Español 3 Grammer Book- Mateo Y.
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Español 3 Grammer Book- Mateo Y. Español 3 Grammer Book- Mateo Y. Presentation Transcript

  • Español3 GrammarBook
    Mateo Yarbrough
    Period 3
  • Table of Contents
  • Table of Contents (Cont.)
  • Preterite Tense
    • Preterite is used for past actions that are seen as completed
    Endings
    Examples:
    • No hice las tareas por la tarde
    • Me acosté a las once
    • ¿ A qué hora terminaste tus tareas?
  • Preterite Trigger Words
    These are the words which will tell you when to use the preterite rather than other tenses such as the present or imperfect tense.
  • Examples
    yo jugué (jugar)
    yo busqué (buscar)
    yo almorcé (almorzar)
    Car/Gar/Zar Verbs
    Common Verbs
  • Spock Verbs
    Ir
    Dar
    Ver
    Ser
    Hacer
    Spock Verbs!!!
  • Andar: Anduv-
    Estar: Estuv-
    Poner: Pus-
    Poder: Pud-
    Querer: Quis-
    Saber: Sup-
    Tener: Tuv-
    Venir: Vin-
    Decir: Dij-
    Traer: Traj-
    Conducir: Conduj-
    Cucaracha Verbs
    Other Irregulars
    • Verbs Ending in –uir change in 3rd person change to yó and yeron
    • All –ir stem changing verbs in the present tense change from e-i or o-u in the 3rd person
  • ir stem-changing verbs do change in the preterite (e:i and o:u third person singular and plural)
    Snake/Snakey Verbs
    • ER & IR verbs whose stems end in a vowel need a strong Y to replace the I in 3rd person forms.
    Examples:
    Examples:
    Leer- Leyó/ Leyeron
  • Imperfect Tense
    Use for actions that were in the past but not completed
    Conjugations
    Examples
    • Yo trabajaba en la oficina.
    • Elloscomían los tacos.
    • Tú dormías
  • These are the words which will tell you when to use imperfect tense instead of a tense such as the present or preterite.
    Trigger Words
  • Irregulars in the Imperfect Tense
    There are only three real irregulars in this tense and are conjugated below.
    Examples
    • Juan iba a la iglesia los domingos.
    • Tú eras un alumno inteligente.
    • Nosotrosveíamos la tele.
  • Preterite vs. Imperfect
    When to use:
    When to use:
    Expressing actions that are complete
    Expressing ending or beginning of an action in the past
    Tell a series of event in the past or a specific time
    Tell of an action still ongoing
    Tell of events that were habitual
    Tell of a state both physical or emotional as well as characteristics
    Simultaneous event occurring
    VS.
    Examples
    Examples
    • Yohablaba mucho cuando era niño.
    • Yo corría en la calle cuando eraniña.
    • Yo trabajé en la oficina ayer.
    • Yotomé la medicina.
  • Ser vs. Estar
    Conjugations
    In Spanish, both Ser and Estar translateto mean “tobe”. It can sometimesbetrickyto decide whichoneto use so weturnto DOCTOR PED and HELPING.
  • DOCTOR PED
    Ser
    Description(Ella es baja.)Occupation(Soy doctor.)Characteristic(El es simpático.)Time / Date(Son las nueve.)Origin(Soy de Georgia.)Relationship(El es mi padre.)
    Possessions (Es mi mochilla.)
    Events (Mi cumpleanos es en mi casa.)
    Dates (Hoy es el nueve de junio )
    HELPING
    Estar
    Health (Ella esta enferma)
    Emotion (Ella esta feliz)
    Location (Esta en la escuela)
    PresentCondition
    I
    N
    G
    Verbs ending in –ing
    • -ando
    • -yendo/endo
    (Estaayudando)
  • Aburrir, Encantar, Faltar, fascinar, importar, interesar, molestar, quedar, caer bien/mal, doler, disgustar, hacer, faltar, preocupar, sorprender, apetecer
    When followed by verbs in the infinitive, always use singular form
    Often used in the conditional (me gustaría) to soften request
    Verbs like Gustar
    Examples:
    • Me gusta tu pelo.
    • Nos faltan la escuela y tarea.
    Me, Te, Le, Nos, Les
  • EX
    La casa es grande.
    El granero es mas grande que la casa.
    El castillo es el mas grande de todas.
    EX
    Este dinosaurio es feroz.
    Este dinosaurio es menos feroz que el otro.
    Este dinosaurio es el menos feroz del mundo.
    Comparativos y Superlativos
    Irregulares
    Bueno- mejor
    Viejo- mayor
    Malo- Peor
    Joven- Menor
    Números
    Hay mas de cinco elefantes.
    Hay menos de siete elefantes.
    La manzana es bueno
    El plátano es mejor que la manzana.
