Panel discussion 1 (Sat July 2)


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  • Thus, thus we started this study. Our study is a follow-up study of Keita’s qualitative study. He explored several demotivating factors using qualitative techniques. We developed the questionnaire on the basis of his study. And we administered the questionnaire to university students.
  • The questionnaire consisted of 35 items with a 5-point scale and two open-ended questions. The questionnaire was made online by Surveymonkey.
  • Panel discussion 1 (Sat July 2)

    1. 1. Panel Discussion 1 CUE 2011 Conference The intersection of motivation and cultural identity
    2. 2. Panel Discussion 1 CUE 2011 Conference Keita Kikuchi Yoshiyuki Nakata Ema Ushioda The intersection of motivation and cultural identity
    3. 3. Panel Discussion 1 The intersection of motivation and cultural identity CUE 2011 Conference Ema Ushioda
    4. 4. Ema Ushioda University of Warwick The intersection of motivation and cultural identity Panel discussion – JALT CUE 2011
    5. 5. Long tradition of social-psychological research on L2 motivation & cultural (ethnolinguistic) identity e.g. Clément & Noels 1992; Gardner & Lambert 1972; Giles & Byrne 1982; Schumann 1978; Segalowitz et al. 2009
    6. 6. Language motivation and shifting cultural identities: A story from my own life … Who I am or want to be is also defined in terms of who I am not or do not want to become (McCaslin 2009) me
    7. 7. From external to internal processes of identification Reconceptualizing integrativeness as an internal process of identification within the self-concept (Dörnyei & Csizér 2002)
    8. 8. L2 motivation: changing theoretical perspectives
    9. 9. L2 motivation and current concepts of cultural identity
    10. 10. Identities Norton 2000, 2001
    11. 11. References <ul><li>Clément, R. & Noels, K.A. 1992 . Towards a situated approach to ethnolinguistic identity: The effects of status on individuals and groups. Journal of Language and Social Psychology, 11 , 203–32. </li></ul><ul><li>Dörnyei, Z. 2005. The psychology of the language learner: Individual differences in second language acquisition. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum. </li></ul><ul><li>Dörnyei, Z. & Csizer, K. 2002. Some dynamics of language attitudes and motivation: Results of a longitudinal nationwide survey. Applied Linguistics, 23 , 421–62. </li></ul><ul><li>Dörnyei, Z. & Ushioda, E. (eds) 2009. Motivation, language identity and the L2 self. Bristol: Multilingual Matters. </li></ul><ul><li>Gardner, R.C. & Lambert, W.E. 1959. Attitudes and motivation in second language learning. Rowley, MA: Newbury House. </li></ul><ul><li>Giles, H. & Byrne, J.L. 1982. An intergroup approach to second language acquisition. Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development, 3 , 17–40. </li></ul><ul><li>Kanno, Y., & Norton, B. 2003. Imagined communities and educational possibilities: Introduction. Journal of Language, Identity and Education, 2 (4), 241–249. </li></ul><ul><li>Lamb, M. 2004. Integrative motivation in a globalizing world. System, 32 , 3–19. </li></ul>
    12. 12. <ul><li>Lamb, M. 2009. Situating the L2 self: Two Indonesian school learners of English. In Z. Dörnyei & E. Ushioda (eds), Motivation, language identity and the L2 self . Bristol: Multilingual Matters. </li></ul><ul><li>McCaslin, M. 2009. Co-regulation of student motivation and emergent identity. Educational Psychologist 44(2), 137–46. </li></ul><ul><li>Norton, B. 2000. Identity and language learning: Gender, ethnicity and educational change. Harlow: Longman. </li></ul><ul><li>Norton, B. 2001. Non-participation, imagined communities, and the language classroom. In M. Breen (ed.), Learner contributions to language learning . Harlow: Pearson. </li></ul><ul><li>Schumann, J. 1978. The acculturation model for second language acquisition. In R. Gingras (ed.), Second language acquisition and foreign language teaching. Arlington, VA: Center for Applied Linguistics. </li></ul><ul><li>Segalowitz, N., Gatbonton, E. & Trofimovich, P. 2009. Links between ethnolinguistic affiliation, self-related motivation and second language fluency: Are they mediated by psycholinguistic variables? In Z. Dörnyei & E. Ushioda (eds), Motivation, language identity and the L2 self . Bristol: Multilingual Matters. </li></ul><ul><li>van Lier, L. 2007. Action-based teaching, autonomy and identity. Innovation in Language Learning and Teaching, 1 (1), 46–65. </li></ul>
