SOCIAL MEDIA /
METHODS & METRICS
A Report for Contagious by
social media / index / p.02
INDEX / ABOUT THE AUTHORS /
SOCIAL MEDIA / METHODS & METRICS
Ryan*MacMillan is a social media agency. We use social
01 / page 03
media to understand, amplify and influence the conver-
SUMMARY sations around our clients' products and services.
02 / pages 04-05
INTRO To make this happen we provide:
- Situation analysis: understanding and quantifying the
effect social media marketing can have on the brand
03 / pages 06-15 and sales
05 / - Research in social media environments: monitoring
audience conversations about the brand or product
04 / pages 16-40
06 / and understanding their effect: what they're saying,
why and where they're saying it
- Product development: creating social media products
05 / pages 41-84 that engage the brand's audience and can generate
SOCIAL METHODS revenues
- Marketing campaigns: driving interest and considera-
06 / pages 85-89 tion of brands by listening to audience needs and
SOCIAL MEDIA / EMERGING TRENDS responding to them with content, dialogue and
07 / pages 90-91
08 / pages 92-93
social media / executive summary / p.03
01 / page 03
02 / Introduction new set of tools for evaluating it. This section gives is a fast moving world and in order to be ready for
01 / An overview of the report; why we have done it, an overview of how audience needs are impacted its next evolution we have taken a look into the
what it includes, who it is aimed at and what we by social media. It then looks at what tools are future. This essay looks sideways at what is
hope the reader will get out of it. available for measuring it and what this means in emerging from current trends and what will have
INTRO terms of economic value. an impact on marketing in social media in the near
03 / Planning future.
PLANNING Social media comes with a new set of characteris- 05 / Social Methods
tics and behaviours, not least of these being the This is a constantly evolving space and it produces 07 / Definitions
MEASURING very active involvement of the audience. This new ways for audiences and brands to engage New areas, especially in marketing and technology,
requires new ways of thinking about planning and with each other. Each new way has its own have a charming habit of breeding a whole new set
evaluating media activity. In this section Mark strengths and pitfalls; this section provides an of neologisms. We have collected some of the
Palmer provides an unsettling view of some of the introduction to each of the major areas: blogging, more useful definitions together for the reader's
shortfalls of how we currently measure media. We online conversations, brand utility, brand content reference and convenience.
also introduce KUDOS, a framework for managing and narrowcasting. It includes an overview of each
the new paradigms and ambiguities thrown up by with some expert points of view. It also provides 08 / Resources
social media. case studies of how the KUDOS planning frame- This report attempts to cover a lot of ground. By
work can be used in each area as well as guides to necessity some topics have required a light touch
04 / Measuring making the most of these activities. or a brief mention. This set of links to research,
The measurement of social media differs from articles, blogs and actual examples of activity will
traditional media in both its impact and how the 06 / Social media / emerging trends enable the reader to further their knowledge and
value of that impact can be determined. This While this report draws on the most recent exam- experience of social media beyond the confines of
requires a different view of measurement and a ples and current technologies in social media, this this document.
social media / planning / KUDOS as a framework p.06
03 / pages 06-15
03.01 / KUDOS: A framework for planning ing in vision and originality. As it happens, nothing could
social media / be further from the truth. The Marketing Director only
By Leo Ryan & Dan O'Connor, Ryan*MacMillan needs to provide her audience with the proof to put this
lie to bed. But what is the best way to let her audience
The advertising and marketing press are filled with sto-
know about the planned new line of products? She
INTRO ries of the end of advertising as we know it. The root of could produce a weekly podcast about the company's
the cause apparently sits with the rise of blogs and
03 / product innovation. She could have the articulate Head
PLANNING social media and with the fragmentation of audiences of Product Development start a blog. She could release
and media. It's not our place here to analyse the causes.
04 / a series of white papers detailing the raft of experiments
MEASURING It's sufficient to acknowledge that the role of traditional behind the product innovation. Or all of these. However,
media is changing as the size and influence of social
05 / she has limited resources so she has to make a decision
media grows. As that change occurs, brands are
about which of these activities to engage in. After six
responding by increasing their budgets and activity in month of trialling two of them, she needs to be able to
the new and exciting areas of social media. There are,
EMERGING make some kind of comparison.
however, concerns that this is still very much an experi-
mental area and not one from which brands are neces- As the Marketing Director is planning these activities
sarily expecting tangible results. she also needs to recognise and satisfy dual agendas.
