World War I


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World War I

  1. 1. World War I and its Aftermath 1914-1919 The Great War
  2. 2. Preface <ul><li>Otto von Bismarck wanted to be 1 of 3 of 5 </li></ul><ul><li>This meant that he wanted to be 1 country of a 3 country alliance out of the 5 powerful countries in the world </li></ul><ul><li>These countries were Germany, France, Great Britain, Austria-Hungary and Russia </li></ul><ul><li>He needed an alliance with two other countries to take over Europe </li></ul>
  3. 3. Alliance System <ul><li>For Bismarck, the most dangerous situation would be fighting a two-front war </li></ul><ul><li>For Germany, a natural alliance was Austria-Hungary </li></ul><ul><li>They shared culture, this was a natural alliance </li></ul><ul><li>His better side was to look to Russia because France hated him </li></ul><ul><li>Russia was a divine right monarchy and so was Germany </li></ul>
  4. 4. Alliance System <ul><li>Russia would not commit because of the Balkans </li></ul><ul><li>The alliance was Germany, Austria-Hungary and Italy </li></ul><ul><li>Germany had what was called a reassurance policy with Russia </li></ul><ul><li>If there was war, Germany should come out in pretty good shape </li></ul>
  5. 5. Alliance System <ul><li>As we know, in 1890 Bismarck was dropped </li></ul><ul><li>Wilhelm II took over, he was not trained to rule </li></ul><ul><li>He use to have Admirals come to his yacht, put on tutu’s and dance for him </li></ul>
  6. 6. Alliance System <ul><li>He did this because he had power </li></ul><ul><li>He surrounded himself with people that would say yes to him </li></ul>
  7. 7. Germany <ul><li>One of these people was Count Leo von Caprivi , he was a general in the German Army </li></ul><ul><li>Wilhelm thought that Germany needed a new treaty with Great Britain </li></ul>
  8. 8. Germany <ul><li>The problem was that Great Britain was practicing “Splendid Isolation” </li></ul><ul><li>They considered themselves above European foreign policy </li></ul><ul><li>They were an island that was surrounded by their navy and no one would dare invade </li></ul>
  9. 9. Germany <ul><li>Germany thought that they could have an alliance with Great Britain if they got rid of their treaty with Russia </li></ul><ul><li>Great Britain did not like Russia because they threatened India </li></ul><ul><li>Wilhelm had just opened up Germany to a two front war </li></ul>
  10. 10. In the meantime <ul><li>On July in 1891 Russia and France make a military commitment to each other </li></ul><ul><li>They will support each other as long as the triple alliance is together </li></ul><ul><li>If one of them gets attacked, the other will come to their aid </li></ul><ul><li>In August of 1899, France and Russia sign an extension, it stated that they would mobilize if one of the alliance started moving against them </li></ul>
  11. 11. In the meantime <ul><li>Wilhelm II had successively joined France and Russia </li></ul><ul><li>Germany now wanted to know if there was anything that they could do to make Great Britain drop its splendid isolation </li></ul><ul><li>Something important to remember is that Germany didn’t have a strong Navy </li></ul>
  12. 12. Germany Scrambles <ul><li>Wilhelm wanted to exercise what he called Weltpolitik (World Politics) </li></ul><ul><li>Wilhelm directs his new pilots to become a naval powerhouse </li></ul><ul><li>Germany would build a fleet strong enough so that Great Britain would not risk a war </li></ul>
  13. 13. Germany and Great Britain <ul><li>At the same time Britain was functioning under what they considered a two power standard </li></ul><ul><li>They believed that their fleet would be stronger than the two strongest navy’s in the world </li></ul><ul><li>Germany adds sixty new war ships that would at least be able to match one third of the British fleet </li></ul>
