Feminism“Feminist scholars concentrate on howbiological categories like Male &Female become conflated with culturalgender expectations, resulting indiscriminatory social systems thatprivilege men over women.”Ott & Mack, 2010
“Feminism is marked by a politicalcommitment to deconstruct theseoppressive systems in order totransform society into a fairer, moreequitable place for diverse peoples.”Ott & Mack, 2010
1. History of Feminism2. Stereotypes3. Deconstruction of the M?F dichotomy4. Post-feminism
Feminism“Broadly speaking, is a political projectthat explores the diverse ways men &women are socially empowered ordisempowered.”
Feminism“A movement to end sexism, sexistexploitation, and oppression.”bell hooks
Sexism“ Discrimination based upon a person’ssex.
Sexism“Feminism seeks to reveal & eradicatesocially ingrained systems of sexismthat harm all individuals is some way.”
Gender“Culturally constructed differencesbetween men & women: tastes, roles,activities, etc.”
SEX/GENDER• Sex= male & femaley chromosome-male• Gender= masculine & feminineAggressiveness-masculine
Sex/GenderOnly women can give birth to childrenViewing women as nurturing or motheringis a gendered quality.
ESSENTIALISM• The belief that gender distinctions areinnate and natural.
PatriarchyA system of power relations in whichwomen’s interests are subordinated tothose of men.Patriarchy essentializes women in a waythat favors men.
Patriarchy harms men too.Little emotionAvoid certain occupationsBreadwinner of family
StereotypeA misleading and simplifiedrepresentation of a particular socialgroup.• Elderly drive bad.• Southerners are not smart.• “White” people are uptight.• “Black” people are good dancers.
We all stereotype & havebeen stereotyped.• Why is there stereotyping in the media?“Socially powerful group have greateraccess to to media outlets as a functionof their privilege, and this access allowsthem to represent their particularperspective on other social groups tothe widest audiences.”
Stereotypes• Stereotyping helps people make sense of acomplex society.• Past experiences generalize to futurepredictions.• Mental categories allow for quick appraisal &decision making with strangers.• Mental shortcuts that aid in survival.
StereotypesSome people are accurately depicted by astereotype.Most are not and are injured by the stereotype.Simplistic reductions of character.+ Stereotype- Stereotype (not always realized as astereotype)
StereotypesStereotypes remain in the media becausethey have enough “truth” (validity) tosound plausible without much criticalthought.The amount of reality in the stereotype isgrossly overstated, misrepresented,and indiscriminately generalized.
Oppressors & the OppressedCan both learn how to act, think, feel, &believe from media representations.The media lends credibility to thestereotype. Reinforces a generalization.
Gendered Stereotypes inAmerican Media• Binary understanding of gender• Many stereotypes in the media functionin this M/F dichotomy
4 Typical StereotypicalBinaries1. Active/passive2. Public/private3. Logical/emotional4. Sexual subject/sexual object
Active/passive• Males depicted with strength & activity.• Sports, work, tools, vehicles.• Women depicted sit or stand, passively,weak, underweight, frail.“Being a man” or “being a woman” islargely taught by the media.