On the one hand she has the brand that is supporting
A lack of standards the activity. On the other, there is the audience who is
One of the obstacles to serious investment in this area expected to engage with it. Failure to materially satisfy
is the lack of standardisation. Each of the many ways either agenda is going to make someone unhappy.
Illustration / Chellie Carroll / www.chelliecarroll.co.uk /
that a brand can use social media is measured differently.
Podcasts, blogs, Wikis, social networking sites etc. KUDOS and Social Capital
each have their own particularities. This all makes plan-
The directors of Ryan*MacMillan have been focusing on
ning and measuring activity in this area a dark art at best
social media and how to resolve such dilemmas since
and guess work at worst. If brands are going to make
2005. We've developed a framework for managing the
serious forays into social media, there needs to be some
ambiguities of both the planning and measurement of
consistency across the various channels and how they
social media activity. KUDOS (meaning 'fame', 'glory',
are planned and assessed.
'renown') is an acronym that reminds us of what attrib-
utes a piece of social media activity should display if it is
An example of the dilemma
to be successful. It should be Knowledgeable, Useful,
A typical situation might look like this; an esteemed
Desirable, Open and Shareable. And it needs to
British brand is much loved for its traditional values and
achieve this for both the audience and the brand.
quality products. Its audience, however, thinks it is lack-
social media / planning / KUDOS as a framework p.07
KUDOS is based on the concept of Social Capital provision of utility beyond a brand's basic products and
(SC). SC is essential to our understanding of the way in services.
which online social networks (OSN) work. It is a way of
Having SC refers to the actual SC of a brand, thus
talking about how valuable our online social networks are.
describing a brand's ability to employ its online social
It is a way of thinking about what we are able to do with
connections in order to (positively) affect its environ-
them, how we can maintain, expand and develop them.
ment, i.e. increase sales, promote awareness, amelio-
SC is similar to regular, economic capital; the more you rate sentiment.
have the more easily you can alter your environment. It Sharing SC refers to the ways in which a brand can
describes both the inclination of members of a network increase the SC of other individuals within a given OSN,
(or the entire network) to do things for each other and the i.e. how a connection to the brand increases the ability of
resulting ability of an individual (or brand) to positively an individual to (positively) affect their environment. Once
affect their environment via the in/direct deployment of a brand has shared its social capital with its customers, it
those networks. is crucial for the success of the activity that the cus-
tomers, in turn, can and do pass it on.
05 / The four qualities of Social Capital
Measuring Social Capital
The similarity to economic capital only goes so far. SC
06 / has the following four qualities: Any planned social media activity by a brand within an
OSN must be measurable by the way in which it increas-
Utility through Accumulation: Like economic cap-
07 / es or depletes the brand's SC. Measuring a brand's SC,
DEFINITIONS ital, the more SC an individual accumulates, the more particularly in reference to their online SC, can be
easily that individual is able to affect their environment.
08 / achieved through analysis of online sentiment and influ-
Inequality of Distribution: Like economic capital,
ence. This in effect is a measure of the 'tone of voice' that
SC is differently available. Some individuals have a lot, online conversations about a brand have.
Expiration through Under-Use: Unlike economic Sentiment metrics describe the level of the 'stock-
capital, which expires through over-use, SC expires pile' of trust which constitutes SC: how trustworthy is the
through under-use. 'Use it or lose it'. brand understood to be, and how useful or desirable is its
Based Upon Trust: Regular capital is merely the content or activity?
exchange of agreed values as guaranteed by a central Influence metrics describe the efficacy with which
authority. SC, however, is a stockpile of trust, which is a brand is able to make use of that trust in order to (pos-
guaranteed only by the exercise of reciprocal actions itively) affect their environment: how easily is a brand
between diffuse individuals within a social network. able to share its knowledge around its social networks?
The outcome of any social media activity should be, in
Having and Sharing Social Capital
short, more SC. Online, brands can accumulate social
There are two ways in which SC is important to our under-
capital by being connected to individuals who have
standing of how brands can successfully undertake
already accumulated large amounts of SC, i.e. by seeking
social media activities, such as the fuelling of online con-
endorsements from influential network members.
versations, engagement in those conversations, or the
social media / planning / KUDOS as a framework p.08
The KUDOS Attributes
However, the brand must also ensure that the connection is prof-
itable for the influential individual. This is achieved by sharing SC
and making it work for them. If it does not, it is unlikely a) that the
Does the activity demonstrate knowledge on the part of the
connection will be maintained by the individual and b) that the indi-
brand? Is it knowledge that is unique to your brand, product or
vidual will go on to share the knowledge being redistributed through
CHAPTERS / service? Is it something your audience needs or want to know?
the activity. Thus a brand's SC will deplete through under-use.
