Chapter 19 : Infertility and Assisted Reproductivity Technologies Teachback
BY: MATTI DORVAL
WOMEN’S HEALTH ISSUES, HE 210
Infertility and Assisted
“ Many of us grow up dreaming about the day when we
will have children. The forces that contribute to these
desires are complex, powerful, spiritual, and
sometimes unexplainable. Our longing for children is
a deep primal need, and being unable to conceive or
carry a pregnancy to term can be devastating.” (P.474)
Used to describe postmenopausal women, singles,
and same-sex couples who turn to fertility
treatments and/or adoption for family building.
What is Infertility?
Medically defined as the inability to become pregnant
after twelve months of regular sexual intercourse
without birth control, or for women age 35, six
Also refers to women who are unable to carry a
pregnancy to term.
The Center for Disease Control and prevention (CDC)
estimates that at least 1 in 10 U.S. women age 15 to 44
has difficulty pregnant or staying pregnant.
Why Males Experience Infertility
Abnormal sperm production or function
Problems with the delivery of sperm Overexposure to
certain chemicals and toxins.
Damage related to cancer and its treatment
Why Women Experience Infertility
Uterine or cervical abnormalities
Fallopian tube damage or blockage
Primary ovarian insufficiency
Cancer and its treatment
What Maximizes Fertility
Alcohol, tobacco, and other drugs
Sleep and relaxation
The Infertility Workup
A general and medical history of the woman and the male
partner, if there is one.
A thorough gynecologic examination
Ovarian reserve testing
Drugs- a variety of drugs is used to correct hormonal
imbalances, induce ovulation, supress ovulation, and
prepare the uterus.
Surgery-surgical techniques can sometimes correct
structural problems of the cervix, uterus, and tubes.
Intrauterine Insemination (IUI)-a relatively simple
infertility treatment in which a very thin flexible
catheter is used to place specially washed and
prepared sperm directly into the uterus.
Treating Infertility Cont’d
Assisted reproductive technologies- (ARTs) are
procedures used to treat infertility in which both
eggs and sperm are manipulated outside the body.
These procedures involve surgically removing eggs
from a woman’s ovaries, combining with sperm in
the laboratory, the returning the fertilized eggs or
embryos to the women’s body or donating them to
In Vitro Ferilization (IVF)
A complex series of procedures used to treat fertility
or genetic problems and assist with the conception of
During IVF, mature eggs are collected (retrieved)
from your ovaries and fertilized by sperm in a lab.
Collaborative (Third-Party) Reproduction
The process when another person provides sperm,
eggs, or embryos or when another woman provides
her uterus so that a family can have a child.
The donor’s or surrogate’s involvement is limited to
the reproductive process and does not extend to
raising the child.
Can be complicated and involves a number of
important considerations to ensure a safe and
Insemination with donor sperm involves using the
sperm of a man who is not your partner to conceive
Families interested in donor sperm can use a known
donor or find an anonymous donor through a sperm
A donor’s eggs have to be retrieved and fertilized by
the partners or donors sperm, any resulting embryos
will be placed within in the uterus or in the uterus of
a gestational carrier.
Surrogate and Gestational Carriers
Surrogate- a woman who is willing to be
impregnated using IVF and carry a baby for the
intended parents to help them build their family.
Traditional surrogacy- when a woman offers to use
her own eggs and carry the child as well for the
Gestational surrogacy- when an egg is fertilized
outside the body and then implanted into the
gestational surrogate, who has no genetic connection
to the child.
Should most health insurances cover infertility
Our Bodies, Ourselves. New York: Simon & Schuster,