Your SlideShare is downloading. ×
0
Risk communication
Risk communication
Risk communication
Risk communication
Risk communication
Risk communication
Risk communication
Risk communication
Risk communication
Risk communication
Risk communication
Risk communication
Risk communication
Risk communication
Risk communication
Risk communication
Risk communication
Risk communication
Risk communication
Risk communication
Risk communication
Risk communication
Risk communication
Risk communication
Risk communication
Risk communication
Risk communication
Risk communication
Risk communication
Risk communication
Risk communication
Risk communication
Risk communication
Risk communication
Risk communication
Risk communication
Risk communication
Risk communication
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Thanks for flagging this SlideShare!

Oops! An error has occurred.

×
Saving this for later? Get the SlideShare app to save on your phone or tablet. Read anywhere, anytime – even offline.
Text the download link to your phone
Standard text messaging rates apply

Risk communication

297

Published on

Published in: Technology, News & Politics
0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total Views
297
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
1
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
13
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

Report content
Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
No notes for slide

Transcript

  • 1. Communication, Culture and Risk Perceptions Matthew C. Nisbet Associate Professor School of Communication American University Washington D.C. @MCNisbet
  • 2. Deficit Model Assumptions  If the public knew more about the technical side of science, then the public would view issues as scientists do, and there would be fewer controversies.  Need to return to a point in the past where science was respected and citizens were informed.  Emphasis is on improving science literacy through formal education and science media. @MCNisbet
  • 3. 1957: Is the Past That Different from Today? Perception is Context Dependent National Science Board (2008). Chapter 7: Public Attitudes about Science and Technology. Science & Engineering Indicators. @MCNisbet
  • 4. 2. Networks and Trust Matter Social relationships, networks, and identities Trust, credibility, alienation relative to science-related institutions The uptake and influence of “expert” sciencerelated knowledge Practical reason, localized knowledge Bryan Wynne @MCNisbet
  • 5. Common Criteria Used to Judge Expert Advice 1) Does expert knowledge work? Do predictions fail? 2) Do expert claims pay attention to other available knowledge? 3) Are experts open to criticism? Admission of errors, or oversights? 4) What are the social / institutional affiliations of experts? Historical track record of trustworthiness, affiliation with industry? 5) What issues overlap or connect to lay experience? @MCNisbet
  • 6. Models of Science Communication Brossard, D., & Lewenstein, B. V. (2009). A Critical Appraisal of Models of Public Understanding of Science: Using Practice to Inform Theory. In L. Kahlor & P. Stout (Eds.), Communicating Science: New Agendas in Communication(pp. 11-39). New York: Routledge. @MCNisbet
  • 7. Examples of Models of Science Communication Brossard, D., & Lewenstein, B. V. (2009). A Critical Appraisal of Models of Public Understanding of Science: Using Practice to Inform Theory. In L. Kahlor & P. Stout (Eds.), Communicating Science: New Agendas in Communication(pp. 11-39). New York: Routledge. @MCNisbet
  • 8. The Deficit vs. Public Engagement Model Groffman, P. Stylinski, C., Nisbet, M.C. et al. (2010). Restarting the Conversation: Challenges at the Interface of Science and Society. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment, 8, 284-291. @MCNisbet
  • 9. Models of Science Communication Brossard, D., & Lewenstein, B. V. (2009). A Critical Appraisal of Models of Public Understanding of Science: Using Practice to Inform Theory. In L. Kahlor & P. Stout (Eds.), Communicating Science: New Agendas in Communication(pp. 11-39). New York: Routledge. @MCNisbet