  14. 14. Germany and Great Britain <ul><li>Wilhelm believed that by threatening Great Britain, that Great Britain would have no choice but to join Germany </li></ul><ul><li>Great Britain didn’t see it that way </li></ul><ul><li>In 1906, Great Britain introduced a new type of ship called the Dreadnought </li></ul><ul><li>This made all types of previous battleships obsolete </li></ul>
  15. 15. Germany and Great Britain <ul><li>There is one problem, If you have new technology, all of your competitors build what you have </li></ul><ul><li>By 1913 Great Britain had 20 Dreadnoughts and Germany had 13 </li></ul><ul><li>Can Great Britain keep up its Splendid Isolation? </li></ul>
  16. 16. Great Britain needs Allies <ul><li>No, they have to try to make an alliance with their enemies </li></ul><ul><li>Great Britain had been fighting with France for 500 years, since the time of Joan of Arc </li></ul>
  17. 17. Great Britain and France <ul><li>France had control over most of West Africa and Great Britain had expanded its territory to the west going down </li></ul><ul><li>The upper Nile Valley is still up for grabs. France and Great Britain meet at Fashoda </li></ul><ul><li>The French General is John Baptiste Marchand, the British General is Herbert Kitchiener </li></ul>
  18. 18. Great Britain and France <ul><li>Kitchiener demanded the retreat of Marchand </li></ul><ul><li>They wired home for orders </li></ul><ul><li>The both peeled off </li></ul><ul><li>Both countries were having problems elsewhere and couldn’t worry with this piece of land </li></ul>
  19. 19. Great Britain and France <ul><li>In 1904 Great Britain and France had signed the Entente Cordiale (Friendly Understanding) </li></ul><ul><li>Great Britain and France had decided that they were going to end their differences </li></ul><ul><li>It is not a defensive alliance, but they were not going to fight each other </li></ul><ul><li>Wilhelm wants to prove that they could not survive together </li></ul>
  20. 20. Wilhelm’s Intervention <ul><li>He tells the Moroccans that Germany will protect them from French aggression </li></ul><ul><li>He is directly insulting French National Honor </li></ul><ul><li>He can risk this because he thinks that Britain won’t stand up and that Russia is fighting wars with Japan </li></ul>
  21. 21. Wilhelm’s Intervention <ul><li>He is trying to drive them apart and instead pushes them together </li></ul><ul><li>This is taken up at the Algeciras Conference in Spain </li></ul><ul><li>Morocco would be independent; Spanish police would patrol Morocco and France would control the bank </li></ul><ul><li>Wilhelm is humiliated </li></ul>
  22. 22. Slap in the Face <ul><li>Great Britain also forms an alliance with Russia, They now become the Triple Entente or The Allies </li></ul><ul><li>The greater threat in the Middle East is no longer Russia, but is Germany </li></ul><ul><li>In 1904 we have Great Britain and France and the later Russia, this is the “Triple Entente” </li></ul>
  23. 23. German Problems <ul><li>Great Britain had abandoned its “Splendid Isolation” </li></ul><ul><li>There is a new balance of power in Europe </li></ul><ul><li>The difference between this and Bismarck’s views, is that now Germany would fight a two front war </li></ul><ul><li>Germany had committed themselves to Austria-Hungary and would not pull back </li></ul>
  24. 24. Alsace and Lorraine <ul><li>Nationalism was strong in both Germany and France </li></ul><ul><li>Germans were proud of their new empire’s military power and industrial leadership </li></ul><ul><li>France longed to regain its position as Europe’s leading power </li></ul>
