Chapter 30 powerpoint period 5

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Chapter 30 powerpoint period 5

  1. 1. Chapter Thirty: The Affluent Society
  2. 2. <ul><li>The Economic “Miracle” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Economic Growth </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Government Spending </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Suburban Expansion </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Baby Boom </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Auto mobile industry </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Road and Home industry </li></ul></ul></ul>. 30-
  3. 3. <ul><li>The Economic “Miracle” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Rise of the Modern West </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Government-Induced Growth </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Population expanded </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cities boomed. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Industrial economy flourished </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Increase in automobiles led to prosperous oil industry </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Climate attracted people. </li></ul></ul></ul>30- Oil Rig
  4. 4. <ul><li>The Economic “Miracle” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The New Economics. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>New Keynesian economics officially accepted in 1963 when JFK proposed a tax cut. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Result: an increase private demand that stimulated economic growth and reduced unemployment. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Result 2: Gave Americans confidence in their ability to solve economic problems that other generations didn’t have. </li></ul></ul>. 30- Workers Represented by Unions, 1920-1990
  5. 5. :D © 2004 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. 30- <ul><li>The Economic “Miracle” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Capital and Labor </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Many Americans thought that poverty could be fought against if there was a redistribution of wealth. </li></ul><ul><li>Reformers argued that this wasn’t necessary and that the answer was to increase production which would raise the quality of life. </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>The Explosion of Science and Technology </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Medical Breakthroughs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Development of Antibacterial Drugs during surgery </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Penicillin </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Vaccines- smallpox, typhoid, tetanus, tuberculosis, yellow fever, influenze </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Salk Vaccine- Cured Polio that crippled adults and children( FDR) It was provided for free. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Result: Average life expectancy went up 5 years., to 71 </li></ul></ul></ul>. 30-
  7. 7. <ul><li>The Explosion of Science and Technology </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pesticides </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>DDT- protected crops from destruction of insects and disease like Malaria. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Helped in the Pacific Theater against the mosquitoes that had dangerous diseases. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>At first there was no danger to humans but insects developed immunity and larger doses were being used, which was dangerous to animals and humans. </li></ul></ul></ul>30-
  8. 8. <ul><li>The Explosion of Science and Technology </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Postwar Electronic Research </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1940’s-Television, 1950’s- Color Television invented- made it possible to broadcast programs over large areas. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Integrated Circuits Invented- Allowed radio’s televisions, auto equipment smaller in size. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>More importantly it led to computers. </li></ul></ul></ul>30-
  9. 9. <ul><li>The Explosion of Science and Technology </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Postwar Computer Technology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>UNIVAC – first computer able to handle both alphabetical and numerical information easily. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Breakthrough in public awareness of computer technology through Remington Rand’s prediction of the 1952 election( Eisenhower vs. Stevenson) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Almost no one knew what a computer was and due to a lot of people having televisions they were able to see the presentation of the UNIVAC. </li></ul></ul></ul>30-
