Buddhism Pt 2


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World Religions class for Jon Kohler's Amarillo College class, Spring 2010.

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Buddhism Pt 2

  1. 1. Buddhism pt. 2
  2. 2. Two ways of following the Buddha <ul><li>Theravadin Buddhism </li></ul><ul><li>Mahayana Buddhism </li></ul><ul><li>Comparison </li></ul>
  3. 3. philosophies within Buddhism <ul><li>The Madhyamika School </li></ul><ul><li>The Yogacara School </li></ul>
  4. 4. Buddhism in Asia: <ul><li>Ashoka (273 B.C.E-232 B.C.E ) </li></ul><ul><li>He saw the suffering of his troops and of those he defeated. </li></ul><ul><li>5 actions were done as a result of his observations about suffering. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Buddhism in China: <ul><li>Ming Ti </li></ul><ul><li>Theravadin Buddhism was not well embraced by the Chinese. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Buddhism in China: <ul><li>New schools were founded to teach different routes to salvation. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tian Tai (Tyian-Tai) = heavenly Terrace </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hua-Yen </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Jingtu (ching-T’ U) = pure land Buddhism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chan (Ch’AN) </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Buddhism in Japan <ul><li>Around 552 C.E. Buddhism entered Japan </li></ul>Shinran
  8. 8. Buddhism in Japan <ul><li>Groups of Buddhist spread throughout Japan most of which were centralized around a charismatic leader. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tendai (9th century C.E.) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Shingon (9th century C.E.) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Jodo </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Shinran </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Zen </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nichiren </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Buddhism in Tibet <ul><li>introduced into Tibet around 630 C.E. </li></ul><ul><li>Tibetan Buddhism has three vows: (1) monastic vows, (2) progressive path of the bodhisattva, (3) esoteric precept of the tantras. </li></ul>Dalai Lama
  10. 10. <ul><li>Creation happened through pairs of deities who produce the universe by sexual intercourse. </li></ul><ul><li>Whole universe moves in cycles </li></ul><ul><li>Goal is the heightening of energies rather than relaxation. </li></ul><ul><li>Red monks were more liberal in practice </li></ul><ul><li>Yellow monks were more conservative </li></ul><ul><li>The head of the monastery was the lama and he would be reborn after he died </li></ul>
  11. 11. Buddhism and the West <ul><li>How do we define the Sangha in the US? </li></ul><ul><li>What does democracy do to the Buddhist traditions? </li></ul><ul><li>Ethnicity? </li></ul><ul><li>Gender equality? </li></ul><ul><li>Level of orthodoxy? </li></ul><ul><li>Sectarian issues? </li></ul>
  12. 12. Worldview
  13. 13. The Absolute: <ul><li>Buddha did not believe in traditional gods but he is not an atheist. </li></ul><ul><li>He taught that belief in gods were not essential to the core mission of life. </li></ul><ul><li>All humans have the opportunity of becoming buddhas. </li></ul>
  14. 14. The world: <ul><li>world of experience is only appearance the real world is that of enlightenment. </li></ul><ul><li>Debate as to whether one can experience this reality while living or only after death. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Humans: <ul><li>human body is not permanent. </li></ul><ul><li>Choices that we make can change the future. </li></ul>
  16. 16. The problem for Humans: <ul><li>suffering is the problem for humans. </li></ul><ul><li>Humans are ignorant of their impermanence. </li></ul><ul><li>Suffering is caused by ignorance. </li></ul>
  17. 17. The Solution for Humans: <ul><li>Knowledge is the solution. </li></ul><ul><li>They learn the cause of suffering and learn that something can be done about it. </li></ul><ul><li>Middle path leads to release from suffering. </li></ul><ul><li>Buddha is the model to follow and his eightfold path takes discipline. </li></ul>
  18. 18. Community and Ethics: <ul><li>Sangha was a well organized body of monks </li></ul><ul><li>Individual responsibility in community living. </li></ul><ul><li>Karma is recognized by Buddhist. </li></ul><ul><li>There is no self to be reborn but one’s actions affect others. </li></ul><ul><li>One must live an exemplary life now. </li></ul><ul><li>Strong social concern. </li></ul><ul><li>Impersonal goodwill toward all human beings. </li></ul><ul><li>Morality: avoid theft, drunkenness, injury to others…etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Celibacy for monks (except in the tantric rituals) </li></ul><ul><li>Make no caste distinctions. </li></ul>
  19. 19. Women in Buddhism <ul><li>women can become nuns. </li></ul><ul><li>They were considered lower than their male counterparts. </li></ul>
  20. 20. Interpretation of History <ul><li>no vision of the end of history. </li></ul><ul><li>More concerned with the progress of the individual than the whole of history. </li></ul>
  21. 21. Rituals and Symbols <ul><li>central figure is the Buddha pictured in a meditative state. </li></ul><ul><li>Bowing or kneeling before the image of the Buddha. </li></ul><ul><li>Wheel of dharma that stands for the Buddha’s teaching. </li></ul><ul><li>Followers take refuge in the Buddha, Dharma, and Sangha </li></ul><ul><li>Rigorous and extensive initiation into the order. </li></ul>
  22. 22. Life after Death: <ul><li>In theory, there is nothing to carry over from one life to the other. </li></ul><ul><li>An individual’s moral impact in personal and social life carries over. </li></ul><ul><li>Some forms of Buddhism focuses on the individual’s experience after death. </li></ul>
  23. 23. Buddhism and other Religions: <ul><li>ready to cooperate rather than condemn </li></ul>