  25. 25. Alsace and Lorraine <ul><li>The French were still bitter about their defeat in the Franco-Prussian War. </li></ul><ul><li>They especially resented German occupation of the border provinces Alsace and Lorraine </li></ul>
  26. 26. Pan-Slavism <ul><li>In Eastern Europe, Russia sponsored a powerful form of nationalism called Pan-Slavism, all Slavic peoples shared a common nationality </li></ul><ul><li>As the largest Slavic country, Russia felt it had a duty to lead and defend all Slavs </li></ul><ul><li>By 1914, it stood ready to support Serbia, an ambitious, young Slavic nation, against any threat </li></ul>
  27. 27. Crisis in the Balkans <ul><li>Austria-Hungary was worried about a rebellion among the many minority populations within its empire </li></ul><ul><li>Ottoman Turkey felt threatened by new nations on its borders, such as Serbia and Greece </li></ul><ul><li>Serbia was especially aggressive </li></ul><ul><li>It dreamed of creating and ruling a South Slav state </li></ul>
  28. 28. Crisis in the Balkans <ul><li>In 1912, several Balkan states attacked Turkey </li></ul><ul><li>The next year, they fought among themselves over the spoils of war </li></ul><ul><li>These brief but bloody Balkan wars raised tensions to a fever pitch </li></ul>
  29. 29. Crisis in the Balkans <ul><li>By 1914 the Balkans were the “Powder Keg of Europe” </li></ul><ul><li>A tiny spark might lead to an explosion </li></ul><ul><li>And as we all know, the spark struck in Europe with one event </li></ul>
  30. 30. Murder with Millions of Victims <ul><li>On a spring night in 1914, a small group of revolutionaries sat at a café table in Belgrade, Serbia </li></ul><ul><li>They read an article that Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria-Hungary would visit Sarajevo, the capital of neighboring Bosnia, on June 28 </li></ul><ul><li>This caused outrage among the Serbians </li></ul>
  31. 31. Murder with Millions of Victims <ul><li>June 28 was the date that Serbia had been conquered by The Ottoman Empire in 1389 </li></ul><ul><li>On the same date in 1912, Serbia had finally freed itself from Turkish rule </li></ul><ul><li>They were still ruled by Austria-Hungary however </li></ul><ul><li>The Serbs felt that this was an insult to Serbian nationality </li></ul>
  32. 32. Murder with Millions of Victims <ul><li>“Our decision was taken almost immediately” </li></ul><ul><li>“Death to the Tyrant” </li></ul><ul><li>Among the Group was a nineteen year old Gavrilo Princip </li></ul><ul><li>His family were Serb farmers, having grown up under Austrian rule, he felt he must take action against his oppressors </li></ul>
  33. 33. The Black Hand <ul><li>Princip joined Unity or Death, a terrorist group commonly known as the Black Hand </li></ul><ul><li>This group was organized by Bosnian Serbs </li></ul>
  34. 34. The Black Hand <ul><li>They wanted a single nation for all South Slavs </li></ul><ul><li>On June 28, Princip would be waiting on the streets of Sarajevo </li></ul>
  35. 35. The Victims <ul><li>June 28 was and important date for Franz Ferdinand as well </li></ul><ul><li>Exactly 14 years earlier, he had married Countess Sophie Chotek </li></ul><ul><li>The Hapsburg royal family snubbed her </li></ul>
  36. 36. The Victims <ul><li>Archduke Ferdinand took her with him to Sarajevo </li></ul><ul><li>He ignored all warnings of anti-Austrian unrest in Sarajevo </li></ul>
  37. 37. The Victims <ul><li>On the morning of June 28, Franz Ferdinand and his wife drove down the streets of Sarajevo </li></ul>
  38. 38. The Victims <ul><li>There were seven members of the Black Hand stationed along the route </li></ul><ul><li>Several carried crude bombs and pistols </li></ul><ul><li>The first two lost their nerve when the car passed </li></ul>
  39. 39. The Victims <ul><li>The third hurled his bomb, missed the Archduke’s car and injured an officer in another car </li></ul><ul><li>After stopping to see what happened the royal couple went on with their day </li></ul>