    13. 13. Panel Discussion 1 CUE 2011 Conference Keita Kikuchi Yoshiyuki Nakata Ema Ushioda The intersection of motivation and cultural identity
    14. 14. Panel Discussion 1 CUE 2011 Conference Yoshiyuki Nakata The intersection of motivation and cultural identity
    15. 15. <ul><li>The impact of constraints </li></ul><ul><li>on motivation: </li></ul><ul><li>the Japanese EFL School Context </li></ul><ul><li>Yoshiyuki Nakata   </li></ul><ul><li>Hyogo University of Teacher Education, Japan </li></ul><ul><li>Panel Discussion </li></ul><ul><li>The Intersection of Motivation and Cultural Identity </li></ul>JALT CUE conference: Foreign Language Motivation in Japan (Toyo Gakuen University, Tokyo, Japan, July 2, 2011)  
    16. 16. <ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Intervention Strategies </li></ul><ul><li>Teacher-Directed   </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>Student Self-Regulated </li></ul><ul><li>Social/Cultural Classroom   Internal Factors Motivated </li></ul><ul><li>Context      Contextual (Beliefs and    Behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Factors   perceptions)    </li></ul><ul><li>Cultural     Classroom Student motivatioal Actual </li></ul><ul><li>factors      factors   beliefs and emotions   observable </li></ul><ul><li>                                      behaviors                                         </li></ul>Part of “An Integrated Model of Student Motivation in the Classroom” (Dembo, M. H., & Eaton, M. J., 1997, p. 69 (adapted from Pintrich, 1994)
    17. 17. Social/cultural context in Japan: Effects of Confucius <ul><li> ・  Humiliation in public as an intolerable shame </li></ul><ul><li> ・  Making effort as a virtue </li></ul><ul><li> ・  Persistence ( gambaru ) </li></ul><ul><li> ・  Harmony in interpersonal relations and </li></ul><ul><li>    the ability to cooperate with others (Nakata, 2006) </li></ul>
    18. 18. <ul><li>the EFL context </li></ul><ul><li>Entrance-exam orientation </li></ul><ul><li>positivistic paradigm (top-down administration) </li></ul><ul><li>teacher-fronted instruction and whole-classroom structure (the dominant mode, believed to be the most successful) </li></ul><ul><li>more high-structure teaching than low-structure teaching (e.g., grammar-translation method) </li></ul><ul><li>the trusting relationship between a teacher and learners as an indispensable component </li></ul><ul><li>heavy workload (e.g., student advising, extracurricular coaching, career guidance, and club activity coaching). </li></ul>Constraints and limitations inherent in secondary school EFL classroom in Japan (Nakata, 2009)
    19. 19. <ul><li>Two or three teachers get together and discuss the textbook to use for the semester. However, in many instances, we only negotiate how we together use it during the semester. Once decided, we just follow routine work. There are curriculum goals we need to achieve until mid-term exam and final exam. Everything seems to be predetermined and unchangeable. (A-27) (Nakata, 2011) </li></ul>Voices from teachers: The realities inherent in the Japanese EFL high school context
    20. 20. <ul><li>Strictly speaking, even if teachers do employ the grammar-translation method, it is okay as long as their students succeed in passing the university entrance exam. In short, the students’ entrance exam results are everything. It is the reality. </li></ul><ul><li>When I was young, I was determined to employ the communicative approach. But, as far as the university entrance exam was concerned, the class employing the grammar-translation method was found to be much more successful than my class, and then I was criticized for using such an approach. (A-48) </li></ul><ul><li>(Nakata, 2011) </li></ul>Voices from teachers: A great dilemma in the pedagogical approach teachers employ
