Technology in 2022 In the view of Matthew Johns S
Technology of Interest in 2022S Technology in EducationS Electronic BooksS ComputersS Cell PhonesS Television
Technology in EducationS In 2022 education can not be accomplished without technology. While public schools will still exist, they will be less popular than ever before. The development of online classes will have taken over the nation. Ranging from elementary school through college, people will obtain most of their education online. S Virtual schools—those conducting all lessons via the Internet, as opposed to “brick and mortar” traditional schools— are now entrusted with the education of children as young as kindergarten and pre-kindergarten. An estimated 1.5 million American youth participate in online education today. (Hanover, 2011)
Technology in Education and the Social Learning Theory/Social Cognitive TheoryS The social learning theory is focused on how people learn by modeling others. (Meadows, 2010)S This applies to technology in education in 2022 in many ways. S A teachers presentation can reach more people because of the broadcasting options that the internet offer. It also allows for teachers to not be confined by the space of a classroom and serve more students at once. S People can perform hands on tasks to help them learn by watching videos of someone performing a task. S One of the benefits of this is the ability to rewind a video instead of having to ask someone to repeat the demonstration.
Technology in Education and the Social Learning Theory/Social Cognitive TheoryS Part of this theory includes the social context. While people may learn from these online modules or demonstrations this theory also looks at whether or not the behavior is imitated. If the behavior is reinforced, the student will duplicate the behavior. But if the behavior is punished then the student will not repeat this behavior. For example if a student watches an instructor as they are attempting to combine two chemicals. The goal of the demonstration was a simple reaction but when the instructor mixes the two chemicals together, the whole lab where the instructor is at blows up. The student would not want to face that punishment of performing that behavior.
Electronic Books We have came a long way since The Bay Psalm BookS Hardcover books will be a thing of the past. Authors will just offer their books through online e-bookstores such as Amazon or iBooks. S According to CNN in May of 2011, Amazon now sells more e-books than paper books. (Griggs, 2011) (Murph, 2011)
Umbrella Perspective and E-BooksS Social System: includes political, economic, and media systems as well as other groups of individuals or organizations serving a common set of functions in society. Can be enabling, limiting, motivating or inhibiting.S Organizational Infrastructure: the group of organizations involved in the production and distribution of the technology. Can be enabling, limiting, motivating or inhibiting.S Hardware: The physical element of the Umbrella Perspective. Can only be enabling or limiting.S Software: information manipulated by the computer, as well as the instructions used by the computer to manipulate the data.S Individual User: implies that the relationship between the user and a technology must be examined in order to get a “handle” on the technology. Can be enabling, limiting, motivating or inhibiting.
Umbrella Perspective and E-Books (continued)S How e-books apply in each aspect: S Social System: E-books in society are more desirable, and will continue to be especially from the economic aspect. They are more affordable and take up less space. These can be considered motivating factors. S Organizational Infrastructure: E-books are being sold by some of the top organizations in the media field such as Amazon and Apple. These organizations are enabling factors because they are very capable of producing the technology to make e-books an appealing option. S Hardware: The hardware used such as the Apple iPad and the more affordable Amazon Kindle line are attractive enabling factors that make the applications for e-books possible. S Software: When I think about the software of e-books, I think about the applications and stores that are used in purchasing and reading the e-books. With the iBooks store and the Amazon store, I believe that all new books will be available through these outlets in 2022. I believe that the ease of use and the convenience of being able to purchase books at your home are motivating factors. I also believe that the interactivity of the e-books is a motivating factor. S Individual User: People are adopting these tablets/e-readers as a new must have. This will still be the case in 2022. One of the best forms of advertising are people’s recommendations to their friends and coworkers and this is something that will be spread the e-books market, which is motivating.
Computers of 2022S Computers will be much more powerful in 2022 and have much more come with them standard. As mentioned in lecture, Moore’s Law states that every 18 months to 2 years computers will be twice as powerful. This will allow for great innovations over the next 10 years.S You will be able to control your home from your computer or tablet. Things such as forgetting to turn out the lights in a room will not be an issue when you can easily do so on your tablet or computer.S Tablets will almost replace laptops. While laptops will still be around, tablets will be used as a more economic means of portable computing. They also will be more powerful than the laptops of today. With tablets being used not only for reading or apps, it will be used more for productivity and business. S The reason that tablets will take off is because of the Network Effect. The Network Effect states that the more people that use a product, the more powerful the technology. With so many people using tablets now, there will be more innovations in the tablet market.
Critical Mass Theory and ComputersS The critical mass theory states that there have to be some innovators and early adopters who are willing to take the risk to try a new interactive technology. This is believed to be making a big contribution to the public good. (Meadows, 2010)S With computers, I believe that there has been a critical mass that allows for this investment of time and money into developing new products. I believe that without this critical mass that tried out tablets for example, we would not see as many on the market now, and they would not be around in 2022.