  40. 40. The Victims <ul><li>Meanwhile, Princip held to his plan </li></ul><ul><li>He stayed near the route that the motorcade would follow later that day </li></ul><ul><li>Leaving the Town Hall, Ferdinand wanted to go visit the injured officer </li></ul>
  41. 41. The Victims <ul><li>No one had told the chauffeur to go to the hospital </li></ul><ul><li>When the driver stopped and reversed to go to the hospital, they stopped right in front of Princip </li></ul><ul><li>He seized his opportunity </li></ul>
  42. 42. The Victims <ul><li>Princip jumped onto the car and fired two shots into the back seat </li></ul><ul><li>Guards pounced on him but it was too late </li></ul>
  43. 43. The Victims <ul><li>Ferdinand’s last words were “Sophie, Sophie, please stay alive for our children” </li></ul><ul><li>a few minutes later they were both dead </li></ul>
  44. 44. The Punishment <ul><li>At his trial, Princip stood by his deed </li></ul><ul><li>His only regret, he said, was killing a woman </li></ul><ul><li>Because he was under 20 he was not executed </li></ul>
  45. 45. The Punishment <ul><li>He died in prison of tuberculosis in 1918 </li></ul><ul><li>For Europe the punishment was more severe </li></ul><ul><li>The archduke and his wife were the first victims of a war that killed millions </li></ul>
  46. 46. Peace Unravels The beginning of World War I
  47. 47. Peace Unravels <ul><li>News of his nephew’s assassination shocked the aging Austrian emperor, Francis Joseph </li></ul><ul><li>He blamed Serbia </li></ul><ul><li>Austria decided its only course was to punish Serbia </li></ul>
  48. 48. A Harsh Ultimatum <ul><li>Austria sent Serbia an ultimatum </li></ul><ul><li>They said that Serbia must end all anti-Austrian agitation and punish any Serbian official involved in the murder plot </li></ul><ul><li>Serbia agreed to part of the deal </li></ul><ul><li>As a result, Austria declared war on Serbia on July 28, 1914 </li></ul>
  49. 49. A Harsh Ultimatum <ul><li>People were looking at this to be the makings of another “Summer War” </li></ul><ul><li>Austria might not have pushed Serbia to war if it had not been for the backing of Germany </li></ul><ul><li>Kaiser Wilhelm II was horrified at the assassination of a royal heir </li></ul>
  50. 50. A Harsh Ultimatum <ul><li>He advised Francis Joseph to take a firm stand towards Serbia and assured him of German support </li></ul><ul><li>Serbia meanwhile sought help from Russia </li></ul><ul><li>Russia was, the champion of the Slavic nations </li></ul>
  51. 51. A Harsh Ultimatum <ul><li>Nicholas II, telegraphed Wilhelm II </li></ul><ul><li>The Czar asked the Kaiser to urge Austria to soften its demands </li></ul><ul><li>The plea failed and Russia began to mobilize </li></ul>
  52. 52. A Harsh Ultimatum <ul><li>Germany responded by declaring war on Russia </li></ul><ul><li>Russia, in turn appealed to its ally, France </li></ul><ul><li>France saw the chance to avenge the Franco-Prussian War </li></ul>
  53. 53. A Harsh Ultimatum <ul><li>Germany demanded that France remain neutral </li></ul><ul><li>France Refused </li></ul><ul><li>Germany declared war on France </li></ul><ul><li>The battle lines started to harden </li></ul>
  54. 54. The Schlieffen Plan <ul><li>Italy and Britain remained uncommitted </li></ul><ul><li>Italy decided to remain neutral for the time being </li></ul><ul><li>Britain had to decided quickly whether or not to support France </li></ul><ul><li>Germany’s war plan made the decision for Britain </li></ul>
  55. 55. The Schlieffen Plan <ul><li>Germany’s worst fear was a war on two fronts </li></ul><ul><li>France would attack from the west and Russia from the east </li></ul><ul><li>Years earlier, General Alfred Schlieffen had developed a strategy to avoid a two front war </li></ul>
