called professionalPersistent robbers cannot be called professional criminals; their robberies result in little moneycriminals; their robberies result in little money and they don’t improve their technique with ageand they don’t improve their technique with age or experienceor experience
  • 29. Seductions of CrimeSeductions of Crime JackJack KatzKatz  Robbery cannot be equated with extremeRobbery cannot be equated with extreme poverty or lack of opportunity to obtain moneypoverty or lack of opportunity to obtain money another wayanother way  Katz discounts drug addiction models; there areKatz discounts drug addiction models; there are other ways to get money at a lower riskother ways to get money at a lower risk  Most robbers also commit other crimesMost robbers also commit other crimes (burglary, drug sales, etc.)(burglary, drug sales, etc.)  The thrill of robbery often makes it difficult forThe thrill of robbery often makes it difficult for people to stoppeople to stop
  • 30. Seductions of CrimeSeductions of Crime JackJack KatzKatz  Robbery requires more “skill” and gutsRobbery requires more “skill” and guts than muggingthan mugging  Muggers want to grab a persons valuablesMuggers want to grab a persons valuables and quickly get awayand quickly get away  Robbers declare their intentions to theRobbers declare their intentions to the victimvictim  They must appear threatening andThey must appear threatening and committed to the use of violence ifcommitted to the use of violence if necessarynecessary
  • 31. Seductions of CrimeSeductions of Crime JackJack KatzKatz  Moral philosophy of the “hardman”—Moral philosophy of the “hardman”— commitment that his will must prevail,commitment that his will must prevail, regardless of danger to himselfregardless of danger to himself  Victims do frequently resist (24% of thoseVictims do frequently resist (24% of those who face a robber with a gun)who face a robber with a gun)
  • 32. Seductions of CrimeSeductions of Crime JackJack KatzKatz  Robbers are usually:Robbers are usually:  UnemployedUnemployed  Unmarried with few family obligationsUnmarried with few family obligations  Use hard drugsUse hard drugs  These factors are part of an overall pattern ofThese factors are part of an overall pattern of acceptance of a learned “transcendent” way ofacceptance of a learned “transcendent” way of lifelife  Robbery is part of a larger commitment to aRobbery is part of a larger commitment to a hedonistic lifestylehedonistic lifestyle
  • 33. Seductions of CrimeSeductions of Crime JackJack KatzKatz  Chaos is a force that threatens toChaos is a force that threatens to overwhelm the robber at any timeoverwhelm the robber at any time  Things can always go wrong during aThings can always go wrong during a robberyrobbery  The only way to deal with chaos isThe only way to deal with chaos is through controlthrough control  He sticks up for himself (literally andHe sticks up for himself (literally and figuratively)figuratively)
  • 34. Seductions of CrimeSeductions of Crime JackJack KatzKatz  Robbery is largely a male activityRobbery is largely a male activity  Katz rejects the notion that females areKatz rejects the notion that females are too incompetent or that they have atoo incompetent or that they have a distaste for violencedistaste for violence  Males and females have differentMales and females have different spheres of activitiesspheres of activities  Male activities allow them to learn violentMale activities allow them to learn violent behavior more than female activities;behavior more than female activities; males also take more risks than femalesmales also take more risks than females
  • 35. Seductions of CrimeSeductions of Crime JackJack KatzKatz  there is a disproportionate number ofthere is a disproportionate number of Black males involved in robberyBlack males involved in robbery  the black to white ratio for robbery arreststhe black to white ratio for robbery arrests is 5:1is 5:1  other minorities do not have such highother minorities do not have such high arrest ratesarrest rates  one Chicago study found 90% Black v 6%one Chicago study found 90% Black v 6% HispanicHispanic
  • 36. Seductions of CrimeSeductions of Crime JackJack KatzKatz  Katz offers a sociological view for the racialKatz offers a sociological view for the racial disparities of robberydisparities of robbery  Other ethnic groups have been able to becomeOther ethnic groups have been able to become entrepreneurs, allowing racketeering toentrepreneurs, allowing racketeering to develop alongside them to exploit their owndevelop alongside them to exploit their own groupsgroups  They don’t need to resort to robbery to makeThey don’t need to resort to robbery to make moneymoney  While equally criminal, their crimes will notWhile equally criminal, their crimes will not become part of official statisticsbecome part of official statistics
  • 37. Seductions of CrimeSeductions of Crime JackJack KatzKatz  The Black community lacks its ownThe Black community lacks its own businessesbusinesses  Asians control most ghettoAsians control most ghetto establishmentsestablishments  Most black robbers victimize other blacksMost black robbers victimize other blacks trapped in the ghetto with themtrapped in the ghetto with them
  • 38. Seductions of CrimeSeductions of Crime JackJack KatzKatz  Katz also offers a phenomenologicalKatz also offers a phenomenological explanation for Black robberyexplanation for Black robbery  ““nigger” and “bad nigger”nigger” and “bad nigger”  when blacks use these terms it is awhen blacks use these terms it is a special form of insultspecial form of insult  ““nigger” represents a non-person status;nigger” represents a non-person status; it implies that he is nothing and isit implies that he is nothing and is therefore invisibletherefore invisible