Are you increasing their knowledge or just telling them some-
thing they already know or could have gained elsewhere?
SUMMARY KUDOS: A framework for managing social media
KUDOS is a rubric to help brands manage their social media activities,
INTRO and so maximise their social capital. The process of thinking through
Not all social media activity is useful to the brand's audience. Not
the KUDOS attributes helps a brand decide what channels it is going
all dissemination of knowledge is actually useful to the brand. It
PLANNING to use and how it is going to use them. It can check and balance the
might be commercially sensitive. It might promote an out of stock
needs of both brand and audience. It can also establish what it is
product or a discontinued service. The best-case scenario is when
MEASURING going to measure so that it can assess the success or otherwise of the
an activity is useful to both the brand and the audience.
activity. The best way to illustrate this is by actual example.
BRAVIA Balls as an example
Desirable is a step on from useful. By desirable we mean that
In 2005, Sony Consumer Electronics launched a new television
both the brand and the audience actively want it. Think of eating
brand; BRAVIA. Unheard of at the time of launch, it represented a
your greens; useful but not that desirable. If something is desir-
step-change in technology and TV quality and was integral to the
able, really tasty-can't-get enough-of-it-desirable to your audi-
success of Sony's business globally.
ence, you'll know it.
The advert for the launch was an extravaganza of colour featuring
300,000 bouncy rubber balls being shot out of cannons and tipped Open /
down the hills of San Francisco. The net savvy and technically literate Open means honest and transparent. Not just about the parts of
residents of San Francisco took photos and video of the event and the message that are desirable to the brand, but about the whole
posted them on Flickr and Google Video. lot, warts and all. An audience will respond very actively and
negatively when they believe a brand has been dishonest with
Back in London the digital planning team (Fred Whitton from
them. It doesn't even require active dishonesty - just a lack of
OMD and Leo Ryan) picked up on this interest and the positive com-
intent to be completely open.
mentary it was generating. We decided that we'd fuel the conversa-
tion by giving them more of what they were looking for; videos, photos,
background interviews, screensavers and wallpapers. The result was
It is as important as being open that brands actively encourage
that in the following five months the advert was seen online more than
sharing. Are the materials easily downloadable? Can they be
seven million times with no media expenditure. The audience did all of
linked to or have you gone and wrapped them up in a big Flash
the distribution and promotion themselves.
movie that no one can link to? Have you acknowledged standard
protocols that enable sharing and added a simple 'Digg this' but-
ton or a downloadable Zip file of assets?
social media / planning / KUDOS as a framework p.09
Attribute For Sony For Sony’s audience Metric
The raging debate around 'was it CGI or The assets and information on the site Inbound links: approx 19,000;
not' showed that Sony BRAVIA was an gave visitors behind the scenes or SERP: number one result for Google searches
interesting intelligent brand who was 'insider' information about an advert on “BRAVIA advert”, and “colour advert”;
pushing the envelope of visual effects. that was being discussed. Technorati: 2394 blog reactions for
No CGI had been used, demonstrating “bravia-advert.com”;
that Sony knew a lot about the impact of Blogpulse: 341 sites with links (Feb 2008)
colour and motion by doing it for real. It
was a real life demonstration of 'Colour
Like No Other.'
The activity was useful to Sony in that it By having access to this material the Browser profiles changed from Safari and
repositioned them at a time when they early adopters could demonstrate Firefox (early adopters) to IE (mass audiences)
were suffering at the hands of early that they knew about something cool over time. IE % growth:
adopters; the online community was in early on, as could later audiences. 39.2% (2 Nov 2005)
an uproar over Sony Root Kit. Early adopters and early mass were 56.73% (29 Nov 2005)
all made to look good.
