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City Machine
 

City Machine

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given at ICPS 2010, Berlin, July 2010

given at ICPS 2010, Berlin, July 2010

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    City Machine City Machine Presentation Transcript

    • City Machine Tim Kindberg ICPS 2010, Berlin
    • Talk Overview
      • Urban Computing
      • The city as a system
      • Presence and flows of the virtual and the real
      • Implications for service design
      • Krstl
      ICPS 2010, Berlin, 2010-07-14
    • Augmenting the city ICPS 2010, Berlin, 2010-07-14
    • My background
      • Ubicomp projects with an angle on the city
        • Cooltown (mostly interiors despite its name)
        • Cityware
        • Mobile Bristol
      ICPS 2010, Berlin, 2010-07-14
    • Based at Pervasive Media Studio, Bristol
      • pmstudio.co.uk
      • Artists, designers, technologists
      ICPS 2010, Berlin, 2010-07-14
    • 1/5 Introduction
    • Urban environments
      • Opportunity
        • Huge potential for valuable services and apps
        • Panoply of spaces: retail, leisure, civic…
      • Challenges
        • Density & volatility
        • Immutability of much existing fabric
        • The urban wild
        • Many stakeholders; digital divide
        • Security and privacy threats
      ICPS 2010, Berlin, 2010-07-14
    • The urban majority?
      • Half the world's population lives in urban areas
      • “ In principle, cities offer a more favourable setting for the resolution of social and environmental problems than rural areas” (UNFPA)
      • “ Poverty is now growing faster in urban than in rural areas. One billion people live in urban slums … Although urbanization increasingly concentrates poverty, it also provides possibilities for escaping it.” (UNFPA)
      ICPS 2010, Berlin, 2010-07-14
    • What if the city was a machine?
      • As the web is a machine
      • Humans, software, hardware, building materials…
      • What would be its architecture? Services? Applications?
      • Its (political) geography?
      • Currently “urban computing” = standalone applications
        • On phones and some embedded
      ICPS 2010, Berlin, 2010-07-14
    • Of course I don't mean... ICPS 2010, Berlin, 2010-07-14 Metropolis Fritz Lang
    • Automobiles & the city ICPS 2010, Berlin, 2010-07-14 howwedrive.com
    • Software & the city? ICPS 2010, Berlin, 2010-07-14
    • My agenda 1. Embed the Digital in the Physical
      • Useful or playful services & applications tuned to our circumstances and needs
      ICPS 2010, Berlin, 2010-07-14
    • 2. The City as a System
      • Rush-hour tube train: 100 iPods @ 20GB each = 2TB @ 33 km/hour => 0.2 TB/sec
      • How can we meaningfully realise such aggregations?
      ICPS 2010, Berlin, 2010-07-14
    • Goal
      • Urban pervasive services with wheels
      • How well does your service connect with city?
      ICPS 2010, Berlin, 2010-07-14
    • 2/5 Examples
    • London congestion charge ICPS 2010, Berlin, 2010-07-14
    • Real-time tube trains
      • http://traintimes.org.uk:81/map/tube/ (API still suspended?!)
      ICPS 2010, Berlin, 2010-07-14
    • Helsinki energy consumption ICPS 2010, Berlin, 2010-07-14 http://www.pixelache.ac/nuage-blog/
    • City as a game board
      • e.g. igFest games in Bristol
      ICPS 2010, Berlin, 2010-07-14 http://igfest.org /
    • Subtlemobs (c.f. flashmobs)
      • "Imagine walking through a film, but it’s happening on the streets you live in”
      ICPS 2010, Berlin, 2010-07-14 Duncan Speakman
    • 3/5 Presence and Flows
    • Presence & flows vs location
      • In the city, location is often important but equally presence - what is around us - is significant
      • Many valuable city spaces are in between : they aren't locations that anyone has mapped
        • And may not be amenable to GPS mapping
      • From a wider perspective, cities are in flux
      • How does the virtual flow in relation to the real?
      ICPS 2010, Berlin, 2010-07-14
    • Presence-based services
      • Context is highly dynamic
        • C.f. Google web crawling
      • Search by (what, city-proximity) instead of (what, where)
      • E.g. Bluetooth/WiFi discovery
      • “ Proximity” is hard
        • Salience and appropriateness
        • Real time
        • Convenience
      ICPS 2010, Berlin, 2010-07-14
    • Physical hyperlinks
      • Borrow from web: “this thing in front of me”
      • <a href= “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pero's_Bridge”> </a>
      • Anchor is physical
      • Technologies
        • Barcode, NFC/RFID, Infrared, ...
      • Cooltown/web of things/real-world wide web
      ICPS 2010, Berlin, 2010-07-14
    • Tokyo hyperlinks ICPS 2010, Berlin, 2010-07-14
    • Cooltown, Google-style, 10 years on
      • >100,000 window stickers with QR codes mailed to US restaurants, shops etc.
      ICPS 2010, Berlin, 2010-07-14
    • Hyperlinks in the wild
      • What is the catchment area of a hyperlink?
      ICPS 2010, Berlin, 2010-07-14 BBC Coast Mobile Experience, Glasgow
    • Embedding matrix ICPS 2010, Berlin, 2010-07-14 Physical Virtual Explicit Digital Sign 2D Barcode Implicit Actuated Fountain Mediascape, AR
    • Physical, explicit embedding ICPS 2010, Berlin, 2010-07-14
