Español 3 Grammer Book- Mateo Y.

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Español 3 Grammer Book- Mateo Y.

  1. 1. Español3 GrammarBook<br />Mateo Yarbrough<br />Period 3<br />
  2. 2. Table of Contents<br />
  3. 3. Table of Contents (Cont.)<br />
  4. 4. Preterite Tense<br /><ul><li>Preterite is used for past actions that are seen as completed</li></ul>Endings<br />Examples:<br /><ul><li>No hice las tareas por la tarde
  5. 5. Me acosté a las once
  6. 6. ¿ A qué hora terminaste tus tareas?</li></li></ul><li>Preterite Trigger Words<br />These are the words which will tell you when to use the preterite rather than other tenses such as the present or imperfect tense.<br />
  7. 7. Examples<br />yo jugué (jugar)<br />yo busqué (buscar)<br />yo almorcé (almorzar)<br />Car/Gar/Zar Verbs<br />Common Verbs<br />
  8. 8. Spock Verbs<br />Ir<br />Dar<br />Ver<br />Ser<br />Hacer<br />Spock Verbs!!!<br />
  9. 9. Andar: Anduv-<br />Estar: Estuv-<br />Poner: Pus-<br />Poder: Pud-<br />Querer: Quis-<br />Saber: Sup-<br />Tener: Tuv-<br />Venir: Vin-<br />Decir: Dij-<br />Traer: Traj-<br />Conducir: Conduj-<br />Cucaracha Verbs<br />Other Irregulars<br /><ul><li>Verbs Ending in –uir change in 3rd person change to yó and yeron
  10. 10. All –ir stem changing verbs in the present tense change from e-i or o-u in the 3rd person</li></li></ul><li>ir stem-changing verbs do change in the preterite (e:i and o:u third person singular and plural)<br />Snake/Snakey Verbs<br /><ul><li>ER & IR verbs whose stems end in a vowel need a strong Y to replace the I in 3rd person forms.</li></ul>Examples:<br />Examples:<br />Leer- Leyó/ Leyeron<br />
  11. 11. Imperfect Tense<br />Use for actions that were in the past but not completed<br />Conjugations<br />Examples<br /><ul><li>Yo trabajaba en la oficina.
  12. 12. Elloscomían los tacos.
  13. 13. Tú dormías </li></li></ul><li>These are the words which will tell you when to use imperfect tense instead of a tense such as the present or preterite.<br />Trigger Words<br />
  14. 14. Irregulars in the Imperfect Tense<br />There are only three real irregulars in this tense and are conjugated below. <br />Examples<br /><ul><li>Juan iba a la iglesia los domingos.
  15. 15. Tú eras un alumno inteligente.
  16. 16. Nosotrosveíamos la tele. </li></li></ul><li>Preterite vs. Imperfect<br />When to use:<br />When to use:<br />Expressing actions that are complete<br />Expressing ending or beginning of an action in the past<br />Tell a series of event in the past or a specific time<br />Tell of an action still ongoing<br />Tell of events that were habitual<br />Tell of a state both physical or emotional as well as characteristics<br />Simultaneous event occurring<br />VS.<br />Examples<br />Examples<br /><ul><li>Yohablaba mucho cuando era niño.
  17. 17. Yo corría en la calle cuando eraniña.
  18. 18. Yo trabajé en la oficina ayer.
  19. 19. Yotomé la medicina.</li></li></ul><li>Ser vs. Estar<br />Conjugations<br />In Spanish, both Ser and Estar translateto mean “tobe”. It can sometimesbetrickyto decide whichoneto use so weturnto DOCTOR PED and HELPING.<br />
  20. 20. DOCTOR PED<br />Ser<br />Description(Ella es baja.)Occupation(Soy doctor.)Characteristic(El es simpático.)Time / Date(Son las nueve.)Origin(Soy de Georgia.)Relationship(El es mi padre.)<br />Possessions (Es mi mochilla.)<br />Events (Mi cumpleanos es en mi casa.)<br />Dates (Hoy es el nueve de junio )<br />HELPING<br />Estar<br />Health (Ella esta enferma)<br />Emotion (Ella esta feliz)<br />Location (Esta en la escuela)<br />PresentCondition<br />I<br />N<br />G<br />Verbs ending in –ing<br /><ul><li> -ando
  21. 21. -yendo/endo</li></ul>(Estaayudando)<br />
  22. 22. Aburrir, Encantar, Faltar, fascinar, importar, interesar, molestar, quedar, caer bien/mal, doler, disgustar, hacer, faltar, preocupar, sorprender, apetecer<br />When followed by verbs in the infinitive, always use singular form<br />Often used in the conditional (me gustaría) to soften request<br />Verbs like Gustar<br />Examples:<br /><ul><li>Me gusta tu pelo.