  • 10. Viewing the Public In Binary Terms See analysis at the Vote View blog by political scientists Keith Poole and Howard Rosenthal, updated from McCarthy, Nolan, Keith T. Poole and Howard Rosenthal. Polarized America: The Dance of Ideology and Unequal Riches. Boston, MA: MIT @MCNisbet
  • 11. Elite Cues, Heuristics and a Miserly Public See analysis at the Vote View blog by political scientists Keith Poole and Howard Rosenthal, updated from McCarthy, Nolan, Keith T. Poole and Howard Rosenthal. Polarized America: The Dance of Ideology and Unequal Riches. Boston, MA: MIT @MCNisbet
  • 12. The Economy and Our Limited Pool of Worry Nisbet, 2011; Scruggs & Benegal, 2012; Brulle et al, 2012 @MCNisbet
  • 13. Climate Change as Cultural Debate: Group, Policy and Technological Context Climate change Gun control Institutionalization of the mentally ill Legality of drugs Abortion HPV vaccine Stem cell research Nuclear energy Natural gas fracking Food biotechnology Kahan, D. (forthcoming). Cultural Cognition as a Conception of the Cultural Theory of Risk, in Handbook of Risk Theory: Epistemology, Decision Theory, Ethics and Social Implications of Risk 725-760 (eds. Hillerbrand, R., Sandin, P., Roeser, S. & Peterson, M.) (Springer London, Limited, 2012). @MCNisbet
  • 14. Climate Change as Cultural Debate: More Information Increases Polarization Kahan, D. et al. (2012). The Polarizing Impact of Perceived Climate Change Literacy and Numeracy on Perceived Climate Change Risks. Nature Climate Change. @MCNisbet
  • 15. Climate Change as Cultural Debate: Telling Stories about Wicked Problems o The more complex a problem like climate change, the more equally plausible discourses and narratives exist about what should be done. o Climate change serves as an opportunity for different groups to mobilize on behalf of their values, goals and vision for society. o By analyzing discourses “we can at least recognize that the sources of our enduring disagreements…lie within us, in our values and in our sense of identity and purpose.” @MCNisbet
  • 16. Scientists & Environmentalists as Cultural Tribe @MCNisbet
  • 17. Focus on Mitigation at Expense of Adaptation Design to Win Foundations, 2007-2010 / $368M Distributed Across 1248 Grants Nisbet, M.C. (2011). Climate Shift: Clear Vision for the Next Decade of Public Debate. Washington, DC: American University, School of Communication. @MCNisbet
  • 18. Engineers, economists, policy wonks, big budget NGOS, activists committed to “fight the good fight.” Luers, A., Pope, C., Kroodsma, D. (2013). Stanford Social Innovation Review. Geographers, sociologists, and ecologists, hazard risk managers, disaster responders, smaller budget NGOs, who are committed to solving problems and saving lives. @MCNisbet
  • 19. Hurricanes and Climate Change Advocacy, Uncertainty and Political Clarity <strong> Luers, A., Pope, C., Kroodsma, D. (2013). Stanford Social Innovation Review. @MCNisbet
  • 20. The Public as Distinct Interpretative Communities @MCNisbet
  • 21. The Public as Distinct Interpretative Communities @MCNisbet
  • 22. 3. Judgments and Decisions Are Context Dependent Kahneman, D. (2003) In T. Frängsmyr (Ed.), Les Prix Nobel: The Nobel Prizes 2002 (pp. 449-489). Stockholm, Sweden: Nobel Foundation.
  • 23. 3. Judgments and Decisions Are Context Dependent Kahneman, D. (2003) In T. Frängsmyr (Ed.), Les Prix Nobel: The Nobel Prizes 2002 (pp. 449-489). Stockholm, Sweden: Nobel Foundation.
  • 24. Morality Binds, Divides and Blinds Us to Threats “A basic principle of moral psychology is that „morality binds and blinds.‟ In many pre-agricultural societies, groups achieved trust and unity by circling around sacred objects. In modern societies, much larger groups bind themselves together by treating certain books, flags, leaders or ideals as sacred and by symbolically circling around them. But if your team circles too fast, you lose the ability to see clearly or think for yourself. You go blind to evidence that contradicts your group‟s moral consensus, and you become enraged at teammates who suggest that the other side is not entirely bad.” – New York Times, Nov. 7, 2012 @MCNisbet
  • 25. Energy Resilience in an Era of Abrupt Climate Change? Nisbet, Maibach, & Leiserowitz (2011). American Journal of Public Health. @MCNisbet