  10. 10. <ul><li>The Explosion of Science and Technology </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Postwar Computer Technology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>IBM </li></ul></ul></ul>30- <ul><li>International Business Machines Company (IBM made the first major data processing computers that killed the UNIVAC competition. </li></ul><ul><li>They had success because of of the enormous amount of money invested in research which made them the leader in computers. </li></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>The Explosion of Science and Technology </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bombs, Rockets, and Missiles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>H – Bombs- fusion of of lighter atomic elements and heavier ones to make a super explosion. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ICBM’s- America’s goal – Let’s make a missile that can hit another continent by crossing oceans and space. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Setbacks- difficulty of amassing stable fuel to actually get the missile to its destination </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Improvements such as a guidance system for more accuracy happened. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The New American nuclear missile that was the basis of the nuclear arsenal was called the minute man which could travel over thousands of miles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Polaris missile was able to be fired underwater by submarines. </li></ul></ul>30-
  12. 12. . 30-
  13. 13. <ul><li>The Explosion of Science and Technology </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Space Program </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sputnik – dramatic event in which the russians launched an earth – orbiting satellite. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>America accepted this as a huge failure and quickly started funding research through NASA. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The development happened so fast that one year later Explorer 1was launched. </li></ul></ul></ul>:. 30-
  14. 14. <ul><li>The Explosion of Science and Technology </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Space Program </li></ul></ul>. 30- Mercury- was designed to launch manned vehicles into space to orbit the earth. Another American defeat happened when Alan Shepard supposedly was the first man launched into space, but it turned the Soviets already accomplished this American’s – Astronauts. Soviets – Cosmonauts
  15. 15. . 30- <ul><li>The Gemini program </li></ul><ul><li>Introduced a spacecraft that could carry two astronauts at once. </li></ul><ul><li>The Apollo Program </li></ul><ul><li>Purpose to land men on the moon. </li></ul><ul><li>July 20, 1969 – Neil Armstrong, Edwin Aldri, Micheal Collins successfully traveled to the moon in a space capsule. </li></ul><ul><li>After 6 more lunar missions, the government cut funding due to a lack of funding. </li></ul><ul><li>Goal of the Americans was to make a space shuttle. It was like an airplane that was capable of navigating space and lading on earth. </li></ul><ul><li>Explosion of Challenger – killed 7 astronauts (Jan 1986) </li></ul>
  16. 16. :D © 2004 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. 30- Continued.. <ul><li>The space shuttles were used to launch and repair communications. </li></ul><ul><li>Results: inserted the Hubble Space Telescope into orbit. </li></ul><ul><li>Also to service the Spacelab. </li></ul><ul><li>Result of Technology in regards: gave a tremendous boost to the American aeronautics industry and was responsible for the development of many technologies that proved valuable in other areas. </li></ul>
  17. 17. :D © 2004 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. 30-
  18. 18. The Consumer Culture <ul><li>Because of the increase in prosperity, increase variety and availability of products, and advertisers creating a demand for products, the middle class culture was growing an absorption with consumer products. </li></ul><ul><li>The increase in prosperity in the 1950s and 1960s was consumer driven. </li></ul><ul><li>Because the consumer goods were marketed and advertised nationally, there were a spread of national consumer crazes in the 1950s. </li></ul>
  19. 19. The Suburban Nation and family <ul><li>By 1960 a third of the U.S. population was living in the suburbs. </li></ul><ul><li>Many people moved to the suburbs to escape crowding, crime, pollution, high costs, to find better schools for their children, and sometimes to escape racial and ethnic diversity. </li></ul><ul><li>After the war many Americans placed importance on family life, since the five years during war where hundred of families were separated. </li></ul><ul><li>For some, the suburbs also helped create a sense of community which was sometimes difficult to achieve in larger, crowded urban areas. </li></ul><ul><li>The emphasis on family life in the 1950s strengthened prejudices against women entering professions or occupying jobs. </li></ul><ul><li>Postwar, women working outside the home actually increased. </li></ul><ul><li>By 1960, nearly a third of all married women were part of a paid work force. </li></ul>
