TECHNOLOGY WILL AngioplastySAVE OUR MINDS AND By: Matthew Cotton BODIES
WHAT IS ANGIOPLAST Y Angioplasty is a medical technology used unblock blood vessels, most commonly the coronary artery. Angioplasty is an minimally invasive medical procedure that involves inserting a small wire with a balloon at the end into an blocked blood vessel. Inflation of the balloon opens up the blockage. Two types of angioplasty include balloon and balloon with a stent.
WHAT IS ANGIOPLAST Y USED FOR? The most common use of angioplasty is for treatment of coronary artery disease (CAD). Less common uses would include unblocking arteries in the abdomen, renal system, neck and limbs. Angioplasty is the most common emergency treatment for acute myocardial infarctions (heart attack).
HOW IS THIS A TECHNOLOGICAL ADVANCEMENT Angioplasty has become leading edge in treatment of patients experiencing a sudden heart attack. Angioplasty can be done within hours of the onset of a heart attack and will give the best prognosis. The surgery is minimal, patients will usually only end up with a small incision on their thigh. Patients can receive a stent in their blood vessel which will allow for increased structure of the vein or artery.
ALTERNATIVES TO ANGIOPLAST Y Coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) Heart Medication Involves open heart Can only be used of surgery. heart attack is mild and Requires blood caught early. vessels, usually taken Can cause dangerous from the legs. bleeding. Longer recovery If it is not successful angioplasty or CAGB More dangerous risks. will still be required. May require patient to Least harmful if be on long term successful medication
DISEASES TREATED: CORONARY ARTERY DISEASE Atherosclerosis is a build up of plaque over time on the walls of the arteries of the heart, caused by increased blood cholesterol levels. Symptoms include: Chest pain that can radiate to arms and jaw (Angina) and Shortness of breath. Complications: Heart attack, Heart failure and arrhythmias. Causes: Sedentary life style, obesity, smoking, family history, high blood pressure and high cholesterol or blood sugar.
DISEASES TREATED CONT’D: ACUTE MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION (AMI) Acute myocardial infarction also known as a heart attack is when atherosclerotic build up in the arteries rupture and cause a blood clot to block the blood flow to the heart. Symptoms include: Chest pain that radiates to the arms and jaw, shortness of breath, sweating, nausea and vomiting, dizziness, weakness, rapid or irregular heart beat. Complications: arrhythmias, heart failure, valve problems and death. Causes: Heart disease, Coronary artery disease.
HOW ANGIOPLAST Y IS PREFORMED The surgeon will make a incision in the groin to a main artery after numbing the area and relaxing the patient with medication. A flexible wire will be inserted in the artery and fed up to the blockage in the heart. Live x -rays will show the surgeon where to go. The wire will be pushed through the blockage and a small balloon will be inflated to open up the blockage. A stent ( wire mesh) may be left in place to keep the artery open. The wire is removed. Blood flow is increased to the body when artery is opened. The incision will be closed and bleeding controlled. Patient will begin recovery.
WHAT IS A STENT The stent is a small tube made of a metal mesh. It is used to treat weak or narrowed blood vessels. Stents are permanent and implanted using angioplasty. Some stents are coated in a slow release medication that helps prevent arteries from becoming blocked.
PROS VS. CONS PROS CONS Fast treatment of a hear t Patient may experience attack in a time dependent intense pain at incision site moment. and during balloon inflation. If successful good long -term May rupture ar ter y (rare). results. Stent may become dislodged. Safer than bypass graf ting Patient may bleed excessively Cheaper than bypass surger y at incision site. Patient recover s faster than by Procedure may cause hear t alternatives attack while surger y is in Good Prognosis progress. Stent may need to be replaced in following years.
PATIENT OUTCOMESThis is a look at patient outcomes with angioplasty vs. bypass surgery. Youcan see that angioplasty is always more successful. Mortality After Bypass Mortality After Angioplasty Surgery 225,915 patients 357,885 patients Ages 30 Day 1 Year 30 Day 1 Year % % % % 65-69 2.1 5.2 4.3 8.0 70-74 3.0 7.3 5.7 10.9 75-79 4.6 10.9 7.4 14.2 >80 7.8 17.3 10.6 19.5
REFERENCES A Maziar Zafari, M. (2013, February 11). Myocardial Infarction . Retrieved from Medscape: http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/155919 -over view American Heart Association . (2012). What is a Stent? Retrieved from Answers by Heart: http://www.heart.org/idc/groups/heart - public/@wcm/@hcm/documents/downloadable/ucm_300452.pdf Dugdale, D. C. (2012, August 18). Angioplasty and stent placement - carotid ar ter y. Retrieved from Medline Plus: http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/002953.htm Latest Morbidity and Mor tality Statistics on Bypass Surger y and Angioplasty. (n.d.). Retrieved from The Noninvasive Heart Center: http://www.heartprotect.com/mortality -stats.shtml Mayoclinic. (2012, June 29). Coronar y ar ter y disease . Retrieved from Mayoclinic: http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/coronary - artery -disease/DS00064