JALT CUE Conference 2011: Foreign Language Motivation in Japan July 2–3, 2011, Tokyo Gakuen University Foreign language motivation research in Japan: An ‘insider’ perspective from outside Japan Ema Ushioda Centre for Applied Linguistics, University of WarwickAn ‘insider’ from outside Japan Foreign language motivation in Japan: Three areas of researchA Japanese born & educated in Ireland inquiryTeaching English in Tokyo (1982–5) 1. Analysing demotivation, its definitions, causes, factorsWinchester Shoei College, UK (1985–90) 2. Investigating how motivation changes through differentInterest in affective side of language learning stages of education and learning experienceGraduate studies in Dublin (1990–95) 3. Exploring what English and learning English mean forPrimary interest in L2 motivation students (self, identities, goals, values)Foreign language motivation: Current a vibrant research fieldFour books on L2 motivation within last five years: L2 demotivation • Nakata 2006 Japan leads the field in this area of inquiry • Dörnyei & Ushioda (eds) 2009 Teacher variables – complex perspectives • Dörnyei & Ushioda 2011 Defining demotivation • Murray, Gao & Lamb (eds) 2011 • External factors only (Dörnyei 2001)& Ushioda (ed.) in preparation • Learner-internal factors as mediating influences (Sakai &Impact of globalization and global English? Kikuchi 2009; Falout et al. 2009) Pedagogical implicationsTraditional concept of integrative motivation • developing a sense of purpose, inner resources, self-L1 culture/community L2 learner TL culture/community regulatory strategies (Carpenter et al. 2008)Globalization & impact of global English Students’ motivational trajectoriesImpact on how we theorize L2 motivation: Elementary school • Reconceptualizing integrativeness as an internal process of • Compulsory English from April 2011 identification within the self-concept (Dörnyei 2005) Junior & senior high schoolLinking L2 motivation with self and identity: • English for exams • Motivation, Language Identity and the L2 Self (Dörnyei & • Grammar, reading, vocabulary Ushioda 2009) University • Identity, Motivation and Autonomy in Language Learning • ‘leisure-land’ (Murray et al. 2011) • English communication skillsPedagogical & educational issues Investigating motivational changeImpact of English on: Japanese students’ educational experiences and development • Educational policy & curricula of L2 motivation • High stakes gatekeeping exams • Nakata 2006 • Professional job market L2 motivation at different stages of education • Other foreign languages • Ryan 2009b L2 motivation and language learning historiesImpact on L2 motivation literature • Carpenter et al. 2009Local issues of foreign language motivation in different • Shibuya 2010educational contexts Longitudinal studies of L2 motivationGrowing empirical literature on L2 motivation and demotivation • Nitta & Asano 2010from ‘problematic’ Japanese educational context Critical role of initial motivational states and learning experiencesEnglish language education in Japan‘permanent sense of crisis’ (Ryan 2009a) What English & learning English mean for Japanese studentsEnglish in high school: Self, identities, goals, values • Exam hell Transition to university: • English for exams (juken eigo) • ‘Learning English for exams’ no longer provides obviousEnglish at university: rationale • Four years of ‘leisure-land’ (Clark 2010) • Loss of learning purpose and disorientation • ‘Motivational wasteland’ (Berwick & Ross 1989) (Warrington & Jeffrey 2005)
Historical & cultural legacy Focus on student voice & agencyJapan’s complex & ambivalent relationship with western world Teachers’ perceptions of student motivation and strategies forSelf-imposed isolation (sakoku) working with this motivationPost-war westernization • Cowie & Sakui 2011Internationalization (kokusaika) Student voice, agency and active participation in transformingDiscourses of Japanese uniqueness (Nihonjinron) educational practice Resonates with current L2 motivation themes and • Murphey et al. 2009perspectives (globalization, global English, self-and-identitytheories) Concluding remarksForeign language motivation research in Japan: Contributing to Globalization and global Englishreshaping L2 motivation theory • Retheorizing L2 motivationQuestioning the relevance of integrative motivation in the • Local practical concerns for student motivationJapanese context (Irie 2003) Foreign language motivation research in JapanProposing alternative concepts • Educationally grounded, problem-focused, locally driven • international orientation (Nakata 1995) research agenda • international posture (Yashima 2000, 2002) • Locally produced insights have global relevance forImpact of Japan-based research on the development of advancing current thinkingDörnyei’s (2005) L2 Motivational Self System REFERENCESBerwick, R. & Ross, S. 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