Learning ObjectivesIdentify keyTerm:National CinemaNationalIdentify Analyse the different ways in which French National Identify has been represented in film Complete an analysis of City of God and identity how Brazilian National identity has been created
WorldVs.‘National’ Cinema• The study of World Cinema is, more often than not, a study of national cinemas, and the different cultural identities that these reflect.• What are the main differences between ‘World’ Cinema & ‘National’ Cinema?
National Cinema• World Cinema – A term used to describe films and film industries from non-English speaking countries• National Cinema – A term used to describe films associated with a specific country National Cinema is usually analysed at two levels: Textual Features: the similarities in style and subject matter which can be identified as linking films from one country (Realism in British Cinema) Industrial Context: the way in which national cinema is funded and distributed
National Cinema• Using your notes from previous l lessons and the screening of City of God create a list of elements that both City of God & La Haine share.• Consider: – Genre – Characters & their journeys – Themes – Narrative – Messages & Values – Style – Use of the Micro Elements Can both of our focus films be considered ‘National Cinema’? Explain your answer with examples from both films
National Cinema• National Cinema is a significant factor in the contribution of a National Identity – for both home and foreign audiences• National Cinema focuses upon cultural and social issues of the country in which it was made• These films are then shown around the world offering foreign audiences (possibly) their only look at a society they might never otherwise view• As a result film has a significant impact on how we see foreign cultures – although this is not the only factor contributing to this, it is significant
Amelie – the real Paris?• Watch the following extract from ‘Amelie’ (2001 Dir: Jean-Pierre Jeunet) and make notes on the following:• What ‘identity’ is created for Paris through this film? Amelie relies on the• How is this ‘identity’ created? (micro ‘Romantic’ idealised Paris identify when elements) appealing to audiences – a representation that• Why do you think the director has be dominant both created/used this ‘Identify’ for ‘Amelie’? nationally & internationally
AmelieVs. La Haine• Amelie paints a romantic, nostalgic identity of Paris through its use of mise-en-scene, music and CGI• Notice the use of iconography and stereotypes – Cafes, waiters, Accordion music, bright and colourful surroundings, culinary passion, up-beat and friendly nature of Paris, The Tour De France, nostalgic flashbacks• All of these elements contribute to the creation and reinforcement of a Dominant Cultural Identity (Cultural Hegemony) A culturally diverse society can be dominated by one ruling class, by manipulating cultural identity. Done through beliefs, values, perceptions etc, the ruling class world view is imposed as the ‘norm’ The norm is then perceived as a valid ideology and status quo. Only the ruling class really benefit from this ‘norm’
Amelie: Ideological Warrior?• National cinema is often at odds with the dominant cultural ideology of the country it depicts• Amelie depicts Paris as a romantic city full of beauty and colour• French President Jacques Chirac and the Mayor of Montmartre Lionel Jospin demanded private screenings – the film reinforced the ‘cultural ideology’ that would present Paris identity in a positive and stereotypical way• La Haine on the other hand was criticised by the Government and authorities Why do you think this is? La Haine contributes only negative aspects to French National Identity and challenges audience expectations
‘La Haine’ the French?• As we have seen with La Haine, film has a very real role in the construction of National Identity• Using your notes and own personal response to the films, answer the following question: What did La Haine contribute to your understanding of French Identity? Pick specific scenes to support your points How do Amelie & La Haine differ in their construction of a National Identity? List some of the potential positive/negative implications of National Cinema
National Identity Digitally removing• A film like Amelie may appeal to a wider graffiti, dog shit and international audience as it relies of ‘familiar’ and other such unsightly stereotypical representations items, he (Jean-Pierre• In the same way it will also appeal to a mainstream Jeunet) achieves with French audiences who prefer the romantic and real locations a vision positive representation of their capital city of Paris that resembles the poetic-realist sets of the 30s• Whilst La Haine is littered with references to the French under-class – Amelie purposefully attempts to hide them The dominant Ideological representation of Paris is literally painting over and hiding any other ideological representations
‘City of God’?• Using your notes from the screening and own personal response to the film, answer the following questions: What cultural identities have been reflected in City of God? In what ways can the different national audiences react to the film? In what ways can international audiences respond to the film? Can this film be classified as national rather than world?
Summary• Our understanding of National Cinema and its role in constructing National Identities is vital if we are to be successful in our exam• National Cinema is a tool filmmakers can use to portray what they feel is the real identify of a country• National Cinema usually challenges the Dominant Cultural Ideologies presented by Mainstream World Cinema• To many international audience Hugh Grant is seen as the quintessential English gent• But to English audiences, a character like Combo from This is England may be a more accurate and therefore, more appealing and relatable character• And this difference is crucial to our understanding of National VS. World Cinema