    21. 21. <ul><li>Principal </li></ul><ul><li>Colleagues (Teachers of other subjects)   </li></ul><ul><li>Colleagues (English teachers)   </li></ul><ul><li>                     </li></ul><ul><li>Language learning </li></ul><ul><li>/teaching </li></ul><ul><li>  Learners’ Behavior </li></ul><ul><li>          (Inner psyche) Teacher </li></ul><ul><li>as a human Learning </li></ul><ul><li>A Learner’s Behavior as an educator experiences, </li></ul><ul><li>Inner         as a language Educational </li></ul><ul><li>psyche instructor philosophy </li></ul><ul><li>                                         </li></ul><ul><li>Classroom context </li></ul><ul><li>School context </li></ul><ul><li>                             Social/Cultural Context </li></ul>A model of student motivation : The teacher’s perspective   (Nakata, 2009)
    22. 22. <ul><li>(a) having interest in ( kyomi or kanshin ) </li></ul><ul><li>or liking ( suki or tanoshii) to study, </li></ul><ul><li>(b) having a willingness or desire ( yaruki ) to study; and </li></ul><ul><li>(c) having the right attitude ( taido ) for studying. </li></ul><ul><li>(the U.S. Department of Education, 1998) </li></ul>Three categories of motivation (i.e., teachers’, parents’, and students’ perceptions)
    23. 23. <ul><li>From </li></ul><ul><li>a compulsory classroom subject </li></ul><ul><li>To </li></ul><ul><li>an internally valued subject </li></ul>Our challenge: how we can help our learners to change their perceptions of English
    24. 24. <ul><li>Aoki, N., & Nakata, Y. (Eds.). (2011). Learner autonomy Nihongokyouku to gaikokugo kyouiku no miraino tameni (Learner autonomy for the prospects of Japanese language education and foreign language education) . Tokyo: Hitsuji Press. (青木直子・中田賀之 編集 『学習者オートノミー 日本語教育と外国語教育の未来のために』 東京:ひつじ書房) </li></ul><ul><li>Brophy, J. E. (2008). Developing   students'   appreciation   for   what   is   taught   in   school. Educational Psychologist , 43 (3), 132–141. </li></ul><ul><li>Dembo, H. D., & Eaton, M. J. (1997). School learning and motivation. In Pyle, D. P (Ed), Handbook of academic learning – constructing knowledge (pp. 66–103). San Diego: Academic Press. </li></ul><ul><li>Nakata, Y. (2006). Motivation and experience in foreign language learning . Oxford: Peter Lang. </li></ul><ul><li>Nakata, Y. (2009). The teacher as a motivation researcher. In T. Yoshida, H. Imai, Y. Nakata, A. Tajino, O. Takeuchi, & K. Tamai (Eds.), Researching language teaching and learning: An integration of practice and theory (pp. 235–251). Oxford: Peter Lang. </li></ul><ul><li>Nakata, Y. (2011). Teachers’ readiness for promoting learner autonomy: A study of Japanese EFL high school teachers. Teaching and Teacher Education, 27, 900–910. </li></ul><ul><li>U.S. Department of Education. (1988). The educational systems in Japan: Case study findings (Chapter 3: Individual differences and the Japanese education system). Retrieved March 21, 2011 at </li></ul>Bibliography
    25. 25. Panel Discussion 1 CUE 2011 Conference Keita Kikuchi Yoshiyuki Nakata Ema Ushioda The intersection of motivation and cultural identity
    26. 26. Panel Discussion 1 CUE 2011 Conference Keita Kikuchi The intersection of motivation and cultural identity
    27. 27. Changes of Japanese learners’ motivation to study English during the high school Keita Kikuchi Tokai University, JAPAN keita@tokai-u. jp JALT CUE conference: Foreign Language Motivation in Japan (Toyo Gakuen University, Tokyo, Japan, July 2, 2011) Panel Discussion The Intersection of Motivation and Cultural Identity  
    28. 28. Dörnyei, Z. (2005)’s Self System <ul><li>Ideal L2self (i.e., L2 specific facet of one’s ideal self) </li></ul><ul><li>Ought-to L2self (i.e., the attributes that learners believe they ought to possess in order to meet expectations and to avoid possible negative outcomes) </li></ul><ul><li>L2 experience (i.e., situated motives related to the immediate learning environment and experience) </li></ul>
    29. 29. Dörnyei, Z. (2005)’s Self System  EFL Learners In Japan… <ul><li>Ideal L2self : Traveling abroad, studying abroad </li></ul><ul><li>Ought-to L2self : Studying for university entrance exams, taking good scores on TOEIC, TOEFL. </li></ul><ul><li>L2 experience : Studying in class, talking with teachers in English, making friends who they can speak English with. </li></ul>How can teachers in Japan help students??