    Las cerezas son las mejores de todos las frutas
  • Connecting Words
    Aunque- even though
    Tambien- also
    Mientras- while
    A resir de- in spite of
    Pero- but
    Por lo tanto- Therefore
    Sin embargo/ no obstante- Nevertheless
    Transition Words
    These words can be used to link or connect different parts of a sentence.
  • Future Tense
    To conjugate, simply take the infinitive of the verb and add the endings to the right on the end.
    This tense is used to tell what "will" happen, or what "shall" happen.
    It is also used to express wonder or probability in the present state.
    The future tense is not used to express a willingness to do something.
    Examples
    • El lunes iré al hospital. I'll go to the hospital on Monday.
    • Esta noche miramos la televisión.  
    Tonight we'll watch TV.
    • Serán las ocho.
    It must be 8:00.
  • Mañana, pasadomañana
    Añoqueviene
    Añopróximo
    Es un/dos/ treshoras
    Future Trigger Words
  • These verbs have the same endings as the normal future tense
    The future tense of the word hay is habrá: There will be
    Future Tense Irregulars
    Meaning
    Verbs
    Conjugation
    Examples
    • Enrique nosdirá la verdad.Enrique will tell us the truth.
    • ¿Quiénesvendránconmigo?
    Who will come with me?
    • Pondré la mesa en seguida.
    I'll set the table right away.
  • Passing through- Portal
    General rather than specific location- Portugal
    How long something lasts- Porever
    The cause of something- Porpuse
    An Exchange- Import/Export
    Doing something in place of or instead of someone else- I’m por, pay for me
    A means of transportation- Transportation
    Examples
    Viajamosportressemanas.
    Me caí por la nieve
    Por
  • For whom something is done- Surprise Paraty
    Destination- Paraguay
    The purpose for which something is done- Parachute
    To express an opinion- Paradon me, but…
    To contrast of Compare- Compara
    To express idea of deadline- Paramedic
    Para
  • Conditional Form and Irregulars
    Would, Should, Could
    Often used with verbs such as gustar
    Endings
    ía
    ías
    ía
    íamos
    ían
    Ex.
    ¿Quéhorasería?What time could it have been?
    Estaría en su casa.He must have been at home.
  • Madebycombining"has" or "have" with the past participle
    Two verbs are required: the main verb and the auxiliary verb (Haber)
    Haber:
    he
    has
    ha
    hemos
    habéis
    han
    Present Perfect Tense
    Ex.
    He comido. I have eaten.
    He pagado la cuenta. I have paid the bill.
  • Formed by combining the auxiliary verb "had" with the past participle.
    Formed by using the imperfect tense of the auxiliary verb "haber" with the past participle.
    Haber:
    había
    habías
    había
    habíamos
    habíais
    habían
    Past Perfect Tense
    Ex.
    Habíavivido. I had lived.
    Juanhabíaabierto las puertas. Juan hadopenedthedoors.
  • The future perfect is formed by combining the auxiliary verb "haber" with the past participle. In this case, "haber" is conjugated in the future tense.
    Used to describe what will have happened in the future before a different action takes place, or by a specific time.
    Haber:
    habré
    habrás
    habrá
    habremos
    habréis
    habrán
    Future Perfect Tense
    Ex.
    Habrá pagado todas las deudas para el dos de octubre.He willhavepaidallthedebtbyOctober 2.
    Habremos vuelto de España para el doce de junio.WewillhavereturnedfromSpainby June 12.
  • Used when a verb or expression requiring the subjunctive in the main clause is in the present, future, or present perfect
    Used to indicate the action as completed with governing verbs in the present or future tense or command forms
    Haber
    Haya
    Hayas
    Haya
    Hayamos
    hayan
    Perfect Subjunctive
    Ex.
    1. I doubt that you did it
    Dudoque lo hayashecho
  • To form the comparisons of equality using adjectives or adverbs, use tan + adjective (adverb) + como
    To form comparisons of equality with nouns, use tanto(-a,-os,-as) + noun + como
    Tan vs. Tanto
    Ex.
    Juan tiene tanto dinero como María.(as muchmoney as)
    El libroestan buenocomo la película.(The book is as good as the movie.)
  • The English equivalent of 'one' and 'people.'
    Refers to an unidentified human agent.
    It only uses intransitive verbs and 'objectless' transitive verbs
    The verb is always singular.
    Ex.
    1. En los EstadosUnidos se come mucho.
    People eat a lot in the United States.
    2. Se puede encontrar cocos en el mercado.You can findcoconuts in themarket.
    Impersonal “se”
  • Both used to express the idea "to know"
    Not interchangeable
    saber: to know (facts, information, how to do something, something by heart)
    conocer: to know (to be familiar with people, places, things)
    Ex.
    1. Juan sabe donde está María.Juan knowswhereMariais.
    2. Alberto y Alfredo conocen Madrid.Alberto and Alfredo know (are acquainted with) Madrid.
    Saber vs. Conocer
  • Used when ordering, or telling someone to do something. This is often referred to as the "imperative" form of the verb.
