Chapter 30 Period 3


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Chapter 30 Period 3

  1. 1. Chapter 30<br />The Affluent Society<br />
  2. 2. Economic Miracle<br />
  3. 3. Sources of Ecomonic Growth<br />Economy was rapidly improving<br />Many say it was due to government and military spending<br />Auto and real estate industries especially getting better because of the spike in population (10x larger w/ baby boom)<br />Average income rose $500 to $1,800<br />At this point, America had the highest standard of living in the world<br />
  4. 4. The Rise of the Modern West<br />Up until this point, the West was the East’s provider, never really an economic power.<br />Population increased because of the addition of dams, power stations, and highways to fulfill population’s needs.<br />Many Military contracts flowed to factories in CA and TX<br />Petroleum and Oil industry bloomed, giving more jobs<br />Good weather<br />The UC and UT schools became the best and largest schools in the country<br />Population rose over 50% between 1940 and 1960<br />
  5. 5. The New Economics<br />The American economic system was getting cocky<br />The US’s implementation of Kynesian economics was a contributing factor.<br />Lack of limits for economic growth led to constant economic growth.<br />
  6. 6. The Explosion of Science and Technology<br />
  7. 7. Medical Breakthrough<br />Antibacterial drugs <br />Based on discoveries by Louis Pasteur and Jules Francois Joubert<br />Produced evidence that harmful bacteria could be defeated by more ordinary by ordinary bacteria<br />1930, antibiotics used to treat blood infectioins<br />Penicilin Discovered in 1928 by Alexander Fleming<br />After finding a method that could make large, usable quantities of it, it became widely available in 1948<br />
  8. 8. Medical Breakthrough (2)<br />Immunization also improved<br />Smallpoc vaccine invented in 18th century<br />Tetanus shots used in ww2<br />Virus shots didnst start coming out until 1930’s<br />Yellow fever, Polio, Influenza<br />
  9. 9. Pesticides <br />Kept Plants free of bugs and bug infections<br />Usually used DDT<br />Saved american solders from insect-carried disease<br />Apparently DDT had long lasting harmful effects on people<br />
  10. 10. Postwar Electronic Research<br />1940’s & 1950’s saw dramatic development in electronic technology<br />1940’s- Televisions, which made it possible to broadcast sounds and images to the general public <br />1950’s- Invented color televisions, but weren’t commercially available until the 1960’s<br />In 1948, Bell Labs produced the first transistor, which allowed for the shrinkage of many devices<br />Integrated circuitry in the 1950’s promoted complicated circuitry by combining what used to be separate components into a single, relatively tiny chip.<br />
  11. 11. Postwar Computer Technology<br />Up until the 1950’s, computers were used only to perform complicated mathematical tasks, like breaking military codes.<br />In 1950, the UNIVAC (Universal Automatic Computer) was born and designed for the US bureau of the cencus<br />It was able to handle alphabetically and numerically organized information better than its predecessors<br />In order to inform the Public of the UNIAC, they decided to have it predict the outcome of the upcoming elevtion (Eisenhower vs Stevenson) on national television.<br />The public now knew computers existed.<br />Later, in the mid 1950’s, IBM introduced the first data processing computers that it successfully sold to businesses in the US, making it the leader for years afterwards.<br />
  12. 12. The UNIVAC<br />
  13. 13. Bombs, Rockets, and Missiles<br />After the development of the hydrogen bomb, which was unlike any other bomb at the time, US and Soviet Union were re-inspired to find a way to send an unmanned explosive from point “a” to a distant point “b”.<br />In 1958, the first ICBM (inter continental ballistic missiles) were successful because of alternate fuel supplies and new generation guidance systems. These were dubbed “Minute Men”<br />Also developed nuclear missiles that could be fired by a submarine underwater in 1960<br />
  14. 14. The Space Program<br />Was originally developed to outdo the Soviet Union, who released Sputnik into the Earth’s orbit <br />Launched the Explorer I soon afterwards in January of 1958<br />In 1958, NASA proposed manned space exploration<br />May 5 1961, Alan Shepard- first American to almost orbit the world.<br />Soviet Cosmonaut Yuri Gagarin had already orbited the earth.<br />Ebruary 2, 162- John Genn: 1st American to orbit the earth. Became a senator for a while, then came back at the age of 77 to go on a space shuttle mission.<br />Soon afterwards, Gemini program started, to carry 2 men at once in a shuttle.<br />
  15. 15. The Space Program (cont)<br />Apollo program focused on putting man on the moon<br />After several setbacks, like a fire in 1067, Neil Armstrong, Edwin Aldrin, and Micheal Collins landed on moons.<br />After 6 more missions, the last one being in 1972, the government cut funding.<br />Then focused on near space travel and further development of the space shuttle, started in 1982<br />January 1986- Challenger exploded.<br />Shuttles were used to place and repair Hubble Space Telescope into the orbit in 1990 <br />The space program gave American aeronautics tremendous boost and was responsible for the development of technologies that proved valuable in other areas.<br />
  16. 16. People of Plenty<br />
  17. 17. The Consumer Culture<br />At the center of middle-class culture in the 1950s, as it had been for many decades before, was a growing absorption with consumer goods. <br />That was a result of increased prosperity, of the increasing variety and availability of products, and of advertisers’ adeptness in creating a demand for those products.<br />Consumers also responded eagerly to the development of such new products as dishwashers, garbage disposals, televisions, hi-fis, stereos, and automobiles. <br />To a striking degree, the prosperity of the 1950s and 1960s was consumer driven (as opposed to investment driven).<br />
  18. 18. The Consumer Culture<br />
  19. 19.