  56. 56. The Schlieffen Plan <ul><li>Russia’s military would be slow to mobilize </li></ul><ul><li>Under the Schlieffen Plan, Germany had to defeat France quickly </li></ul><ul><li>Then it would fight Russia </li></ul><ul><li>Germany was going to march through Belgium, then swing south behind French Lines </li></ul>
  57. 58. On the Move <ul><li>Germany invaded Belgium </li></ul><ul><li>England and other European powers had signed a treaty that guaranteed Belgian neutrality </li></ul><ul><li>Outraged by this invasion, Belgium and Britain declared war on Germany </li></ul>
  58. 59. Force Numbers <ul><li>France </li></ul><ul><li>Britain </li></ul><ul><li>Russia </li></ul><ul><li>Germany </li></ul><ul><li>8.5 Million </li></ul><ul><li>9 Million </li></ul><ul><li>12 Million </li></ul><ul><li>11 Million </li></ul>
  59. 60. The Western Front <ul><li>German forces swept throughout Belgium towards Paris </li></ul><ul><li>Russia mobilized more quickly than expected </li></ul><ul><li>After Russian forces won a few victories in E. Prussia, Germany shifted troops </li></ul>
  60. 61. The Western Front <ul><li>British troops reached France and the German offensive stalled </li></ul><ul><li>Both sides dug in for the winter </li></ul><ul><li>the battle lines remained unchanged for four years </li></ul>
  61. 62. Trench Warfare
  62. 63. Trench Warfare
  63. 64. Trench Warfare
  64. 65. Trench Warfare <ul><li>On the Western Front trenches stretched from the Swiss frontier to the English Channel </li></ul><ul><li>An underground network linked bunkers, communications, trenches and gun emplacements </li></ul><ul><li>Millions of soldiers roasted in the summer and froze in the winter </li></ul>
  65. 66. No Man’s Land <ul><li>Empty track of land between opposing trenches </li></ul><ul><li>Every house and tree had been destroyed by shells </li></ul><ul><li>Men looked through the barbed wire to wait for the next attack in this area </li></ul><ul><li>They would have to attack when their officer gave the order </li></ul>
  66. 67. Costly Battles <ul><li>In 1916, both the Allies and Central Powers launched massive offenses to break the stalemate </li></ul><ul><li>German forces tried to overwhelm the French at Verdun </li></ul><ul><li>The French set up the battle cry “They shall not pass” </li></ul><ul><li>The struggle cost more than a half-million casualties on both sides </li></ul>
  67. 68. Costly Battles <ul><li>An allied offensive at the Somme River resulted in 60,000 British soldiers dead or wounded </li></ul><ul><li>In the five month battle, over 1,000,000 soldiers were killed without either side winning an advantage </li></ul>
  68. 72. Disasters for Russia <ul><li>In 1914, Russian armies pushed into eastern Germany </li></ul><ul><li>At the Battle of Tannenberg, they suffered one of the worst defeats of the war </li></ul><ul><li>After Tannenberg, the armies in the east fought on Russian soil </li></ul><ul><li>Russia lacked the equipment to fight a modern war </li></ul>
  69. 73. Battle of Tanneberg
  70. 74. War in the South <ul><li>Southeastern Europe was another battleground </li></ul><ul><li>In 1915, Bulgaria joined the Central Powers and helped crush its old rival Serbia </li></ul><ul><li>Italy, meanwhile, joined the Allies to gain Austrian-ruled lands inhabited by Italians </li></ul>
  71. 75. War in the South <ul><li>Caporetto, the major battle on the Italian front, was as disastrous for Italy as Tannenberg had been for Russia </li></ul>
  72. 76. Non-European Powers <ul><li>The Ottoman empire joined the Central Powers in 1914 </li></ul><ul><li>The Turks then closed off the Allied ships from the Dardanelles </li></ul><ul><li>This was a strategic link to the Black Sea and Russia </li></ul><ul><li>The Allies sent British, Indian, Australian and New Zealand troops to open the strait </li></ul>