Sony wanted to get their new brand The audience loved it. It satisfied a As of March 2006 (five months into campaign):
BRAVIA out into the mind of the public. desire to be entertained and to tell minimum views: 7,123,225;
This advert, its related assets and the their friends about something enter- 1,800,000 online advert views at
way it was picked up and disseminated taining. They deemed it very desirable, BRAVIA-advert.com;
got a new brand name in everyone's downloading it and watching it on 3,305,203 BRAVIA items viewed on YouTube;
minds in a positive and cost effective YouTube and Google video. Google Video figures estimated at 1,983,122
way. It was the first example of a (source Hitwise March 2006); i-Film views:
Consumer Distributed Advert. advert: 23.367; amateur video: 34,350
The assets came from the shoot as well The assets were available for stream- As of March 2006 (five months):
as the finished product. There was no ing and download. The video, wallpa- 35,900 downloads from BRAVIA-advert.com.
pretence that this was anything other pers and screen savers were down-
than a piece of marketing material - one loadable and the photo gallery was in a
that was handmade in San Francisco. zip file for ease of download.
As soon as the public showed interest in Each new asset posted was a separate YouTube: 43 user uploaded videos; Flickr: 237
this activity the brand posted behind the blog post; easy to link to and fast to photos tagged “bravia advert”; 211 photos
scenes footage, still shots from the publish. The assets were made avail- tagged “bravia ad”; 2,519 photos tagged
shoot and eventually the finished advert able for easy download and were sub- “bravia”; Del.icio.us: saved by 9,408 people;
before it was scheduled to air on TV. sequently reposted numerous times. Digg: 5,643 collective ‘diggs’ on “bravia ad”.
social media / measuring / measuring KUDOS within communities p.26
04.03 / Measuring KUDOS within communities / The main components for calculating the Social Media Comment Value
By Joel Davis, agency:2 of each post in descending order of importance are:
For brands to be accepted within communities they need to add value
1. Search Ranking
to the debate or chat. For some brands this means being a thought
(using the Google page rank as a guide)
leader and being useful by sharing knowledge. For others it might be
more about facilitating leisure time. In either case, the more a brand is 2. Hyper link
01 / able to help its audience to spend their time or waste their time, the more (i.e. does the post have an active link to the brand's destination)
social capital it can gain.
3. A measure of how targeted the audience is
INTRO How we attribute KUDOS in communities (purely subjective)
Knowledgeable and Useful / If a brand's activity is deemed useful, 4.The nature of any feedback
users will respond by positively ranking their comments and thanking (positive, neutral or negative)
them. If brands are not adding value they could be banned.
Desirable / The number of visitors from a forum, along with any feed- (measuring the volume of traffic and the nature of activity, i.e. do
METHODS back on the postings, are some of the clearest indications of whether users just visit the thread or do they actually add to it)
the activity is thought 'Desirable'.
6. A depreciation of the posting over time
Open / Ironically, 'Open' can be measured by looking at instances (to acknowledge the user perception that the older the post the less
in forums where brands have been banned or where they get flamed useful it might be)
and become the unhappy recipients of a disproportionate amount of
Each component has a different value weighting based on impact.
Once the figures are plugged in we get the Social Media Comment
Shareable / By understanding where traffic originates and its volume Value and the all-important ROI calculation of a post and hence the
over time brands can get an idea of the reach that their contributions overall campaign.
achieve as well as the speed with which they spread. There are a variety
The Social Media Comment Value acts as a key part of the social
of tools to help track this, including internal data such as the site's own
media dashboard. The dashboard also includes a monthly look at the
web logs as well as third party solutions such as Hitwise and
views and interaction directly associated with the activity, competitive
share of voice and an overview of the percentage of traffic social
Social Media Value: Measuring and optimising activity in forums media sites contribute to the total referral traffic.
We can only manage what we can measure; this includes brands' These trends along with the Social Media Comment Value calculation
involvement in online communities. To date, there has not been an can give marketers the measurement tools needed to manage their
agreed way to calculate the ROI on social media community activity. To commenting campaigns in forums, chat rooms and blogs.
address this, agency:2 have created and actively use a dashboard that
Joel Davis is CEO of social media agency agency:2
monitors brands' social media programmes and calculates the Social
Media Comment Value of such activity.
social media / methods / introduction p.42
05 / pages 41-84
05.01 / Overview /
By Dan O'Connor, Ryan*MacMillan
In this report so far we have covered the principles of social media and
hopefully given the reader a grounding in understanding what can be
INTRO measured and what these measurements mean. It is understandable
if at this point marketers would like to start getting their hands dirty and
PLANNING to see how these activities actually work.
To help you, this section organises the vast array of possible social
media activities into five main groups; blogging, online conversations,
brand utility, brand content and narrowcasting. While there are certainly
overlaps between these categories, we feel that the principles and the
potential of each make most sense in these groupings.