  20. 21. The Birth of Television <ul><li>Television was central to the post war era. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In 1946 there were only 17,000 sets in the country; by 1957 there were 40 million television sets in use. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The television industry emerged directly from the radio industry. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>By the late 1950s, television news had replaced newspapers, magazines, and radios as the nation’s most important vehicle of information. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Many of the programs created a common image of American life, which was predominantly white, middle-class, and suburban. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Television also allowed people who were unable to share in the affluence of the era to acquire a vivid picture of how the rest of their society. . </li></ul></ul>
  21. 22. Organized Society and its Detractors <ul><ul><ul><li>Influence of large-scale organizations and bureaucracies increased over American life in the postwar era. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>More and more Americans became convinced that to be successful in the future they had to acquire training and skill for work in large organizations where every worker had a specific function. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The education system responded to these demands and gave an increase attention to teaching science, mathematics, and foreign languages. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The National Defense Education Act of 1958 provided federal funding for development of programs in those areas. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Many Americans reacted to these developments with ambivalence and hostility. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The traditional “inner-directed”, am who judged himself on the basis of his own values and the esteem of his family, was giving away to a new “other-directed”, am, more concerned with winning the approval of the larger organizations or community. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  22. 23. The Beats and the Restless Culture of Youth <ul><ul><ul><li>A group of young poets, writers, and artists called the “Beats” were the most caustic critics of bureaucracy and of middle class society in general. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>They wrote harsh critiques of what they considered the sterility and conformity of American life, the meaningless of American politics, and the banality of popular culture. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Young middle class youths were growing up in a culture that led them to expect a fulfilling life. But almost all of them experienced obstacles to complete fulfillment. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The culture the beats so vividly represented had counterparts even in ordinary middle class behavior: teenage rebelliousness toward parents, youthful fascination with fast cars and motorcycles, and an increasing visibility of teenage sex. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  23. 24. Rock N’ Roll <ul><ul><ul><li>One of the most powerful signs of American youth was the enormous popularity of rock n’ roll. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The greatest early rock star, Elvis Presley emerged. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Presley became a symbol of a youthful determination to push at the borders of the conventional and acceptable. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Most early white rock musicians drew heavily from the black rhythm and blues tradition, which appealed to some white youths in the early 1950s because of their pulsing, sensual rhythms and their hard-edged lyrics. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The rapid rise and enormous popularity of rock owed a great deal to innovations in radio and television. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Many radio stations devoted themselves almost entirely to playing recorded music. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Radio and television were important to the recording industry because they encouraged the sale of records. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  24. 25. Elvis Presley Buddy Holly Bill Haley
  25. 26. The Other America <ul><li>Michael Harrington, a socialist writer, created the book The Other America , in it he described the continuing existence of poverty. </li></ul><ul><li>The economic expansion during the postwar years did reduce poverty dramatically, but did not eliminate it. </li></ul><ul><li>More then a fifth of American families lived under what the government considered the poverty line. </li></ul><ul><li>Most of the poor experienced poverty temporarily. </li></ul><ul><li>20% of the poor were people who poverty was continues and hard to escape from. </li></ul><ul><li>Those included almost half the nations elderly, African Americans, Hispanics, and Native Americans. </li></ul><ul><li>Among them were also the rural Americans </li></ul><ul><li>Nearly 10% of the rural population moved or was absorbed into cities. </li></ul><ul><li>Most farmers who managed to survive experience a loss of income because of a declining in farm product pricing. </li></ul>