  23. 23. Nos faltan la escuela y tarea.</li></ul>Me, Te, Le, Nos, Les<br />
  24. 24. EX<br />La casa es grande.<br />El granero es mas grande que la casa.<br />El castillo es el mas grande de todas.<br />EX<br />Este dinosaurio es feroz.<br />Este dinosaurio es menos feroz que el otro.<br />Este dinosaurio es el menos feroz del mundo.<br />Comparativos y Superlativos<br />Irregulares<br />Bueno- mejor<br />Viejo- mayor<br />Malo- Peor<br />Joven- Menor<br />Números <br />Hay mas de cinco elefantes. <br />Hay menos de siete elefantes.<br />La manzana es bueno<br />El plátano es mejor que la manzana.<br />Las cerezas son las mejores de todos las frutas<br />
  25. 25. Connecting Words<br />Aunque- even though<br />Tambien- also<br />Mientras- while<br />A resir de- in spite of<br />Pero- but<br />Por lo tanto- Therefore<br />Sin embargo/ no obstante- Nevertheless<br />Transition Words<br />These words can be used to link or connect different parts of a sentence.<br />
  26. 26. Future Tense<br />To conjugate, simply take the infinitive of the verb and add the endings to the right on the end.<br />This tense is used to tell what "will" happen, or what "shall" happen.<br />It is also used to express wonder or probability in the present state.<br />The future tense is not used to express a willingness to do something.<br />Examples<br /><ul><li>El lunes iré al hospital. I'll go to the hospital on Monday.
  27. 27. Esta noche miramos la televisión.   </li></ul>Tonight we'll watch TV.<br /><ul><li>Serán las ocho. </li></ul>It must be 8:00.<br />
  28. 28. Mañana, pasadomañana<br />Añoqueviene<br />Añopróximo<br />Es un/dos/ treshoras<br />Future Trigger Words<br />
  29. 29. These verbs have the same endings as the normal future tense<br />The future tense of the word hay is habrá: There will be<br />Future Tense Irregulars<br />Meaning<br />Verbs<br />Conjugation<br />Examples<br /><ul><li>Enrique nosdirá la verdad.Enrique will tell us the truth.
  30. 30. ¿Quiénesvendránconmigo?</li></ul>Who will come with me?<br /><ul><li>Pondré la mesa en seguida.</li></ul>I'll set the table right away.<br />
  31. 31. Passing through- Portal<br />General rather than specific location- Portugal<br />How long something lasts- Porever<br />The cause of something- Porpuse<br />An Exchange- Import/Export<br />Doing something in place of or instead of someone else- I’m por, pay for me<br />A means of transportation- Transportation<br />Examples<br />Viajamosportressemanas.<br />Me caí por la nieve<br />Por<br />
  32. 32. For whom something is done- Surprise Paraty<br />Destination- Paraguay<br />The purpose for which something is done- Parachute<br />To express an opinion- Paradon me, but…<br />To contrast of Compare- Compara<br />To express idea of deadline- Paramedic<br />Para<br />
  33. 33. Conditional Form and Irregulars<br />Would, Should, Could<br />Often used with verbs such as gustar<br />Endings<br />ía<br />ías<br />ía<br />íamos<br />ían<br />Ex. <br />¿Quéhorasería?What time could it have been?<br />Estaría en su casa.He must have been at home.<br />
  34. 34. Madebycombining"has" or "have" with the past participle<br />Two verbs are required: the main verb and the auxiliary verb (Haber)<br />Haber:<br />he<br />has<br />ha<br />hemos<br />habéis<br />han<br />Present Perfect Tense<br />Ex.<br />He comido. I have eaten.<br />He pagado la cuenta. I have paid the bill.<br />
  35. 35. Formed by combining the auxiliary verb "had" with the past participle.<br />Formed by using the imperfect tense of the auxiliary verb "haber" with the past participle. <br />Haber:<br />había<br />habías<br />había<br />habíamos<br />habíais<br />habían<br />Past Perfect Tense<br />Ex.<br />Habíavivido. I had lived.<br />Juanhabíaabierto las puertas. Juan hadopenedthedoors.<br />
