The Contexts andDynamics of Language Learning Motivation Kimberly A. Noels CUE JALT July 2-3, 2011
Acknowledgements Colleagues and students involved in these projects include Maureen Ehrensberger-Dow, Hiroshi Ota, Megan Lau, Kristie Saumure, and Maya Sugita. Many thanks go out to the professors and students who participated in this study. This project was supported financially by the Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada.
Overview Defining Motivation: Self-Determination Theory Motivation across Learning Contexts Motivation and the Cultural Context The Dynamics of Motivation Fostering Motivation in Language Learners
Defining Motivation The motivated individual is “goal directed, expends effort, is persistent, is attentive, has desires (wants), exhibits positive affect, is aroused, has expectancies, demonstrates self-confidence (self-efficacy), and has reasons (motives)” (Gardner, 2006, p. 2).
Motivation for Learning Japanese: Participants 129 university students registered in Japanese language courses Age 18 to 35 years (M = 20.44, SD = 2.73) Gender: 55.9% female Mother tongue: 55% English; 39.6% Chinese Language used most frequently: 77% English According to the Statistics Canada (2007), Japanese represents 0.4% of the province’s population.
Self-Determination Theory Deci & Ryan (1985, 2001) INTRINSIC! MOTIVATION!The more I find out about Japanese language/culture, the more interested in it I become; it is very interesting and fun for me to discover each new kernel of knowledge. … Once again, because it is fun. -- Canadian, English… over time I’ve fallen in love with the language itself and its sound and structure. I love writing Japanese, especially the kanji. -- Canadian, English
Self-Determination Theory Deci & Ryan (1985, 2001) INTRINSIC! MOTIVATION!
Self-Determination Theory Deci & Ryan (1985, 2001)AMOTIVATION! INTRINSIC! MOTIVATION! Sigh… 6 credits of LOE [language other than English] in order to complete a BA. I really don’t understand what is with the Faculty of Arts. Silly requirements, i.e., LOE make linguistically-challenged people like me… pretty upset to find out that the university values linguistic capability over academic achievements. After all, the ability to pick a language up is innate and not something that can be taught. Anyway . -- Canadian, Mandarin
Self-Determination Theory Deci & Ryan (1985, 2001) EXTRINSIC MOTIVATION!AMOTIVATION! INTRINSIC! MOTIVATION! EXTERNAL! INTROJECTED! IDENTIFIED! INTEGRATED! REGULATION! REGULATION! REGULATION! REGULATION!
Self-Determination Theory Deci & Ryan (1985, 2001) EXTRINSIC MOTIVATION!AMOTIVATION! INTRINSIC! MOTIVATION! EXTERNAL! REGULATION! LOE requirement -- Canadian, English I am learning Japanese because I would like to get a job with a Japanese car company as an accountant. There is a lot of money in Japan, and I want it. -- Canadian, English
Self-Determination Theory Deci & Ryan (1985, 2001) EXTRINSIC MOTIVATION!AMOTIVATION! INTRINSIC! MOTIVATION! EXTERNAL! INTROJECTED! REGULATION! REGULATION! I spent 3 years in Japan… I studied the martial art of naginata and my teacher and fellow students knew little English. We communicated pretty well, but I truly wish I could have known them better. Learning Japanese would have helped that. I have some shame over not learning more of the language while I was there. I didn’t apply myself… -- Canadian, English
Self-Determination Theory Deci & Ryan (1985, 2001) EXTRINSIC MOTIVATION!AMOTIVATION! INTRINSIC! MOTIVATION! EXTERNAL! INTROJECTED! REGULATION! REGULATION! To culture myself, to prove to myself and others that it is something I can do, and provide me with status and a sense of intelligence. -- Canadian, English
Self-Determination Theory Deci & Ryan (1985, 2001) EXTRINSIC MOTIVATION!AMOTIVATION! INTRINSIC! MOTIVATION! EXTERNAL! INTROJECTED! IDENTIFIED! REGULATION! REGULATION! REGULATION! … I also like to fix up cars and you’d be amazed at how many Honda after-market parts come with only Japanese instructions, and with a lot of dictionary work, I can usually get the thing put together right. -- Canadian, English
Self-Determination Theory Deci & Ryan (1985, 2001) EXTRINSIC MOTIVATION!AMOTIVATION! INTRINSIC! MOTIVATION! EXTERNAL! INTROJECTED! IDENTIFIED! REGULATION! REGULATION! REGULATION! As part of my research in cultural anthropology, learning the language would help me understand Japanese culture better (to some extent at least) -- Singaporean, English
Self-Determination Theory Deci & Ryan (1985, 2001) EXTRINSIC MOTIVATION!AMOTIVATION! INTRINSIC! MOTIVATION! EXTERNAL! INTROJECTED! IDENTIFIED! INTEGRATED! REGULATION! REGULATION! REGULATION! REGULATION! When I was younger I was really interested in Japanese culture. So when I won a scholarship to do an exchange in Japan, I was really excited. It was there where I decided to become an English teacher. So I’m going to get my degree in Education with my major as Japanese and my minor as International/Intercultural Education. After I convocate in a few years I plan on teaching in [X High School] in Sendai…. -- Canadian, English
Self-Determination Theory Deci & Ryan (1985, 2001) EXTRINSIC MOTIVATION!AMOTIVATION! INTRINSIC! MOTIVATION! EXTERNAL! INTROJECTED! IDENTIFIED! INTEGRATED! REGULATION! REGULATION! REGULATION! REGULATION! I’m learning it because in my heart, I know that is what I was meant to do. -- Canadian, English
Motivation for Learning Japanese: Motivational Orientations Students often have multiple reasons for learning a language. This group of students expressed high levels of identified regulation, followed by intrinsicAdapted from Noels, Sugita, Saumure & Sharma, 2011 motivation, followed by external regulation.