  26. 27. The Inner Cities <ul><li>- More inner-city neighborhoods became vast repositories for the poor, &quot;ghettos.&quot; - There was an amount of over 3 million black men and women that moved from the South to northern cities between 1940 and 1960 and some continued with the same experience during the Great Migration during and after World War I. - Chicago, Detroit, Cleveland, New York, and other cities went through experiencing a great expansion of their black populations. - The expansion was not only in absolute numbers but even more as a percentage of the whole, especially because whites were leaving at the same time. - Some similar migrations from Mexico and Puerto Rico expanded poor Hispanic neighborhoods in American cities during the same time. -  In the years of 1940 and 1960, nearly a million Puerto Ricans moved to American cities and became the largest group to New York. - At this same time Mexican workers crossed the border in Texas and California to become part of cities such as San Antonio, and Los Angeles. - Up until now there's an argument of why the inner-city communities who were populated by racial and ethnic minorities stayed so poor. - Some of the critics say that the people who migrated to places as such brought with them bad traditions, habits, and values. - Other critics state that the problem was the city itself, due to its violence, crime, and apparently hopelessness as well. </li></ul>
  27. 29. The Rise of the Civil Rights Movements; T h e Brown Decision and “Massive Resistance” <ul><li>- On May 17, 1954 the Supreme Court announced its decision in the case of Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka - There was also a ruling that declared that segregation in schools was unconstitutional - At the end it turned out to be that the Brown decision was the culmination of many decades of effort by black opponents of segregation - The Topeka suit involved the case of an African-American girl who had to travel several miles to a segregated public school every day even though she lived virtually next door to a white elementary school - Finally, the Court concluded that school segregation inflicted unacceptable damage on those it affected </li></ul><ul><li>- By 1957 only 684 out of 3,000 schools were affected districts in the South </li></ul>
  28. 30. The Expanding Movement <ul><li>- Due to the Brown decision, it helped spark a growing number of popular challenges to segregation in the South - On December 1, 1955, Rosa Parks was arrested in Montgomery, Alabama, when she refused to give up her seat on a Montgomery bus to a white passenger - Because this women was able to stand up for her rights the arrest of this admired woman produced outrage in the city’s African-American community and helped local leaders organize a successful boycott of the bus system to demand an end to segregated seating. - The bus boycott put economic pressure not only on the bus company but on many Montgomery merchants. - Due to the bus boycotts, they found it difficult to get to downtown stores and tended to shop instead in their own neighborhoods. - Later on, a Supreme Court decision in 1956 was declared segregation in public transportation to be illegal. </li></ul>
  29. 32. Causes of the Civil Rights Movement <ul><li>- One of the reasons was cause millions of black men and women had served in the military or worked in war plants during the war and had. derived from the experience a broader view of the world and their place in it. - Another factor was the growth of an urban black middle class. - Television and other forms of popular culture were another factor in the rising consciousness of racism among blacks. - Other forces were at work mobilizing many white Americans to support the movement once it began. - Not only that but The Cold War was also vital during this movement. - By the early 1960s, this movement had made it one of the most powerful forces in America. </li></ul>
  30. 33. Einsenhower Republicanism; “What Was Good for..General Motors” <ul><li>- The first Republican administration in 20 years was staffed mostly with men drawn from the same quarter as those who had staffed Republican administrations in the 1920s. - Many of the nation's leading businessmen and financiers reconciled themselves to at least the broad outlines of the Keynesian welfare state the New Deal had launched and had come to see it as something that actually benefited them. - To his cabinet, Eisenhower appointed wealthy corporate lawyers and business executives - Eisenhower’s leadership style helped enhance the power of his cabinet officers and others - Eisenhower’s consistent inclination was to limit federal activities and encourage private enterprise </li></ul>
  31. 35. T h e Survival of the Welfare State <ul><li>- The president took few new initiatives in domestic policy - Perhaps the most significant legislative accomplishment of the Eisenhower administration was the Federal Highway Act of 1956 - Authorized $25 billion for a ten-year effort to construct over 40,000 miles of interstate highways - The program was to be funded through a highway “trust fund” whose revenues would come from new taxes on the purchase of fuel, automobiles, trucks, and tires - In 1956, Eisenhower ran for a second term, on the Republicans there was Adlai Stevenson but at the end Eisenhower won. </li></ul>
