Cognition• Mental activities of thinking, knowing,remembering, & communicatinginformation.
Concepts• Mental groupings of similar:• Objects• Evetns• Ideas• People
prototypes• A mental image (best example) of acategory.
Initial thinking about a new stimulus oftenchanges after it is integrated into ourconceptual worldview.Our first perceptions typically becomemore embedded as time passes.Asian face is remembered as “moreAsian” after time (Corneille, et al.,2004).
Algorithm• Logical, methodical rule for solving aproblem.
Heuristic• Simple thinking strategy that quicklysolves a problem.“rule of thumb”
Insight• Sudden realization of a solution to aproblem -without a strategy.
Once we form a belief, we tend to use allinformation to support that belief.
Confirmation Bias• The tendency to search for informationthat supports our preconceptions.• The tendency to avoid evidence that iscontradictory to our preconceptions.
Fixation• The inability to see a problem in adifferent way.
Mental Set• The tendency to approach a problem ina certain way -”set” in one’s bias.• Predisposes how we think.• (Perceptual Set- predisposition to whatwe see.)
Intuition• A “gut feeling”• Fast• Automatic• Emotionally based• Not reflective or logic based
Availability Heuristic• Estimating the likelihood of somethingbased on our memory of previousoccurrences (Tversky & Kahneman,1974).• Casino bells & lights give us the sensethat a lot of winning is going on.
Overconfidence• The tendency to be more confident thancorrect.
Belief Perseverance• Clinging to one’s initial bias, despitecontradictory evidence.
Framing• The way an issue is presentedinfluences our interpretation of it.
Framing• 10% of patients die in this operation.• 90% of patients live through thisoperation (Marteau, 1989).• Condoms have 95% success rate instopping HIV.• Condoms have a 5% fail-rate (Linville etal., 1992).
Nonhuman Animal Cognition
Nonhuman Cognition• Pigeons can sort objects into categories(Wasserman, 1995).• Great apes can categorize images(Freedman, 2001).• Wolfgang Köhler (1925) chimpanzee “Sultan”insight problem solving.• Chimpanzee tool use (& imitating tool use).• Altruism• Voice recognition
Language & Thought(psycholinguistics)
Language• Spoken, written, or signedcommunication.
3 building blocks of spokenlanguage1. Phonemes2. Morphemes3. grammar
Phoneme• Smallest sound unit.• B, t, k/c• 40 in english
Morpheme• Smallest sound unit that carriesmeaning.• I• A• “Pre….” “…ed”• 100,000 in English
Language Development• 1-18 years we learn about 60,000words.• After age 2, we learn about 3,500 wordsa year (Bloom, 2000).
Receptive Language• By 4 months babies recognizedifferences in speech sounds.• By 4 months can read lips.• Prefer to look at the face that is makingthe motion & sound.• 7 months can distinguish soundsegments into separate words(Newman, 2006).
Productive Language• Follows receptive language in development.• Can recognize incorrect noun/verb placementbefore being able to speak it (Bernal, 2010).• Deaf infants babble with their hands.• By 10 months, babbling becomes words.• Without exposure to other languages, babieslose their ability to hear certain sounds (l & rin Japanese & English natives).
Language• 7,000 different languages.• Noam Chomsky• Universal Grammar• LAD: Language Acquisition Device
Telegraphic Speech• Nouns & verbs• “go, car”
Critical PeriodSensitive periodAge when development in most effective.Accent before age 3.By age 7 children lose their sensitivity to learnlanguage as a mother tongue.
Brain & Language
Aphasia• Impairment of language
Broca’s Area (1865)• Left frontal lobe• Speech production
Wernicke’s Area (1874)• Speech comprehension(understanding)
• Language production & comprehensionis distributed across the entire brain.• Neural networks are activated fornouns, verbs, adjectives, etc…• http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=O101aJ-XG
Nonhuman speech• 1960s Gardner & Gardner taught“Washoe” (chimp) 245 signs.• Chimps can develop can communicateon the level of a 2 year old human.
Jane Goodall• http://www.ted.com/talks/jane_goodall_on_wh
Why Dogs Smile andChimpanzees Cryhttp://youtu.be/DIV9mYHdpwU• Part II http://youtu.be/cvtiALFufi8
Language & Thought“We don’t do language, language doesus.” -Martin Heidegger
Linguistic Determinism• Whorfian Hypothesis (1956)