    30. 30. Motivation & identity in flux: 8 years of EFL ( Sawyer, 2006) <ul><li>At the end of the first class session of the class, students are asked to fill it in at home before the second class session as a homework. </li></ul><ul><li>They are asked to indicate their level of motivation along a 5 point Likert scale from very low to very high. </li></ul><ul><li>Space was provided for them to offer some retrospections about their motivation </li></ul>Students are asked to rate on a 5 point likert scale here.      (1)Very low, (2) low (3) Average,(4) High (5)Very high Grade Level of Motivation Comments March JHS3 April March JHS2 April March JHS1 April
    31. 31. Another study, Sakai and Kikuchi (in-preparation) <ul><li>In the part of the questionnaire about their motivation/demotivation in their high school time, we asked questions about their changes of motivation in their high school </li></ul><ul><ul><li>5 point likert scale (JHS1Spr. -Uni1Spr. ) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>77 college students attending classes for English teacher certificates in a public University in Shinshu area participated. </li></ul></ul>
    32. 32. Tentative Result ( Average of 77 students’ response to 5point likert scale)
    33. 33. A summary of Dörnyei (1998, cited in 2001) <ul><li>Focused specifically on learners who had been identified as being demotivated . </li></ul><ul><li>Conducted structured interviews (10-30 min.) with 50 secondary school pupils studying English or German as a foreign language at various schools in Budapest. </li></ul><ul><li>Nine themes (for a total of 75 occurrences) emerged in the analysis as follows. </li></ul>
    34. 34. <ul><li>Teachers ’ personalities, commitments, competence, teaching methods. ( N =30) </li></ul><ul><li>Inadequate school facilities (very big group, not the right level or frequent change of teachers). ( N =11) </li></ul><ul><li>Reduced self-confidence due to their experience of failure or success. ( N =11) </li></ul><ul><li>Negative attitude toward the foreign language studied. ( N =9) </li></ul><ul><li>Compulsory nature of the foreign language study. ( N =4) </li></ul><ul><li>Interference of another foreign language that pupils are studying. ( N =3) </li></ul><ul><li>Negative attitude toward the community of the foreign language spoken. ( N =3) </li></ul><ul><li>Attitudes of group members . ( N =2) </li></ul><ul><li>Course books used in class. ( N =2) </li></ul>
    35. 35. Studies conducted in Japan <ul><li>Ikeno (2003) : 65 national university students </li></ul><ul><li>Arai(2004, 2006) : 33 (Open-response) and 112 (Closed-response) university students (mainly English major) </li></ul><ul><li>Falout and Maruyama (2004) : 164 college students (majors Electronics and Computer Science, and Civil Engineering) </li></ul><ul><li>Hasegawa (2004) :125 junior high school students in Fukushima, and 98 senior high school students in Kanagawa </li></ul><ul><li>Tsuchiya (2006a, b) : 204 (Engineering major) and 163 (English or international relations major) university students. </li></ul>
    36. 36. Studies conducted in Japan <ul><li>Kojima (2004) : 2198 high school students using two different surveys </li></ul><ul><li>Kikuchi (2009) : 47 university students (open-response) and 5 university students (interviews) </li></ul><ul><li>Kikuchi and Sakai (2009) : 112 university students (majoring English, international relations, and management) </li></ul><ul><li>Sakai and Kikuchi (2009) :676 senior high school students </li></ul>
    37. 37. Something unique about Japanese context. <ul><ul><li>Lack of listening skills and a lot of homework (Kojima, 2004). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lack of positive English speaking model , ways of learning (Tsuchiya, 2006a, 2006b). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Grammar translation method, memorization nature of class/Vocabulary related issue (Kikuchi, 2006) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Common methods used </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Open-response Questionnaire </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Closed-response Questionnaire </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Interviews </li></ul></ul>