  36. 36. The future perfect is formed by combining the auxiliary verb "haber" with the past participle. In this case, "haber" is conjugated in the future tense.<br />Used to describe what will have happened in the future before a different action takes place, or by a specific time.<br />Haber:<br />habré<br />habrás<br />habrá<br />habremos<br />habréis<br />habrán<br />Future Perfect Tense<br />Ex.<br />Habrá pagado todas las deudas para el dos de octubre.He willhavepaidallthedebtbyOctober 2.<br />Habremos vuelto de España para el doce de junio.WewillhavereturnedfromSpainby June 12.<br />
  37. 37. Used when a verb or expression requiring the subjunctive in the main clause is in the present, future, or present perfect<br />Used to indicate the action as completed with governing verbs in the present or future tense or command forms<br />Haber<br />Haya<br />Hayas<br />Haya<br />Hayamos<br />hayan<br />Perfect Subjunctive<br />Ex. <br />1. I doubt that you did it <br />Dudoque lo hayashecho<br />
  38. 38. To form the comparisons of equality using adjectives or adverbs, use tan + adjective (adverb) + como<br />To form comparisons of equality with nouns, use tanto(-a,-os,-as) + noun + como<br />Tan vs. Tanto<br />Ex.<br />Juan tiene tanto dinero como María.(as muchmoney as)<br />El libroestan buenocomo la película.(The book is as good as the movie.)<br />
  39. 39. The English equivalent of 'one' and 'people.' <br />Refers to an unidentified human agent. <br />It only uses intransitive verbs and 'objectless' transitive verbs <br />The verb is always singular. <br />Ex. <br />1. En los EstadosUnidos se come mucho.<br /> People eat a lot in the United States.<br />2. Se puede encontrar cocos en el mercado.You can findcoconuts in themarket.<br />Impersonal “se”<br />
  40. 40. Both used to express the idea "to know" <br />Not interchangeable<br />saber: to know (facts, information, how to do something, something by heart)<br />conocer: to know (to be familiar with people, places, things)<br />Ex.<br />1. Juan sabe donde está María.Juan knowswhereMariais.<br />2. Alberto y Alfredo conocen Madrid.Alberto and Alfredo know (are acquainted with) Madrid.<br />Saber vs. Conocer<br />
  41. 41. Used when ordering, or telling someone to do something. This is often referred to as the "imperative" form of the verb.<br />Informal, or familiar, speech is used among friends, coworkers, relatives, or when addressing a child. Formal speech is generally used to be polite or to express respect. For that reason, the formal commands are often referred to as polite commands<br />Los Mandatos- Informal vs. Formal<br />
  42. 42. Tu Commands (Informal)<br />Usted Commands (Formal)<br />Affirmative Commands<br />-ar verbs:-e (for Ud.), -en (for Uds.)<br />-er and -ir verbs:-a (for Ud.), -an (for Uds.)<br />The affirmative informal (tú) commands are formed the same way as the present indicative Ud. form<br />
  43. 43. Tu Commands (Informal)<br />Usted Commands (Formal)<br />Negative Commands<br /><ul><li>negative commands use the same verb forms as in the affirmative ones
  44. 44. Use the present subjunctive tú form</li></li></ul><li>Ex.<br />Di la verdad.<br />(Tell the truth.)<br />No digasmentiras.<br />(Don't tell lies.)<br />Haztutarea.<br />(Do your homework.)<br />No hagaseso.<br />(Don't do that.)<br />Irregular Commands<br /><ul><li>only occur with affirmative tú commands</li></li></ul><li>DOP and IOP Placement<br />The I.O.P. is placed before a conjugated verb.<br />In Spanish, the D.O.P. must be placed before the verb when there is only one verb. <br />Ex.<br />Tus padrestedandinero. <br />Your parents give you money. (give money to you)<br />Ex.<br />Si, lovoy a comprar. (in front) <br />Yes, I am going to buy it.<br />
  45. 45. With affirmative commands, the final "s" of the verb form is dropped before adding the pronoun "nos“<br />Let us = English Equivalent<br />Ex. Sentemos + nos = Sentémonos.Let's sit down.<br />Nosotros Commands: Mono Verbs<br />