Based on this, we have provided an overview of each area and
DEFINITIONS looked at how the principles of social capital and the KUDOS frame-
Source: Jared Tarbell / http://flickr.com/photos/generated/1545620972/
work apply to each group. These have been illustrated with examples
RESOURCES of where they have been used well, and some not so well.
Each activity area also includes a case study from a leading brand.
We have assessed the example using the KUDOS framework, exam-
ining how it has delivered for both the brand and the audience and
selecting some key metrics to underpin our understanding of the
activity's value. We've given each KUDOS requirement a qualitative
score of 1 - 5 (5 being the best) depending on how well the activity has
met the requirement.
Each section includes guides to best practice. These have been
developed over the past two years and are based on our consultancy
with our own clients as well as observations of what has worked and
flopped in the market place.
It is not possible to provide a definitive guide in such a fast moving
discipline, however we hope these guides provide a useful starting
point to marketers actually trialling some of these activities.
social media / methods / blogging / referral stats are your friend p.47
05.02.03 / Referral Statistics Are Your Friend /
By Tim Ireland, bloggerheads.com
The one thing you'll want to keep a sharp eye on during any online
networking exercise is your referral statistics.
If you're doing it right, your online networking should be a sincere
exercise in reaching like-minded people via the use of comments, track-
back, hyperlinks and search engines. Keeping an eye on your referral stats
is the best way to track growth and get better at promoting same.
If you want to learn about basic principles of networking growth, often
PLANNING it pays to use page tagging as well as log analysis software. The better
page tagging solutions allow you to watch growth and spread as it
MEASURING happens, which is as close as you're going to get to honing your craft in
Illustration / Chellie Carroll / www.chelliecarroll.co.uk /
front of a live audience.
When watching inbound traffic live, you actually get to see inbound
links spread from site to site. This allows you to learn more about how
certain influential bloggers interact. The subtleties of many relationships
can pass you by if you're getting this data 24 hours later, and one of the
big secrets in online networking is knowing your audience.
RESOURCES Using your chosen traffic tracking package - if it's a good one - you'll
be able to see an overview of referrals combining traffic via other web-
sites and via search engines, and will have the capacity to drill down to
determine how search engines are bringing you new traffic (i.e. via
which keyword phrases).
After all, the self-publishers out there aren't your entire audience; they
are instead an influential audience, and your gateway to a much, much
Cumulative inbound links from self-publishers improve your search
results. Your referral statistics are the best way you have of tracking the
latter and learning more about the former.
[For those who care, I personally prefer Statcounter (live) and
Google Analytics (24 hour lag) for page tagging, and AWStats for
web log analysis. I did not use the full and correct term 'web log analysis
software' above in order to avoid confusion with weblogs.]
social media / methods / utility / hints & tips p.70
BRAND UTILITY / HINTS & TIPS
Turn testers into seeders /
It should be simple: produce a tool or application that your audience
will find useful. But it's not always easy to know what it is people want Provide information and materials to allow these positive, interested
- and whether they'll take kindly to it coming from your brand. The fol- parties to become online advocates.
lowing tips on creating tools and applications that extend your brand's
Develop quickly - you can evolve it later /
utility are unashamedly common sense in their approach, but have
03 / often been learnt the hard way. Let go of the age-old habit to only launch your application when it is a
perfect, shiny, gleaming reflection of the brand. You're competing for
Stay on brand /
04 / your audience's attention with bedroom developers who can put out
Just because your target audience has a need, doesn't mean it's in a new version of their tool, in response to user feedback, within hours.
your interests to fulfil it.
05 / The social media space is one which expects and tolerates ongoing
tinkering and improvement.
Initial audience research is crucial /
Embrace open standards and APIs /
There are no excuses for not knowing exactly what your audience's
functional and rational needs are within the social media space. Use Allow users to adapt your application to suit their own needs, making
conversation monitoring tools throughout the development process
DEFINITIONS it do what they want.
to listen to what your audience is saying.
Be prepared to keep supporting the application /
Collaboration will create the best ideas /
Depending on the permanence of the audience need the tool is
The best ideas will occur when clients, consultants, researchers, answering, it may require long-term support and commitment from
developers all sit round the same table, developing ideas together. the brand. It may fit into a product lifecycle, rather than a marketing
campaign plan. When you budget and plan, remember that the initial
Make sure the product itself encourages collaboration /
soft launch is simply the end of the beginning… Ahem.