    38. 38. Previous Studies <ul><li>Kikuchi (2009) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>47 university students </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>open-ended questionnaires </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>reflection on high school days </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Kikuchi and Sakai (2009) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>112 university students </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>a 35-item questionnaire with a 5-point scale </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Sakai and Kikuchi (2009) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>676 high school students </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>a 35-item questionnaire with a 5-point scale </li></ul></ul>
    39. 39. Six possible demotivators <ul><li>Teachers : Teachers’ attitude, teaching competence, language proficiency, personality, and teaching style </li></ul><ul><li>Characteristics of classes : Course contents and pace, focus on difficult grammar or vocabulary, monotonous and boring lessons, a focus on university entrance exams and the memorization of the language </li></ul><ul><li>Experiences of failure : Disappointment due to test scores, lack of acceptance by teachers and others, and feeling unable to memorize vocabulary and idioms. </li></ul><ul><li>Class environment : Attitude of classmates, compulsory nature of English study, friends’ attitudes, inactive classes, inappropriate level of the lessons, and inadequate use of school facilities such as not using audio-visual materials </li></ul><ul><li>Class materials : Not suitable or uninteresting materials (e.g., too many reference books and/or handouts) </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of interest : Sense of English used at schools is not practical and not necessary. Little admiration toward English speaking people </li></ul>
    40. 40. The student motivation wheel (Martin, 2003)
    41. 41. Some answers from students: What motivated them? (from Kikuchi and Sakai, in preparation) <ul><ul><li>Out of 476 input from high school students, we found </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Test result (N= 103; 21% ) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Experience with English-speaking people </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(N= 66; 13% ) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Teachers (N= 32; 7% ) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Finding future goals (N= 28; 6% ) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Solved difficult questions (N= 25; 5% ) </li></ul></ul>
    42. 42. Some answers from students: What demotivated them? (from Kikuchi and Sakai, in-preparation) <ul><ul><li>Out of 549 input from high school students, we found </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Studying about grammar (N= 51; 9% ) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Test score (N= 50; 9% ) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vocabulary (N= 35; 6% ) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Test related (e.g., Many quizzes) (N= 29; 5% ) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Memorization related (e.g., Cannot memorize) (N= 28; 5% ) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Homework related (e.g., Many assignments) (N= 25; 5% ) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Teacher explanation (N= 24; 5% ) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Teaching style (e.g., the way they teach) (N= 21; 4% ) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Amount of materials to study (N= 21; 4% ) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nothing particularly (N= 16; 3% ) </li></ul></ul>