  46. 46. The subjunctive mood is rarely used in English, but it is widely used in Spanish<br />Used to express everything except certainty and objectivity: things like doubt, uncertainty, subjectivity, etc.<br />For most verbs, the present subjunctive is formed by following these three steps:<br />Forming it:<br />Start with the yo form of the present indicative. <br />Then drop the -o ending. <br />Finally, add the following endings: <br />-ar verbs:-e, -es, -e, -emos, -éis, -en<br />-er and -ir verbs:-a, -as, -a, -amos, -áis, -an<br />Subjunctive Tense and Triggers<br />Ex. <br />Nosalegramos de quetegustenlasflores.<br />We are happy that you like the flowers.<br />Temoquemisestudianteslluguentarde.<br />Im afraid my students will arrive late.<br />
  47. 47. dar<br />dédesdédemosdeisden<br />estar<br />estéestésestéestemosestéisestén<br />haber<br />hayahayashayahayamoshayáishayan<br />Subjunctive Irregulars<br />ir<br /><ul><li>vayavayasvayavayamosvayáisvayan</li></ul>saber<br /><ul><li>sepasepassepasepamossepáissepan</li></ul>ser<br /><ul><li> sea seas seaseamosseáissean</li></li></ul><li>Impersonal Expressions<br />a menosque ...unless ...<br />antes (de) que ...before ...<br />con tal (de) que ...provided that ...<br />cuando ...when ...<br />convieneque ...it is advisable that ...<br />después (de) que ...after ...<br />dudarque ...to doubt that ...<br />en caso de que ...in case ...<br />en cuanto ...as soon as ...<br />esaconsejableque ...it's advisable that ...<br />esbuenoque ...it's good that ...<br />esdifícilque ...it's unlikely that ...<br />esdudosoque ...it is doubtful that ...<br />esfácilque ...it's likely that ...<br />esfantásticoque ...it's fantastic that ...<br />esimportanteque ...it's important that ...<br />esimposibleque ...it's impossible that ...<br />These are just some of the more common interpersonal expressions. There are many more.<br />impersonal expressions trigger the use of the indicative mood, since they introduce a quality of certainty or objectivity.<br />
  48. 48. Indicate fear, happiness, anger, regret, surprise, or other sentiments or biases<br />Expressions of Emotion<br />
  49. 49. take the indicative when the action in the subordinate clause is either habitual or in the past. The subjunctive is used when the main clause is a command or in the (potential) future<br />Phrases:<br />asíque<br />as soon as<br />Cuando<br />when<br />despues de que<br />after <br />en cuanto<br />as soon as <br />hastaque<br />until <br />luegoque<br />as soon as <br />tan pronto como<br />as soon as <br />Conjunctions of Time<br />Ex. <br />Trabajéhastaquemisniños me llamaron.  <br />I worked until my kids called.<br />Trabajohastaquemisniños me llaman. <br />I (usually) work until my kids call.<br />Trabajahastaquetusniñostellamen. <br />Work until your kids call.<br />Trabajaréhastaquemisniños me llamen. <br />I'll work until my kids call.<br />
  50. 50. Demonstrative Adjectives and Pronouns<br />Spanish has three words where English only has two. In English, we say "this" or "that" depending upon whether the object is close to us or not. <br />In Spanish, we also say "this" and "that," but there is another, separate word used to mean "that one over there." <br />This form is used when the object is more than just a short distance away, for example, on the other side of the room. <br />Demonstrative adjectives agree in gender and number with the noun modified, and they regularly precede the noun.<br />The demonstrative pronouns are the same in form as the demonstrative adjectives, but they always have the accent mark: éste, ése, aquél, ésa, aquélla, etc.<br /><ul><li>estethis
  51. 51. esethat
  52. 52. aquelthat one over there</li>

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