Cell Phones of 2022S Cell Phones will continue being the dominant type of phone. House phones will be a rare commodity.S Cell phones will be used for making purchases and accessing bank accounts. They will also store your identification card and drivers license. This will allow cell phones to be the only thing you need to carry on you. It will be a great convenience to not have to carry a wallet but will have security issues that arise from it. Identify theft is currently a huge issue but it is something that is already being worked on in 2012 for 2022. A current hot topic is the Cell Phone Theft Prevention Act of 2012. According to opencongress.org this act is to, “To amend the Communications Act of 1934 to prohibit mobile service providers from providing service on mobile electronic devices that have been reported stolen and to require such providers to give consumers the ability to remotely delete data from mobile electronic devices, and for other purposes.” This will allow people to immediately wipe all of their information off of their phones as soon as their phone is lost or stolen. I think this will allow for the type of transactions that I mention above. (112 Congress, 2012)
Cell Phones and the Uses and Gratifications TheoryS The Uses and Gratifications Theory tries to give insight into what people do with technology. It believes users are actively seeking different media to fulfill different needs. (Meadows, 2010)S One of the things that the perspective focuses on are needs which generates expectations. I believe that the cell phones multiple uses that I mention we will have in 2022, are a good example of people expecting more because of what they believe to be as needs. While realistically, we do not need a more convenient way to go about using our money, people enjoy the convenience. With this feeling of need, cell phone providers will develop the software to be able to complete money transactions at stores and many more things.
Television in 2022S Televisions will be used for more than just watching cable TV. Smart TV’s will take off and be the dominant television in the market.S Movie rentals and purchases will be made more through your television more than through any other outlet.S Televisions will also be utilized as an outlet for updating social media and sharing what you are currently watching with others. You will be able to see status updates on your TV about the shows you are watching at that time. You can share your thoughts with friends on your favorite shows while they are going on without having to get off of the couch. There will be voice recognition software similar to that of the Xbox Kinect that updates your status for you and shares it across all of the social media outlets.S Television will be used as the major news outlet streaming news from network stations and online outlets such as the New York Times.
Roger’s Diffusion of Innovations and TelevisionS The television has already been through the innovation and adoption of innovation stage. I believe that the television is going through a reinvention stage where the technology is used for something other than it’s original intent. When the television was originally invented to serve as a broadcasting medium without knowing of the need of things such as incorporating social networking.S These smart televisions I believe are currently appealing to the early majority stage of the order of adoption. By 2022, the only people that will not have a smart television are the laggards.
Moore’s Innovation Adoption Rate and TelevisionS Moore explored the diffusion of innovations and noted there are gaps between each level. (Meadows, 2010) S According to Moore, for the next level of adopter to commit to purchasing an item, the product must show a major new benefit. S With televisions this includes the introductions of 3D, internet capability, and I believe by 2022 it will be the only way to rent or buy movies. I think this is the major new benefit that will force all levels of adopters into televisions to buy in.
Television and the MediaSystem Dependency TheoryS The Media System Dependency Theory states that to understand the role of a medium that you have to examine the relationships at multiple levels of analysis. These levels include the audience, the organizational level, the media system level, and society in general. (Meadows, 2010)S This relates to television in 2022 because television will be important for people to learn of the news of the day as it will be the only outlet besides just surfing the internet. Newspapers will be no more as they are already today depending on trying to keep an audience that is dying out. Society has found that they can get the same information without hard copies. I also believe in 2022 many things will be paperless in an effort to be more eco-friendly.
The Theory of the Long Tail and Television of 2022S This theory looks at television and movies of today and compares them to what would have been on TV 15 years ago. According to Chris Anderson there are less “hits” than their used to be. He acknowledges that there are opportunities for networks to capitalize on this through using niche shows and channels. Since there are more channels now there are shows that can be made for almost any type of person with almost any type of interest.S This applies to television in 2022 because there will be over 1,000 channels, more than ever before. As I mentioned in the first television slide, the TV will be interconnected with the internet. I think that this will allow more outlets to be broadcast through your television and even more niche shows and the number of long tail products will continue to grow. (Meadows, 2010)
The Principle of RelativeConstancy and the TelevisionS The Principle of Relative Constancy says that people spend a constant fraction of their disposable income on mass media over time. (Meadows, 2010)S This applies to television in 2022 because people will commit their disposable income that they now spend on different types of media entertainment and news solely on their television services. I believe this will be a big hit to companies that rent movies, even companies like Redbox. I also think that this will hurt the movie theater industry. With people having so many options on their home television set, there will be no need to leave the home for media.
ReferencesS Griggs. (2011, May 19). Amazon e-books now outselling print books. Retrieved from http://articles.cnn.com/2011- 05-19/tech/kindle.outsells.books_1_kindle-e-reader-kindle-device-e-books?_s=PM:TECHS Hanover, N. (2011, September 01). Outsourcing education: The rise of virtual schools. Retrieved from http://www.wsws.org/articles/2011/sep2011/virt-s01.shtmlS Meadows, J. H. (2010). Communication technology update and fundamentals. (12 ed., p. 50). Burlington, MA: Elsevier Inc.S Meadows, J. H. (2010). Communication technology update and fundamentals. (12 ed., p. 52). Burlington, MA: Elsevier Inc.S Meadows, J. H. (2010). Communication technology update and fundamentals. (12 ed., p. 53). Burlington, MA: Elsevier Inc.S Meadows, J. H. (2010). Communication technology update and fundamentals. (12 ed., p. 54). Burlington, MA: Elsevier Inc.S Meadows, J. H. (2010). Communication technology update and fundamentals. (12 ed., p. 55). Burlington, MA: Elsevier Inc.S Murph, D. (Producer). (2011). Amazon kindle. [Web Photo]. Retrieved from http://www.engadget.com/2011/09/28/amazon-fire-tablet-unveiled-7-inch-display-199-price-tag/S 112 Congress. (2012, March 22). Cell phone prevention act of 2012. Retrieved from http://www.opencongress.org/bill/112-h4247/text
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