    43. 43. Some answers from students: What demotivated them? (from Kikuchi and Sakai, in-preparation) <ul><ul><li>When I couldn't get good results because I couldn't memorize vocabulary easily. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>When I can't get a good score on tests. I start to feel that I'm not talented. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The experience that I didn't understand English sentences. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>I started to have a hard time in English study once I got into high school. I felt a big change from lessons focusing on communicating in English in junior high schools to lessons focusing on grammar in senior high schools, which was boring . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>- When I feel tired. When my room is dirty . </li></ul></ul>
    44. 44. Some answers from students: What demotivated them? (from Kikuchi and Sakai, in-preparation) <ul><ul><li>When there were many assignments, the teacher was too scary . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>I started not to care about learning because there was a lot to memorize (vocabulary, idioms, sentences) for mid-term/final exams. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>I became demotivated when the teacher's pronunciation was very much like reading katakana . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Since the teacher was just keeping up the pace of the lesson by himself . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Teacher's lack of motivation toward teaching classes. </li></ul></ul>
    45. 45. Perspectives from motivational strategies (D ö rnyei, 2001) <ul><li>Show students that you accept and care about them. </li></ul><ul><li>Pay attention and listen to each of them. </li></ul><ul><li>Vary the learning tasks and other aspects of your teaching as much as you can. </li></ul><ul><li>Explain the purpose and utility of a task. </li></ul>
    46. 46. Q & A and discussion <ul><li>What can teachers do to affect students’ motivation in a good way? </li></ul><ul><li>I hope you can have an interesting discussion today! </li></ul><ul><li>For your future inquires, please send them to: [email_address] </li></ul><ul><li>Thank you!! </li></ul>
    47. 47. Key References <ul><li>Arai, K. (2004). What ‘demotivates’ language learners?: Qualitative study on demotivational factors and learners' reactions. Bulletin of Toyo Gakuen University, 12 , 39-47. </li></ul><ul><li>Arai, K. (2005, October). Why do students lose their motivation? Paper presented at the 2005 JALT Conference, Shizuoka, Japan. </li></ul><ul><li>Arai, K. (2006, November). Do teachers really know what demotivate students? Paper presented at the 2006 JALT Conference, Kokura, Japan. </li></ul><ul><li>Dörnyei, Z. (2001). Teaching and researching motivation . Harlow: Longman. </li></ul><ul><li>Falout, J., & Maruyama, M. (2004). A comparative study of proficiency and learner demotivation. The Language Teacher, 28, 3-9. </li></ul><ul><li>Hasegawa, A. (2004). Student demotivation in the foreign language classroom. Takushoku Language Studies, 107, 119-136. </li></ul><ul><li>Ikeno, O. (2003). Motivating and demotivating factors in foreign language learning: A preliminary investigation. Ehime University Journal of English Education Research, 2, 1-19. </li></ul>
    48. 48. Key References <ul><li>Kikuchi, K. (2009). Student demotivation in Japanese high school English classrooms: Exploring with qualitative research methods. Language Teaching Research, 13 (4), pp.453-471 </li></ul><ul><li>Kikuchi, K., & Sakai, H. (2009). Japanese learners' demotivation to study English: A survey study? JALT Journal, 31 (2), pp.183-204. </li></ul><ul><li>Martin, A. J. (2003). How to motivate your child for school and beyond . Sydney: Bantam. </li></ul><ul><li>Sakai, H., & Kikuchi, K. (2009). An analysis of demotivators in the EFL Classroom . System 37(1), pp. 57-69. </li></ul><ul><li>Sawyer, M. (2006). Motivation & identity in flux: 8 years of EFL. Paper presented at the JALT 2006 Conference, Kitakyushu, Japan. </li></ul><ul><li>Tsuchiya, M. (2006a). Factors in demotivation of lower proficiency English learners at college. The Kyushu Academic Society of English Language Education (KASELE) , 34, 87-96. </li></ul><ul><li>Tsuchiya, M. (2006b). Profiling of lower achievement English learners at college in terms of demotivating factors. Annual Review of English Language Education in Japan (ARELE), 17, 171-180. </li></ul>
    49. 49. The intersection of motivation and cultural identity CUE 2011 Conference