Context and Language Learning Motivation Foreign Language Students (n = 20) Age: M=24.90 years (SD=6.27) Sex: 55% female Heritage Language Students (n = 12) Age: M=21.33 years (SD=2.27) Sex: 91.7% female English as a Second Language (ESL) Students (n = 30) Age: M=24.86 years (SD=5.40) Sex: 46.7% female
Focussed Essay Technique: What are your reasons for learning your second language?Proportion of responses (main theme) Adapted from Noels, Marchak, Saumure & Adrian-Taylor, 2011
BASIC PSYCHOLOGICAL NEEDS AND SELF-DETERMINATION Autonomy sense of making a conscious and voluntary decision to engage in a personally relevant activity Competence sense of being effective in performing the activity; capacity to rise to “optimal challenges” Relatedness sense of secure and satisfying connections with others in one’s social surroundings
Motivation and Culture Motivational models developed in North America are often transported elsewhere, a practice that can be problematic. Autonomy is a central value in many “Western” societies, especially in (North) America, and is associated with an “individualistic” cultural orientation. Cross-cultural researchers suggest that other countries (often exemplified by East Asian nations) might be more “collectivistic”.
Motivation and Culture Is Self-Determination Theory valid cross- culturally? Do more self-determined extrinsic orientations and intrinsic motivation predict positive learning “outcomes”? Is autonomy an important predictor of self- determined orientations in more collectivistic societies? Or are other needs more important (e.g. relatedness)? We need a comparative perspective to examine cultural differences in patterns of relations between motivational variables.
Method Participants 101 students enrolled in EFL courses at the Aichi Shukutoku University in Japan All native Japanese speakers Mean age = 20.57 years; 68.3% females Years studied English = 8.83 years 217 students enrolled in the EFL program at the Zurich University of Applied Sciences Winterthur in Switzerland All native (Swiss) German speakers Mean age = 23.79 years; 41.7% females Years studied English = 6.57 years
Materials• Cultural Differences • Interdependent and Independent Self-Construals (Cross, 1995)• Intrinsic and Extrinsic Orientations • Language Learning Orientations Scale (Noels et al., 2000) External: To gain the benefits (eg., job, money, course credit) which English will provide. Introjected: Because I would feel guilty if I didn’t know English. Identified: Because English helps me to achieve goals that are important to me. Intrinsic: For the enjoyment I feel when learning English.• RAI = (-2 * External Regulation) + (-1 * Introjected Regulation) + (+1 * Identified Regulation) + (+2 * Intrinsic Motivation)
Materials• Hypothesized Antecedents/ Psychological Needs • Self-Perceptions of Autonomy • I feel that learning English is imposed on me rather than chosen by me. (reversed) • Self-Perceptions of Competence • I don’t think I am capable of learning English well. (reversed) • Self-Perceptions of Relatedness • I feel a sense of welcome from others (e.g., teachers, the English community, etc.)
