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Session2 intsocisy20142015

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Sociology

Sociology

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  • 1. Understanding Sociology
  • 2. What is your understanding of SOCIOLOGY?
  • 3. • Sociology – Sociology studies human society and social behavior through social interaction and social phenomena – Social Interaction – how people relate to one another and influence each other’s behavior – Social Phenomena – observable events in human society • Anthropology – Anthropology is the comparative study of past and present cultures • Psychology – Psychology studies behavior and mental processes • Sociology – Sociology studies human society and social behavior through social interaction and social phenomena – Social Interaction – how people relate to one another and influence each other’s behavior – Social Phenomena – observable events in human society • Anthropology – Anthropology is the comparative study of past and present cultures • Psychology – Psychology studies behavior and mental processes Sociology and Other Social Sciences
  • 4. • Economics – Economics studies choices people make to satisfy their needs and wants • Political Science – Political science studies principles, organization, and operation of government • History – History studies people and events of the past • Economics – Economics studies choices people make to satisfy their needs and wants • Political Science – Political science studies principles, organization, and operation of government • History – History studies people and events of the past Sociology and Other Social Sciences
  • 5. WHAT SOCIOLOGISTS DO?  Market research  Advertising  Government official  Pre-law  Becoming a sociology professor  Planner  Social Science Researcher  Social Impact Assessor
  • 6. WE CAN STUDY SOCIOLOGY EVERY WHERE…. WHEN ARE BEING CRITICAL…. EVEN THE MUNDANE THINGS…. http://www.sociology.org/content/2006/tier2/johnpaul_the_urinal_game.pdf
  • 7. URINAL GAME (PAUL, 2006) Sociology of Space
  • 8. DEFINITION “Sociology is the study of social behavior and human groups” (Schaeffer, 2011). Sociology is a branch of social science that deals with the study of society, groups, processes, norms (laws, practices, patterns of behavior; a belief of what is acceptable; unwritten or written rules on how to behave), and organizations.
  • 9. WHAT IS SOCIOLOGY?  Sociology Focuses on:  How social relationships influence people’s attitudes and behavior  How major social institutions affect us  How we affect other individuals, groups, and organizations © 2006 ALAN S. BERGER 10
  • 10. CONSIDER THIS:
  • 11. WHAT IS A SALIVA AND ITS FUNCTION:  It softens food, lubricates the throat and mouth and begins digestion.   Has enzymes to begin breaking down food  Saliva also helps prevent tooth decay.Without saliva, food particles that get caught between the teeth would stay there much longer, causing plaque and cavities to develop much more quickly. Read more:  http://wiki.answers.com/Q/What_is_the_function_of_saliva#ixzz1vsZci8UB
  • 12. IS SALIVA DIRTY?  “It all depends on what they have recently had in their mouth. However human being get the saliva in their mouth via the blood stream, any thing that goes through the blood stream is subject to the influence of the immune system.”  “ A normal healthy human as a result produces saliva that is just about sterile.As is also the case with urine, semen, tears and vaginal secretion etc.” Read more:  http://wiki.answers.com/Q/Do_humans_have_dirty_saliva#ixzz1vsZwr7cu
  • 13. CONSIDER THIS:
  • 14.  Our behavior or the way we act on so something depends on what the society dictates us.  Our understanding, belief, idea of something is also contextual. It depends on the situation.  And the situation is defined by us.
  • 15. DEFINITION “A social science involving the study of the social lives of people, groups, and societies.” (American Sociological Society)
  • 16. DEFINITION “Sociology is the study of how society is organized and how we experience life.” (collective experience) (British Sociological Association)
  • 17. Why people group themselves? Why people organize? Are there social forces/phenomenon that move people to organize? How people interact with each other and how these interactions impact on individuals.
  • 18. DEFINITION “Sociology is also the study of social interaction.”
  • 19. FOCUS OF SOCIOLOGY (SCHAEFFER, 2011)  Impacts of relationships on people’s attitude and behavior. Photo courtesy of http://www.openideo.com/open/impact/inspiration/social-network-analysis
  • 20. FOCUS of SociologyFOCUS of Sociology (Schaeffer, 2011)(Schaeffer, 2011) How societies develop and change.
  • 21. OLOGY AND SOCIAL SCIENCES █ Science: Body of knowledge obtained by methods based on systematic observation – Natural science: Study of physical features of nature and the ways they interact and change – Social science: Study of social features of humans and the ways they interact and change Source: Schaeffer, 2011 (McGraw Hill) Other examples of social science disciplines?
  • 22. ADDITIONAL NOTES ON SOCIOLOGY  The discipline is holistic and is related to everything else.