    • Embedding matrix ICPS 2010, Berlin, 2010-07-14 Physical Virtual Explicit Digital Sign 2D Barcode Implicit Actuated Fountain Mediascape, AR
    • Mediascapes
      • Playing a GPS/RF-triggered game at the Tower of London
      ICPS 2010, Berlin, 2010-07-14 http://www.mscapers.com/
    • Augmented reality Image / location / compass
      • Superimposition, pointing
      ICPS 2010, Berlin, 2010-07-14 HP’s WebSign (2001)
    • Sense and sensibility in the urban wild
      • Sensors: inaccurate and readings not always available
      • How to design for that?
      • Mediascapes
        • Adapt narrative for inaccuracy, local situation (seams)
      • AR
        • Works with barcodes but doesn't scale well without them in the wild
      ICPS 2010, Berlin, 2010-07-14
    • Piazza Matteotti, Udine
      • People talking on mobile phones
      • Crossing the piazza (left) and lingering on the piazza (right) in the afternoon
      ICPS 2010, Berlin, 2010-07-14 Joachim R. Höflich
    • Space Syntax
      • Hillier and Hanson (1984)
      • Analyses cities as systems of space created by physical artefacts of architecture and urban design
      • How are aggregate human movement and other behaviours related to spatial design?
      ICPS 2010, Berlin, 2010-07-14
    • ICPS 2010, Berlin, 2010-07-14
    • Bluetooth in Bath
      • About 10% of all people walking along a Bath street over various times had Bluetooth switched on and discoverable
        • [O’Neill et al, Ubicomp 2006]
      • Flows of Bluetooth in Bath obeyed Space Syntax predictions, just as flows of people did
    • 4/5 The algebra of real life
    • Algebra
      • Algebra is the branch of mathematics concerning the study of the rules of operations and relations , and the constructions and concepts arising from them
      • Abstraction
      • Solving for unknowns
      ICPS 2010, Berlin, 2010-07-14
    • Spatial and temporal symmetries ICPS 2010, Berlin, 2010-07-14
    • City abstraction: Tube map
      • Remove all context but stations
      • Topology (relations) vs geometry
      ICPS 2010, Berlin, 2010-07-14 Harry Beck 1931
    • Operators: Pervasive Verbs, Nouns
        • Inform
        • Suggest
        • Remember
        • Control
      • The GET & POST of Ubicomp at the human level?
      • System model is teleological, not ontological
      ICPS 2010, Berlin, 2010-07-14
    • Discovery: solving for unknowns
      • Discovery is a process in the (socio-technical-physical) city machine
      ICPS 2010, Berlin, 2010-07-14 Harbourside cafe Watershed
    • Physical twitter: discovering the hashtag for here ICPS 2010, Berlin, 2010-07-14
    • Bluetooth names & culture of in situ media sharing ICPS 2010, Berlin, 2010-07-14 self others default name association graffiti / t-shirt direct address Bluetooth “awareness” Ima kettle Pick me pick me Madonna Adam J Taylor Nokia 3230 Nokia 6280 wayne beer boy M.U.F.C OK! Free downloads? Pocket PC TomTom GO 300 Ami Anna’s phone x x carla x x Chris 07886****** Crown Jools Messy Dawg Snagglepuss The Man From Delmonte... Biker chic Bolton Everton Pezza’s girl bonjour tutti! Call_me Clear off! F*** off u **** Jokes On U Porn please Send me porn Someone’s phone Tish - Send Me Stuff! VIRUS ALERT!! 4 a gay time call 077… Béz >>}Â¥{<< Ho in training $LiK JiM MilkWasABad Choice
    • Volatility and abstraction
      • Bluetooth discovery on or near a street takes a long time on many mobile phones
      • Wrong system assumption
        • “ Failure” (to obtain the name of a travelling phone) is routine
      • Abstractions in our discovery “algebra” need to work despite this volatility
      ICPS 2010, Berlin, 2010-07-14
    • Krstl
      • Networked crystals: collectively programmable “content stations” for urban spaces
        • Shops, shopping centres, pubs, cafes, transport hubs,...
      • Delivery network for location- unique and location-specific content
      • WiFi and Bluetooth – any phone
      • matter2media.com/ technology
      ICPS 2010, Berlin, 2010-07-14
    • Krstl
      • Visitors
        • Coupons, content, experiences that can't be (easily) obtained elsewhere
      • Space owners
        • Curate content & experiences to reverse trend to online
      • Campaigners
        • Target information/advertisement by space
      • C.f. foursquare.com etc.
      ICPS 2010, Berlin, 2010-07-14
    • Crystal journeys: crystals as content stations
      • Individual human journeys
      • Journeys of services/content
      • Commercial logic: influence human journeys
      ICPS 2010, Berlin, 2010-07-14
    • 5/5 Conclusions
    • Main points
      • Presence and flows vs location
      • Social/material embedding & interconnections
      ICPS 2010, Berlin, 2010-07-14
    • The algebra of real life
      • Topology vs geometry
        • Relations e.g. presence
      • Teleology vs ontology
        • Pervasive operators e.g. verbs
      • Narrative & experience vs services & devices
      • Discovery (solving for unknowns) is a human/computational/material process
      ICPS 2010, Berlin, 2010-07-14
    • The Knowledge
      • Not just the science of services but also...
      • Sociology
      • Urban planning/architecture
      • Economics
      • Urban geography
      ICPS 2010, Berlin, 2010-07-14
    • Thank you! Questions?
      • www.matter2media.com
      • [email_address]
      ICPS 2010, Berlin, 2010-07-14