  32. 36. T h e Decline of McCarthyism <ul><li>- In its first years in office the Eisenhower administration did little to discourage the anticommunist furor that had gripped the nation - Among the most celebrated controversies of the new administration’s first year was the case of J. Robert Oppenheimer - He opposed the building of the Hydrogen Bomb - In 1953, the FBI distributed a dossier within the administration detailing Oppenheimer’s prewar association with various left-wing groups - In 1953, the FBI distributed a dossier within the administration detailing Oppenheimer’s prewar association with various left-wing groups - But by 1954, such policies were beginning to produce significant opposition - The clearest signal of that change was the political demise of Senator Joseph McCarthy </li></ul>
  33. 37. Einsenhower, Dulles, and the Cold War; Dulles and “Massive Retaliation” <ul><li>- The first Republican administration in 20 years was staffed mostly with men drawn from the same quarter as those who had staffed Republican administrations in the 1920s. - Many of the nation's leading businessmen and financiers reconciled themselves to at least the broad outlines of the Keynesian welfare state the New Deal had launched and had come to see it as something that actually benefited them. - To his cabinet, Eisenhower appointed wealthy corporate lawyers and business executives - Eisenhower’s leadership style helped enhance the power of his cabinet officers and others </li></ul>
  34. 38. France,America, and Vietnam <ul><li>- Eisenhower’s secretary of state, and the dominant figure in the nation’s foreign policy in the 1950s, was John Foster Dulles - He entered office denouncing the containment policies of the Truman years - Arguing that the United States should pursue an active program of “liberation” which would lead to a “rollback” of communism expansion. - The United States would, he explained, respond to communist threats to its allies not by using conventional forces to local conflicts but by relying on “the deterrent of massive retaliatory power” (nuclear weapons). - By the end of the decade, the United States had become a party to almost a dozen such treaties of mutual defense in NATO in all areas of the world. </li></ul>
  35. 39. Cold War Crises <ul><li>- As revised by the Einsenhower administration the American foreign policy in the 1950's rested on a reasonable foundation. - On May 14, 1948 after many years of efforts and numerous of decisions by the United Nations, the nation of Israel proclaimed its independence. - Right away the next day President Truman recognized the new Jewish homeland, but unfortunately the creation of Israel while solving some issues it caused other problems as well. - Palestinian Arabs weren't letting anyone kick them out of their own country and for that reason they joined with Israel's Arab neighbors and fought against the new state in 1948. - United States reacted right away when they saw the Arab's regimes in the oil-rich Middle East. - During 1953, the American CIA joined forces with conservative Iranian military leaders to engineer a coup that drove Mossadegh from office. - To punish Nasser for his friendliness in 1956 Dulles withdrew American offers to assist in building the great Aswan Dam across the nile. - On October 29, 1956 the Israeli forces attacked Egypt and surely the next day the British and French landed troops in the Suez to the drive the Egyptians from the canal. </li></ul>
  36. 40. Europe and Soviet Union <ul><li>- In this tense and fearful atmosphere, the Soviet Union raised new challenges to the West in Berlin. - In November 1958, Nikita Khrushchev renewed his predecessors’ demands that NATO powers abandon the city. - A problem than appeared to arise when The United States and its allies refused. - Khrushchev suggested that he and Eisenhower discuss the issue personally. - Luckily then the United States agreed which meant a lot of great news for the others. - Only days before Eisenhower was to leave for Moscow the Soviet Union announced that it had shot down an American U-2, a spy plane, over Russian territory. </li></ul>
  37. 42. The U-2 Crisis <ul><li>- In this tense and fearful atmosphere, the Soviet Union raised new challenges to the West in Berlin. - In November 1958, Nikita Khrushchev renewed his predecessors’ demands that NATO powers abandon the city. - A problem than appeared to arise when The United States and its allies refused. - Khrushchev suggested that he and Eisenhower discuss the issue personally. - Luckily then the United States agreed which meant a lot of great news for the others. - Only days before Eisenhower was to leave for Moscow the Soviet Union announced that it had shot down an American U-2, a spy plane, over Russian territory. - By the spring of 1960, Khrushchev knew that no agreement was possible on the Berlin issue - The events of 1960 provided a somber backdrop for the end of the Eisenhower administration - He warned in his farewell address of 1961 of the “unwarranted influence” of a vast “military-industrial complex” - His caution, in both domestic and international affairs, stood in marked contrast to the attitudes of his successors, who argued that the United States must act more boldly and aggressively on behalf of its goals at home and abroad. </li></ul>

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