  73. 77. Non-European Powers <ul><li>At the Battle of Gallipoli, Turkish troops tied down the trapped Allies on the beaches </li></ul><ul><li>In January of 1916, after 10 months and more than 200,000 casualties, the Allies finally withdrew from the Dardanelles </li></ul>
  74. 78. Non-European Powers <ul><li>Japan, allied to Britain, used the war as an excuse to seize German outposts in China and islands in the Pacific </li></ul><ul><li>It also tried to impose a protectorate on China </li></ul><ul><li>The world’s other great industrial power, the United States, tried to remain neutral </li></ul>
  75. 79. Women at War
  76. 80. Women at War <ul><li>Women played a major part in the Great War </li></ul><ul><li>When men left to fight, the women took over their jobs in the factories and fields </li></ul><ul><li>The most dangerous job for a woman was as a nurse on the front lines </li></ul><ul><li>The worked around the clock, especially after a big push </li></ul>
  77. 81. Women at War <ul><li>Vera Brittain, a nurse describes sweating thorough 90-degree days in France </li></ul><ul><li>“ Stopping hemorrhages, replacing intestines, and draining and reinserting innumerable rubber tubes with gruesome human remains heaped on the floor at my feet” </li></ul>
  78. 82. Women at War <ul><li>War gave women a different attitude and freedom </li></ul><ul><li>“ The woman that kissed her man goodbye at the start of the Great War was not the one that welcomed him home” -SKM </li></ul>
  79. 83. Revolution in Russia <ul><li>Three years of war hit Russia especially hard </li></ul><ul><li>Stories of incompetent generals and corruption destroyed public confidence </li></ul>
  80. 84. Revolution in Russia <ul><li>In March, 1917, bread riots in St. Petersburg mushroomed into a revolution that brought down the Russian monarchy </li></ul><ul><li>V.I. Lenin came to power and promised to get out of the war </li></ul>
  81. 85. Revolution in Russia <ul><li>Early in 1918, Lenin signed the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk with Germany </li></ul><ul><li>The treaty ended Russian participation in World War I </li></ul>
  82. 86. Ace of Ace’s <ul><li>Manfred von Richthofen </li></ul><ul><li>The Red Baron </li></ul><ul><li>Called Red Baron because of the color of his plane </li></ul><ul><li>Leader of the “Flying Circus” </li></ul>
  83. 87. Red Baron <ul><li>Is credited for 80 confirmed kills in World War I </li></ul>
  84. 88. United States Declares War <ul><li>The United States declared war on Germany in 1917 </li></ul><ul><li>The major reason for this was the use of Unrestricted Submarine Warfare </li></ul>
  85. 89. United States Declares War <ul><li>The submarine’s were hunting down and sinking merchant and passenger ships </li></ul><ul><li>These ships. however had American citizens on them </li></ul>
  86. 90. United States Declares War <ul><li>Many of these ships were carrying supplies to the allies </li></ul>
  87. 91. United States Declares War <ul><li>President Woodrow Wilson insisted that Americans, as citizens of a neutral country, had a right to safe travel on the seas </li></ul>
  88. 92. May 1915
  89. 93. May 1915
  90. 94. May 1915 <ul><li>A German submarine torpedoed the British Liner Lusitania </li></ul><ul><li>Almost 1,200 passengers were killed, including 128 Americans </li></ul><ul><li>Germany justified the attack by saying that the ship was carrying weapons </li></ul><ul><li>Wilson threatened to cut off relations to Germany </li></ul><ul><li>As a result, Germany agreed to restricted Submarine Warfare </li></ul>
  91. 96. Submarine Warfare <ul><li>Before attacking any ship, U-boats would surface and give warning, allowing neutral passengers to escape to its lifeboats </li></ul><ul><li>In January of 1917, however, Germany angered Wilson by resuming unrestricted submarine warfare </li></ul>