  • 23. FOCUS OF SOCIOLOGY  Actors, Roles, Rules, and Relationships.  Let us take our classroom as an example! What are the 3Rs and an A present?
  • 24. SOCIOLOGY IN SAYINGS  Birds of the same feathers flock together.
  • 25.  Tell me who your friends are and I will tell you who you are.
  • 26. INSERTVIDEO  What is SOCIOLOGY?
  • 27. How is Sociology and Psychology Different?
  • 28. LET US EXAMINE SUICIDE
  • 29. HOW IS SOCIOLOGY DIFFERENT?  Psychology- Individual Behavior  Sociology-Group Behavior
  • 30. SOCIOLOGY AND COMMON SENSE  Common sense assumptions are usually based on very limited observation.  Moreover, the premises on which common sense assumptions are seldom examined.  Sociology seeks to: • use a broad range of carefully selected observations; and • theoretically understand and explain those observations.  While sociological research might confirm common sense observation, its broader base and theoretical rational provide a stronger basis for conclusions.
  • 31. Photo courtesy of: Cardiff University School of Social Sciences
  • 32. LADY K LADY K: The 'American Idol' winner struggled with bulimia for six months until friends discovered her secret and begged her to get help.
  • 33. POSSIBLE CAUSE FACTORS  Poor self image  Low self-esteem  History of trauma or abuse  Major life changes  Appearance oriented professions Source: http://www.helpguide.org/mental/bulimia_signs_symptoms_causes_treatment.htm
  • 34. HOW SOCIOLOGISTS EXAMINE SOCIETY? Rely on critical thinking, which C.Wright Mills calls, SOCIOLOGICAL IMAGINATION
  • 35. WHAT IS SOCIOLOGICAL IMAGINATION?  “An awareness of the relationship between and individual and the wider society, both today and in the past” (Schaeffer, 2011).  The connection between history (past) and biography (your current personal experiences and context.
  • 36. SOCIOLOGICAL IMAGINATION ABILITY TOVIEW One's OWNWORLD as an OUTSIDER!
  • 37. SOCIOLOGICAL IMAGINATION ABILITY TOVIEW One's OWNWORLD as an OUTSIDER!
  • 38. SOCIOLOGICAL IMAGINATION It allows us to go beyond personal experiences and observation to understand broader public issues.
  • 39. DIVORCE A personal problem between husband and wife. Divorce may influence family (family in transition). Divorce may deconstruct the traditional notion of family.
  • 40. DIVORCE QUESTIONS THEVERY CONCEPT OF MARRIAGE  To live happily ever after.  Love is the very foundation of marriage.  But why divorce happens?
  • 41. “Consider unemployment.When, in a city of one hundred thousand, one man is unemployed, that is his personal trouble, and for its relief, we may properly look to the character of the man and his skills. But when in a nation of fifty million employees, fifteen million men are unemployed, that is an issue, and we may not hope to find its solution within the range of opportunities open to any one individual.The very structure of opportunities has collapsed” C. Wright Mills (1959)
  • 42. OTHER SOCIOLOGICAL PERSPECTIVES  DEBUNKING- “Debunking is a process of questioning actions and ideas that are usually taken for granted.” (Peter Berger)  Aha Attitude  Healthy skepticism regarding common notions
  • 43. AHA ATTITUDE
  • 44. DIG THE HOLE
  • 45. SOCIOLOGICAL IMAGINATION  Is also an examination of the effects of social forces on people’s personal and social lives.   What are social forces? (racism, gender inequality, population growth or decline, globalization, poverty, change in education, etc)  Social forces are processes, realities, and notions/concepts of something that are considered an “in thing”.
  • 46.  Insert video on sociological imagination. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wqvnVAL8-1g
  • 47. SOCIOLOGICAL THINKING  See the strange from the familiar-to detach oneself from what is common.We challenge familiar ideas.
  • 48. SOCIOLOGICAL THINKING  Seeing the general in the particular.
  • 49. EXAMPLE  For many years, scholars thought that Japan is a homogenous society.  But this is no longer the case.  Cultural diversity has existed in Japan even before it opened its door to foreigners.  Foreigners are increasing in Japan.
  • 50. OTHER EXAMPLES Women tend to be chattier than men Military marriages more likely to end in separation or divorce
  • 51. BENEFITS OF SOCIOLOGICAL PERSPECTIVE (MACIONIS, 2005) 1. It helps us assess the truth of common sense. (We continuously ask whether or not our common belief are actually/still true). 2. It helps us see the opportunities and constraints in our lives. 3. It empowers us to be active participants in our society.
  • 52. BENEFITS OF SOCIOLOGICAL PERSPECTIVE (MACIONIS, 2005) 4. It helps us live in a diverse world.
  • 53. THE ORIGINS OF SOCIOLOGY Three major developments in the 17th and 18th century: 1. Emergence of industrial economy (factories) 2. Proliferation of cities in Europle. 3. Political changes and concerns of individual liberty and rights. © 2010 ALAN S. BERGER 64
  • 54. PRACTICING SOCIOLOGY © 2006 ALAN S. BERGER 65 • Applied sociology: use of the discipline of sociology with the intent of yielding practical applications for human behavior and organizations • Clinical sociology: dedicated to facilitating change by altering social relationships or restructuring social institutions
  • 55. EXERCISE • Video (child smoking)