  • 39. Seductions of CrimeSeductions of Crime JackJack KatzKatz  the term “bad” serves to negate the non-the term “bad” serves to negate the non- person status and replace it with “being”person status and replace it with “being”  for a “bad nigger” robbery is a way tofor a “bad nigger” robbery is a way to show that one is willing to risk his life forshow that one is willing to risk his life for small gain and unafraid to make threatssmall gain and unafraid to make threats and use violenceand use violence
  • 40. Seductions of CrimeSeductions of Crime JackJack KatzKatz Ch.8 Cold-Blooded Senseless MurderCh.8 Cold-Blooded Senseless Murder  these murders cause the greatest publicthese murders cause the greatest public concern and puzzlementconcern and puzzlement  they often occur in the midst of a robbery orthey often occur in the midst of a robbery or kidnapping; the victim is a strangerkidnapping; the victim is a stranger  however, this killing is not an attempt tohowever, this killing is not an attempt to eliminate witnesseseliminate witnesses
  • 41. Seductions of CrimeSeductions of Crime JackJack KatzKatz  The following are not examples of senselessThe following are not examples of senseless murder:murder:  1. righteous slaughter1. righteous slaughter  2. berserk killers who enter a building and shoot2. berserk killers who enter a building and shoot randomlyrandomly  3. serial murders which have sexual or sadistic3. serial murders which have sexual or sadistic motivesmotives  4. killing a robbery victim when they are in the4. killing a robbery victim when they are in the act of resisting the assailantact of resisting the assailant
  • 42. Seductions of CrimeSeductions of Crime JackJack KatzKatz  Katz includes:Katz includes:  The “Onion Field” murdersThe “Onion Field” murders  Gary Gilmore’s murderous rampageGary Gilmore’s murderous rampage  In Cold Blood, etc.In Cold Blood, etc.  these murders usually occur in the eventthese murders usually occur in the event of a robbery or kidnapping, the individualsof a robbery or kidnapping, the individuals offer no resistance, and witnesses areoffer no resistance, and witnesses are often allowed to escapeoften allowed to escape
  • 43. Seductions of CrimeSeductions of Crime JackJack KatzKatz  Three part explanation for such murders:Three part explanation for such murders:  1. such individuals hope to have others1. such individuals hope to have others fear them; to react to them with a sensefear them; to react to them with a sense of primordial fear or dreadof primordial fear or dread  cold-blooded killers are the equivalent ofcold-blooded killers are the equivalent of ancient deitiesancient deities  they are to be feared and approachedthey are to be feared and approached only with great caution and respectonly with great caution and respect
  • 44. Seductions of CrimeSeductions of Crime JackJack KatzKatz  the wrath of the killer is feared just asthe wrath of the killer is feared just as God’s isGod’s is  the badass’s dress, tattoos, andthe badass’s dress, tattoos, and language conveys a message that onelanguage conveys a message that one must avoid this individual; destructionmust avoid this individual; destruction may follow if you don’tmay follow if you don’t
  • 45. Seductions of CrimeSeductions of Crime JackJack KatzKatz  2. cold-blooded killers are frequently those2. cold-blooded killers are frequently those who have spent most of their lives in reformwho have spent most of their lives in reform schools and prisons; they have troubleschools and prisons; they have trouble accepting conventional moralityaccepting conventional morality  they lack social and work-related skillsthey lack social and work-related skills  when released from institutionalization theywhen released from institutionalization they are under much pressure to conformare under much pressure to conform
  • 46. Seductions of CrimeSeductions of Crime JackJack KatzKatz  the individual may feel trapped by thethe individual may feel trapped by the pressure to conformpressure to conform  they may want to act bad to prove theythey may want to act bad to prove they can’t be controlled; it is a way of regainingcan’t be controlled; it is a way of regaining self-esteemself-esteem
  • 47. Seductions of CrimeSeductions of Crime JackJack KatzKatz  ““the killings emerge from athe killings emerge from a dizzinessdizziness inin whichwhich conformityconformity is the greatest spiritualis the greatest spiritual challenge andchallenge and deviancedeviance promises thepromises the peace of transcendent significance”peace of transcendent significance”  killing is the ultimate act of transcendingkilling is the ultimate act of transcending the morality of the community and thusthe morality of the community and thus creating a transcendent identitycreating a transcendent identity
  • 48. Seductions of CrimeSeductions of Crime JackJack KatzKatz  3. there must be a proper “killing scene” or3. there must be a proper “killing scene” or opportunity for the potential killer toopportunity for the potential killer to actualize his fantasiesactualize his fantasies  many of these killer, while in prison,many of these killer, while in prison, fantasize about what they will do once outfantasize about what they will do once out  most of these murders occur late at nightmost of these murders occur late at night  some occur in specific locationssome occur in specific locations
  • 49. Seductions of CrimeSeductions of Crime JackJack KatzKatz  it would be easy to explain such killers init would be easy to explain such killers in psychological or sociological termspsychological or sociological terms  most were isolated individuals before themost were isolated individuals before the murders (antisocial personality disorder)murders (antisocial personality disorder)  or their actions could be a result of a lackor their actions could be a result of a lack of social tiesof social ties  Katz rejects these theories as tooKatz rejects these theories as too simplisticsimplistic

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