Materials• Hypothesized Consequences • Motivational Intensity (Effort) • I really work hard to learn English. • Intention to Continue (Persistence) • I want to continue to learn English after I finish this class. • Self-Evaluation of English Competence • Read, write, speak, understand • Use of English outside the Class
Switzerland Standard Multiple RegressionsPredicting the Relative Autonomy Index Equation Coefficients Independent R2 F β r Variables Autonomy .40 54.99* .38* .54* Competence .16* .47* Relatedness .26* .47**p < .05
JapanStandard Multiple Regressions Predicting the Relative Autonomy Index Equation Coefficients Independent R2 F β r Variables Autonomy .49 30.76* .55* .67* Competence .02 .43* Relatedness .20* .53* *p < .05
Implications and Future Directions Implications This evidence supports the cross-cultural validity of SDT across these countries that have been shown to differ in individualism. Methodological directions Multiple comparison groups Matched samples Conceptual directions Proactive and Reactive Autonomy (Littlewood, 1999)
A Dynamic Perspective on Motivation Do Autonomy, Competence and Relatedness “cause” Intrinsic and Self-Determined Extrinsic Orientations? Do Intrinsic and Self-Determined Extrinsic Orientations “cause” Motivational Intensity?
Participants 146 university students registered in French language courses Age 17 to 43 years (M = 21.19, SD = 4.55) Gender: 79.2% female Mother tongue: 81.5% English (no French) English used most frequently: 92.4%
Procedure 3 time points Early in the semester (Sept 16 to 25) Mid-semester (Oct 10 to 22) End of semester (Nov 30 to Dec 13) Nt1 = 146; Nt2 = 110; Nt3 = 79
Cross-lagged Panel Analysis Time 1 to Time 2Compet. Compet. (T1) (T2)Intrinsic Intrinsic (T1) (T2)
Cross-lagged Panel Analysis Time 1 to Time 2Compet. Compet. (T1) (T2)Intrinsic Intrinsic (T1) (T2)
Cross-lagged Panel Analysis:Competence and Intrinsic Orientation Time 1 to Time 2 Compet. .74* Compet. (T1) (T2) .03 .19 .24* .32* Intrinsic .89* Intrinsic (T1) (T2) |z| = 3.21, p < .001* p < .05
Cross-lagged Panel Analysis: Competence and Intrinsic Orientation Time 1 to Time 2 Time 2 to Time 3 Compet. .74* Compet. Compet. .75* Compet. (T1) (T2) (T2) (T3) .03 .34* .19 .24* .41* .32* .24* .16 Intrinsic .89* Intrinsic Intrinsic .83* Intrinsic (T1) (T2) (T2) (T3) |z| = 3.21, p < .001 |z| = 1.85, p = .06* p < .05
The Progressive Cycle of MotivationCompetence Competence (T1) (T3) .32 .34 Intrinsic Motivation (T2)
Summary Competence seems to have the strongest role. Initial feelings of competence predict greater intrinsic and self-determined extrinsic motivation by the mid-term, and these orientations in turn predict greater feelings of competence by the end of the course. Autonomy shows a similar but weaker pattern of relations with the orientations. It is less clear that autonomy “causes” intrinsic and extrinsic (self-determined) motivational orientations. Relatedness has less of a role in the process. Initial feelings of relatedness weakly predict greater self- determined extrinsic orientation by the midterm, but there are no significant relations between Times 2 and 3.
The Progressive Cycle of MotivationMotivational Motivational Intensity Intensity (T1) (T3) .53/.40 Intrinsic/ .50/.32 SD Extrinsic Motivation (T2)
A Dynamic Perspective on Motivation Motivation is a complex process. Promoting feelings of autonomy, relatedness and especially competence can foster intrinsic and self-determined extrinsic motivation… and vice versa. Self-determined extrinsic and intrinsic motivation are relevant for understanding why people put in the extra effort to engage in language learning … and vice versa. From a dynamic systems theory, this complexity and reciprocity of relations shouldn’t be surprising.
Fostering Autonomy Autonomy-enhancing behaviours Foster relevance Provide choice Autonomy-suppressing behaviours Suppress criticism Intrude/interfere with the learner’s natural pace based on Assor, Kaplan & Roth (2002). British Journal of Educational Psychology, 72.
Fostering Competence Informational Feedback/Structure Articulate clear, explicit and well-organized directions Provide leadership and a program of action to guide students’ ongoing activity Offer constructive feedback on how to gain control over valued outcomes. Chaos Ambiguous, confusing directions of “what to do” Little guidance, no goals Off-task or little feedback, competence-irrelevant info. Based on Jang, H., Reeve, J., & Deci, E.L. (2010). Journal Of Educational Psychology, 102, 588-600.
Fostering Relatedness Acceptance, warmth, security Express interest, empathy Assurance of security, positive regard Use inclusive language and display nonverbal “immediacy” Isolation, unvalued, cold, uncaring Tease, ridicule, use disparaging comments Show resentfulness or disinterest Ryan & Powelson (1991). Journal of Experimental Education, 60, 49-66.