  20. 20. The Suburban Nation<br />By 1960 a third of the nation’s population was living in suburbs—part of a demographic shift almost without precedent in American history.<br />People moved from the cities to the suburbs for many reasons: to escape crowding, crime, pollution, and high costs; to find better schools for their children; and sometimes to escape racial and ethnic diversity—to find a more homogeneous community in which to live.<br />
  21. 21. “Levittown” <br />“Levittown” consisted of several thousand two-bedroom Cape Cod-Style houses, with identical interiors and only slightly varied facades, each perched on its own concrete slab, facing curving, treeless streets. <br />Levittown houses sold for under $10,000.<br />People went to the suburbs to escape the hassles of the city life. <br />
  22. 22. The Suburban Family<br />
  23. 23. The Suburban Family<br />For professional men suburban life generally meant a rigid division between their working and personal worlds.<br />For many middle-class, married women, it meant an increased isolation from the workplace. <br />One of the most influential books in postwar American life was a famous guide to child rearing: Dr. Benjamin Spock’s Baby and Child Care. (1946).<br />The purpose of motherhood he taught, was to help children learn and grow and realize their potential.<br /> Feminism Weakened. <br />
  24. 24.
  25. 25.
  26. 26. The Birth of the Television <br />The growth of televisions developed rapidly shortly after World War II.<br />In 1946 there were only 17,000 sets in the country; by 1956, there were 40 million television sets in use. <br /> T.V. > Refrigerators. <br />T.V. > newspapers<br />
  27. 27. Travel, Outdoor Recreation, and Environmentalism <br />It was not until the post years that vacation travel became truly widespread among middle-income Americans. <br />Nowhere was this surge in travel and recreation more visible than in the nation’s national parks, which experienced the beginnings of what became a permanent surge in attendance in the 1950s. <br />
  28. 28.
  29. 29. Organized Society and Its Detractors<br />White collar workers came to outnumber blue-collar laborers for the first time, and an increasing proportion of them worked in corporate settings with rigid hierarchical structures. <br />The American educational system responded to the demands of this increasingly organized society by experimenting with changes in curriculum and philosophy. <br />
  30. 30. The Beats and the Restless Culture of Youth<br />The most caustic critics of bureaucracy were a group of young poets, writers, and artists generally known as the “beats.”<br />Generally wrote harsh critiques of American life. <br />The beats were the most visible evidence of a widespread restlessness among young Americans in the 1950s. <br />Also what was disturbing was the style to what the youth culture were developing. <br />
  31. 31. Slicked-Back hair<br />
  32. 32. Rock ‘n’ Roll<br />One of the most powerful signs of the restiveness of American youth was the enormous popularity of rock ’n’ roll. <br />One of the greatest early rock star was Elvis Presley. <br />The rise of such white rock musicians as Presley was a result in part of the limited willingness of white audiences to accept black musicians. <br />
  33. 33. Poverty in America<br /> 1960, 30 million americans living below poverty line<br />80% of poverty were temporarily or recently<br />20% were Blacks, Hispanics, and most significantly, Native Americans<br />Farmer’s national income decreases<br />“The Other America” by Michael Harrington<br />highlighted the existence of poverty in America<br />
  34. 34.
  35. 35. Poverty cont.<br />Significant growth of inner-city neighborhoods<br />Why did they remain continually impoverished?<br />Urban Renewal<br />Juvenile crime<br />
  36. 36. Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka<br />Decision of the supreme court made May 17, 1954<br />“Separate but equal” no longer valid<br />Combined effort<br />Thurgood Marshall, William Hastie, and James Narbit<br />Brown decision helps spark a growing number of popular challenges to segregation<br />
  37. 37.
  38. 38. Causes of the Civil Rights Movement<br />WWII<br />Growth of an Urban black Middle-class<br />Television and other forms of pop culture<br />
  39. 39. Eisenhower<br />First Republican administration in 20 years<br />“What was good for our country was good for General Motors, and vice versa.”-Charles Wilson<br />Appointed wealthy corporate lawyers and business executives<br />Limited Federal power and encouraged private enterprise<br />
  40. 40. Eisenhower cont.<br />Sustained welfare policies of the New Deal<br />Federal Highway Act of 1956<br />$25 billion for a 25 year project<br />400,000 miles of interstate highways.<br />
  41. 41. John Foster Dulles<br />Dominant figure in the nation’s foreign policy<br />“Massive retalliation” was most prominent of his innovations<br />
  42. 42. France, America, and Vietnam<br />The war in Korea and Eisenhower<br />July 27, 1953 negotiators at Panmunjom sign an agreement to end hostilities<br />France had been attempting to re-obtain Vietnam<br />Vietnam hopes to gain help from U.S.<br />France ends it’s commitment to Vietnam at an international conference in Geneva<br />
  43. 43. Cold-War Crisis<br />U.S. foreign policy:Containment<br />Fidel Castro marches into Havana, Cuba, January 1, 1959<br />U.S. isolates itself from Cuba and the Soviet Union steps in <br />
  44. 44. The U-2 Crisis<br />Kruschev renews the demands of his predecessors<br />U.S. welcomes him cool and polite<br />
  45. 45. Eisenhower’s Farewell Adress<br />leaves caution with both international and domestic affairs<br />