3D Printing Materials - The Common and Exotic


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An overview of various 3D printing materials as presented by Lars Brubaker and Taylor Landry at the 2014 3D Printer World Expo.

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3D Printing Materials - The Common and Exotic

  1. 1. 3D Printing Materials http://www.3dppvd.org/
  2. 2. 3D Printing Materials
  3. 3. PLA • Polylactic Acid • Extrusion Temp: 190 – 230C • Strengths o o o o Low Odor Low Warping Glue-able (Super Glue) Renewable • Weaknesses o o Less Ductile (Brittle) Low glass transition temp (parts easily melt/deform in heat)
  4. 4. PLA • Bed Adhesion o o Blue (or Green) painter’s tape (heated or cold) Heated glass (40-60C) • Layer Cooling Fan(s) required • Resistant to most solvents • Common uses: o Food packaging, disposable tableware, heat shrink film
  5. 5. PLA • Printing Tips/Tricks o o o Increase temp when printing at high speeds (230-240C) When printing small parts, print 2 at a time To avoid jams, keep retraction to minimum effective length because of thermal creep
  6. 6. ABS • Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene • Extrusion Temp: 220 – 260C • Strengths o o o Impact resistant Easy post clean up Easily sanded & painted • Weaknesses o o Warps Smelly
  7. 7. ABS • Bed Adhesion o o o o Heated Bed is required with all methods. 80-110C Kapton/PET film ABS “Juice” – dissolved ABS in acetone PVA/ Elmer’s glue stick • NO layer cooling fans • Heated chamber if possible
  8. 8. ABS • Printing Tips/Tricks o o o Brims/Rafts can greatly improve flatness Higher infill = more warping forces Ambient temperature can dramatically affect results (avoid cold, drafty rooms) • Common Uses: o Legos, 2-Liter bottle caps, automotive trim
  9. 9. Nylon • Many different polymers available o o o Taulman 618, 645 Nylon 6 Nylon 6/9 • Extrusion Temp: 240-270C • Strengths o o o o Excellent strength with flexibility Excellent interlayer adhesion (250C min) Resistant to most solvents High glass transition temp – heat resistant parts
  10. 10. Nylon • Weaknesses o o o Warp High extrusion temp Very hygroscopic – Saturated in 18-24 hours • Bed Adhesion o o o Heated glass (60-70C) with PVA glue or glue stick Garolite sheets – no heat Wood/Plywood
  11. 11. Nylon • Printing tips/tricks o o o o o Dry nylon prints smoothly and has glossy finish. Wet nylon pops and hisses, has matte finish and weaker interlayer adhesion Dry filament in 170F oven for 4-6 hours Layer adhesion directly related to layer height/width. Use solder knife or heated blade to “glue” parts together. Flame polish with propane torch to eliminate any strings and give glossy finish • Common Uses o Trimmer line, toothbrush bristles, guitar strings
  12. 12. Laywoo-d3 • PLA with actual wood fibers • Print Temp: 180 – 230C (changes color) • Strengths o o o Good smell (cookies) Looks like wood Sandable / Carvable • Weaknesses o o Softer when printed Super low viscosity – strings easily
  13. 13. Laywoo-d3 • Bed Adhesion o o Blue painter’s tape Heated glass (40-60C) • Layer Cooling Fan(s) required • Hardens over time (48-72 hours)
  14. 14. Laywoo-d3 • Printing Tips/Tricks o o o Use lowest possible extrusion temp to prevent stringing Increase speed to prevent stringing/blobbing Allow to cool before removing from bed
  15. 15. Soft PLA • Polylactic Acid – but flexible! • Print Temp: 210-235C • Strengths o o Low Warp Flexible • Weaknesses o o Expensive Not durable
  16. 16. BendLay • Modified ABS – clear & flexible • Extrusion Temp: 220-250C • Strengths o o o o Stronger layer adhesion than ABS Flexible Optically clear, no distortion when flexed Lower viscosity than ABS allows for faster print speeds
  17. 17. BendLay • Weaknesses o o Expensive Only flexible when thin (single-walled or <1.00mm wall thickness) • Bed Adhesion o o o o Heated bed (80-100C) Glass with hairspray PVA glue Do Not use ABS “Juice”
  18. 18. BendLay • NO Layer Cooling fans • Printing Tips/Tricks o o o o 240C+ gives optimum layer adhesion Increase speeds 10-20% from ABS settings Single and double wall thickness with minimal infill gives best clarity Acetone causes filament to “crumble”. Brakleen (or other similar automotive brake cleaner) is solvent
  19. 19. PETT (T-glase) • PET copolymer (polyethylene terephthalate, aka polyester) • Extrusion Temp: 207-235C • Strengths o o o o Clear, “optically correct” Low warp Excellent strength Food-safe • Weaknesses o o Expensive Low glass transition temp
  20. 20. PETT • Weaknesses (cont.) o Requires slower print speeds • Bed Adhesion o o Heated glass (50-60C) Garolite
  21. 21. PETT • Printing Tips/Tricks o Larger nozzles, >.5mm, give greater layer adhesion and better clarity o Increase layer height and decrease print speed. Vertical resolution is still good at .3mm+ layer heights o Increase retraction to avoid stringing o Flame (quickly!) polish to remove “hairs”