    Informal, or familiar, speech is used among friends, coworkers, relatives, or when addressing a child. Formal speech is generally used to be polite or to express respect. For that reason, the formal commands are often referred to as polite commands
    Los Mandatos- Informal vs. Formal
  • Tu Commands (Informal)
    Usted Commands (Formal)
    Affirmative Commands
    -ar verbs:-e (for Ud.), -en (for Uds.)
    -er and -ir verbs:-a (for Ud.), -an (for Uds.)
    The affirmative informal (tú) commands are formed the same way as the present indicative Ud. form
  • Tu Commands (Informal)
    Usted Commands (Formal)
    Negative Commands
    • negative commands use the same verb forms as in the affirmative ones
    • Use the present subjunctive tú form
  • Ex.
    Di la verdad.
    (Tell the truth.)
    No digasmentiras.
    (Don't tell lies.)
    Haztutarea.
    (Do your homework.)
    No hagaseso.
    (Don't do that.)
    Irregular Commands
    • only occur with affirmative tú commands
  • DOP and IOP Placement
    The I.O.P. is placed before a conjugated verb.
    In Spanish, the D.O.P. must be placed before the verb when there is only one verb.
    Ex.
    Tus padrestedandinero.
    Your parents give you money. (give money to you)
    Ex.
    Si, lovoy a comprar. (in front)
    Yes, I am going to buy it.
  • With affirmative commands, the final "s" of the verb form is dropped before adding the pronoun "nos“
    Let us = English Equivalent
    Ex. Sentemos + nos = Sentémonos.Let's sit down.
    Nosotros Commands: Mono Verbs
  • The subjunctive mood is rarely used in English, but it is widely used in Spanish
    Used to express everything except certainty and objectivity: things like doubt, uncertainty, subjectivity, etc.
    For most verbs, the present subjunctive is formed by following these three steps:
    Forming it:
    Start with the yo form of the present indicative.
    Then drop the -o ending.
    Finally, add the following endings:
    -ar verbs:-e, -es, -e, -emos, -éis, -en
    -er and -ir verbs:-a, -as, -a, -amos, -áis, -an
    Subjunctive Tense and Triggers
    Ex.
    Nosalegramos de quetegustenlasflores.
    We are happy that you like the flowers.
    Temoquemisestudianteslluguentarde.
    Im afraid my students will arrive late.
  • dar
    dédesdédemosdeisden
    estar
    estéestésestéestemosestéisestén
    haber
    hayahayashayahayamoshayáishayan
    Subjunctive Irregulars
    ir
    • vayavayasvayavayamosvayáisvayan
    saber
    • sepasepassepasepamossepáissepan
    ser
    • sea seas seaseamosseáissean
  • Impersonal Expressions
    a menosque ...unless ...
    antes (de) que ...before ...
    con tal (de) que ...provided that ...
    cuando ...when ...
    convieneque ...it is advisable that ...
    después (de) que ...after ...
    dudarque ...to doubt that ...
    en caso de que ...in case ...
    en cuanto ...as soon as ...
    esaconsejableque ...it's advisable that ...
    esbuenoque ...it's good that ...
    esdifícilque ...it's unlikely that ...
    esdudosoque ...it is doubtful that ...
    esfácilque ...it's likely that ...
    esfantásticoque ...it's fantastic that ...
    esimportanteque ...it's important that ...
    esimposibleque ...it's impossible that ...
    These are just some of the more common interpersonal expressions. There are many more.
    impersonal expressions trigger the use of the indicative mood, since they introduce a quality of certainty or objectivity.
  • Indicate fear, happiness, anger, regret, surprise, or other sentiments or biases
    Expressions of Emotion
  • take the indicative when the action in the subordinate clause is either habitual or in the past. The subjunctive is used when the main clause is a command or in the (potential) future
    Phrases:
    asíque
    as soon as
    Cuando
    when
    despues de que
    after
    en cuanto
    as soon as
    hastaque
    until
    luegoque
    as soon as
    tan pronto como
    as soon as
    Conjunctions of Time
    Ex.
    Trabajéhastaquemisniños me llamaron. 
    I worked until my kids called.
    Trabajohastaquemisniños me llaman.
    I (usually) work until my kids call.
    Trabajahastaquetusniñostellamen.
    Work until your kids call.
    Trabajaréhastaquemisniños me llamen.
    I'll work until my kids call.
  • Demonstrative Adjectives and Pronouns
    Spanish has three words where English only has two. In English, we say "this" or "that" depending upon whether the object is close to us or not.
    In Spanish, we also say "this" and "that," but there is another, separate word used to mean "that one over there."
    This form is used when the object is more than just a short distance away, for example, on the other side of the room.
    Demonstrative adjectives agree in gender and number with the noun modified, and they regularly precede the noun.
    The demonstrative pronouns are the same in form as the demonstrative adjectives, but they always have the accent mark: éste, ése, aquél, ésa, aquélla, etc.
    • estethis
    • esethat
    • aquelthat one over there