  92. 97. Zimmermann Note <ul><li>In early 1917, the British intercepted a message from the German foreign minister, Arthur Zimmermann, to his ambassador in Mexico </li></ul><ul><li>Zimmermann promised that, in return for Mexican support, Germany would help Mexico “to reconquer the lost territory in New Mexico, Texas and Arizona.” </li></ul>
  93. 98. April 1917 <ul><li>Wilson asked congress to declare war on Germany </li></ul><ul><li>“ We have no selfish ends to serve” </li></ul><ul><li>“ We need to make the world safe for democracy” </li></ul><ul><li>It took months for the Americans to get into the war </li></ul>
  94. 99. J.J. “Blackjack” Pershing <ul><li>American commander during “Great War” </li></ul><ul><li>became famous chasing Pancho Villa </li></ul><ul><li>Was called “Blackjack” because of his Buffalo Soldier command </li></ul>
  95. 100. J.J. “Blackjack” Pershing <ul><li>Pershing insisted that American troops be commanded by Americans </li></ul>
  96. 101. The Fourteen Points <ul><li>Though Wilson had failed at maintaining peace, he still hoped to be a peacemaker </li></ul><ul><li>In January of 1918, he issued his Fourteen Points, a list of terms for resolving this and future wars </li></ul>
  97. 102. Campaign to Victory <ul><li>The final showdown got underway in early 1918 </li></ul><ul><li>The German commanders advised Kaiser Wilhelm II to resign </li></ul><ul><li>He did and fled to the Netherlands </li></ul>
  98. 103. Campaign to Victory <ul><li>Austria-Hungary was on the brink of destruction as well </li></ul><ul><li>On November 11, 1918 at 11:00AM, the great war came to an end </li></ul><ul><li>This is called Armistice Day </li></ul><ul><li>This was the time that a course of action had to be decided </li></ul>
  99. 104. The Big Three <ul><li>Woodrow Wilson (USA) </li></ul><ul><li>David Lloyd George (UK) </li></ul><ul><li>Georges Clemenceau (FR) </li></ul><ul><li>Wilson urged “peace without victory” he wanted the Fourteen Points to be the basis of peace </li></ul>
  100. 105. Campaign to Victory <ul><li>David Lloyd George, knew that his people were going to demand harsh treatment of the Germans </li></ul><ul><li>Clemenceau, bore the nickname “the Tiger” because of his fierce war policy </li></ul><ul><li>His chief goal was to weaken Germany so that it could never threaten France again </li></ul>
  101. 106. Campaign to Victory <ul><li>Crowds of people began to gather around the “Big Three” with their own demands and interests </li></ul><ul><li>The difficult ones were the secret agreements made by the allies during the war </li></ul><ul><li>Italy had signed one such treaty </li></ul>
  102. 107. Campaign to Victory <ul><li>Italy’s Prime Minister, Vittorio Orlando, insisted on gaining for Italy lands that were once ruled by Austria-Hungary </li></ul><ul><li>Such agreements violated Wilson’s principle of self determination </li></ul><ul><li>Wilson had to compromise on his “Fourteen Points” </li></ul><ul><li>One dream that he stood by, however, was the League of Nations </li></ul>
  103. 108. Treaty of Versailles <ul><li>In June of 1919, the peacemakers summoned representatives of the New German Republic to the palace of Versailles </li></ul><ul><li>The forced Germany to assume full blame for causeing the war </li></ul><ul><li>The economic result of the treaty would kill Germany ($30 Billion) </li></ul>
  104. 109. Treaty of Versailles <ul><li>The treaty limited the size of the German military </li></ul><ul><li>The Germans had to return Alsace and Lorraine to France </li></ul><ul><li>They removed hundreds of square miles of territory from western and eastern Germany and stripped Germany of its colonies </li></ul>