  • 26. Stage 1: In-Depth Interviews w/ 70 Subjects from Six Distinct Audience Segments (Summer 2009) Maibach, E., Nisbet, M.C. et al. (2010). BMC Public Health 10: 299.
  • 27. Segments 4-6: Sentence Specific Reaction To Public Health Essay 10 DISENGAGED DOUBTFUL DISMISSIVE POPULATION 8 6 4 2 0 -2 -4 -6 -8 -10 O1 O2 O3 O4 O5 T1 T2 T3 T4 T5 T6 T7 B1 B2 B3 Scores reflect respondent average values by segment for the difference between the number of times each of 18 sentences were marked “especially clear or helpful” and “especially confusing or unhelpful.” B4 C1 C2
  • 28. Stage 2: Testing Environmental, National Security Frames vs. Public Health Frame Myers, T., Nisbet, M.C., Maibach, E.W., & Leiserowitz, A. (2012). A Public Health Frame Arouses Hopeful Emotions about Climate Change. Climatic Change Research Letters, 1105-1121.
  • 29. Voices from Coastal Communities Fatalism and Low Efficacy Moser, S. C. (in press). In: Successful Adaptation to Climate Change: Linking Science and Practice in a Rapidly Changing World, ed. S.C. Moser and M.T. Boykoff, Routledge, London. @MCNisbet
  • 30. Community Dialogue After Hurricane Isabel Anne Arundel County, Maryland @MCNisbet
  • 31. Community Dialogue and Polarization GMU, USNA, Dewberry Timeline of Actions  2003 Hurricane Isabel floods Annapolis, coastal communities  2007 Gov. O‟Malley creates MD Commission on Climate Change  Science Working Group uses 2007 IPCC models to estimate sea-level rise projections for state from 2.7 ft to 3.4 ft by 2100.  Recommend planners anticipate 1ft rise by 2050 and 2ft rise by 2100.  Anne Arundel County and Annapolis begin their own evaluation process. Project Focus • County mail survey, N = 300 • Deliberative forums, 2 moderators at each table, N = 40 • Risk projection web site CASI Final Project Report (2013). @MCNisbet
  • 32. Cultural Identity Explains Substantial Proportion of Risk Perceptions and Policy Preferences “Local policy discourses on sea-level rise are not emerging into a neutral arena, but one in which cultural meanings have already begun to form. In this environment, traditional communication strategies of providing „objective‟ assessments are unlikely to staunch further issue polarization, as has been case in Virginia and North Carolina.” CASI Final Project Report (2013). @MCNisbet
  • 33. Brokering Shared Identity and Outlook Localized Dialogue Softens Cultural Cognition CASI Final Project Report (2013). @MCNisbet
  • 34. http://www.futurecoast.info/
  • 35. Experts and Coastal Property Owners From Trusted Sources of Information to Brokers of Dialogue Cone, J et al 2013. Reframing Engagement Methods for Climate Change Adaptation. Coastal Management, 41: 345-360. @MCNisbet
  • 36. Experts and Coastal Property Owners From Trusted Sources of Information to Brokers of Dialogue Cone, J et al 2013. Reframing Engagement Methods for Climate Change Adaptation. Coastal Management, 41: 345-360. @MCNisbet
  • 37. Research Informs Design of Communication @MCNisbet
  • 38. Creating Shared Understanding & Consolidating Views Recommendations Recommendations  Feature adaptive strategies – effective and failed – in engagement efforts.  Property owners prefer to hear about experiences of neighbors more so than advice from scientific experts.  Host local meetings with property owners, experts, and officials to discuss changes, impacts, and risks that they are experiencing.  Participants believed that simply coming together was productive in its own right.  Identify and highlight “early adopters,” local property owners who have already started to engage in adaptive behaviors. “What is required is creating conditions for helping communities make meaning out of the science and its findings for themselves and their local conditions in ways that support their including that science into their regular decision-making…Good models that put scientists, communicators, and publics into dialogue about what they know, what it means, and how to put it to work suggest using group processes and visible thinking routines for creating and sustaining dialogues about climate change.” @MCNisbet

×