A good social media tool will ensure that the more people use the tool,
Don't expect an instant hit /
and use it collaboratively, the more they will achieve.
If a tool is truly useful, its usage should grow virally rather than as a result
Let your advocates be your product testers /
of a big marketing campaign. It took a few years before the likes of Flickr
Develop closed groups of alpha testers whose enthusiasm for the and Facebook jumped the chasm from early adopters to early majority.
brand will make them an excellent external testing group.
Open up the development process /
Blog the development process. Let people know what you're doing. Invite
their feedback. And respond to it. Make sure your team has enough
resources to listen, engage and respond to these interested parties.
social media / emerging trends p.85
06 / pages 85-89
SOCIAL MEDIA / EMERGING TRENDS /
By Leo Ryan and Dan O’Connor, Ryan*MacMillan
Throughout this report, we've been examining What might we choose to keep in this profile? Credit
rating, sexual preference, search history, privacy set-
the current social media landscape and asking
tings, music taste. And where might it follow us? Not
just how we can measure the types of activities
just across social networking sites, but across all sites
that are going on there. In looking at this world
that provide some level of interaction based on who we
of blogs, podcasts, forums, wikis, crowd- are and what we want. Our profiles will have elements
sourcing, and endless conversations, it is
03 / that are maintained as we do our banking, add friends to
possible also to detect some new develop- MySpace and as we slay a few enemies in World of
04 / Warcraft. We will be able to manage our profiles as we
ments. In this concluding essay, we identify
see fit - presenting different identities to the online
these emerging trends - which are the sort of
05 / world depending on the context. Friends will see a dif-
phenomena that we'll be applying our social
ferent profile to business associates. However, for this
media metrics to in the future. to work properly, there will need to be some significant
EMERGING improvements in how our data is collected, stored and
06.01. / Persistent profiles
used. In the same way that the web is teaching us to
DEFINITIONS Our online profile is a representation of ourselves doubt the veracity of all information, so it will also erode
online. Profiles can vary from a username in a forum to our naivety about all degrees of privacy unless those we
RESOURCES an avatar in Second Life. Increasingly it can be a social trust with our privacy prove to be worthy of it.
network profile. Who we are, how we present the
06.02 / Aggregated intelligence
Jared Tarbell / http://flickr.com/photos/generated/416810/
aspects of ourselves and how we maintain control over
that is an increasingly key issue in social media. One The online environment has made it easier for large
way that we think this is going to develop is in the con- groups of widely dispersed individuals to express ideas,
solidation of profiles and possibly the creation of con- vote for an outcome or give something a rating. It also
sistent or persistent profiles. Google's OpenSocial makes it easier for these expressions to be aggregated.
presages such a development. It is comprised of three This aggregated intelligence has been termed the
elements; Profile Information (me), Friends Information 'wisdom of crowds' or 'collective intelligence' and the
(my friends) and Activities (things that happen). The process of harnessing it; 'crowdsourcing' is on the rise.
principle of OpenSocial means that as a user moves an The web audience is already familiar with sites that har-
application or widget between different social network- ness the collective intelligence. Old favourites Wikipedia,
ing platforms their profile is maintained. So my contacts Flickr and del.icio.us are being joined by new ones such
on my industry network (www.vbma.net) don't have to as the Encyclopaedia of Life. If collective knowledge is
be all uploaded again to my Bebo profile. The applica- what we are seeing now - the harbingers of the next
tion I add to my LinkedIn profile will also work on my stage; collective action are already starting to emerge.
social media / credits p.94
CREDITS SPECIAL REPORTS
CHAPTERS / Produced by Contagious Communications Cover Illustration by This report is part of a series of Special Reports
Chellie Carroll / www.chelliecarroll.co.uk produced by Contagious Communications.
The series also includes reports on Mobile
Paul Kemp-Robertson Other Illustrations by
Marketing, Branded Entertainment, Gaming and
Chellie Carroll / www.chelliecarroll.co.uk
Series Editor Love Everyday / www.love-everyday.co.uk
Georgia Malden Assorted members of Flickr / www.flickr.com
For more information, can Gual or Harry
iStockphoto / www.istockphoto.com
on +44 20 7575 1886/1822
MEASURING or visit www.contagiousmagazine.com/shop
Leo Ryan, Iain MacMillan, Dan O'Connor, Design
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With thanks to our contributors www.contagiousmagazine.com
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Report published April 2008
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