How can green branding improve appeal to environmental preferable product service in the fast food market? Brand Identity Management creates brand appeal Dissertation by Matteo Fabbi BA Global Marketing 2008/2011 UNIVERSITY OF WESTMINSTER
Urbanization together with globalization and industrialization hasshifted the food system away from simply moving basic staples fromthe farms to the (local) plate (Maxwell and Slater, 2003)
Food is increasingly produced by commercial growers, feeding longand sophisticated supply chains, and marketing often processed andbranded products to mainly urban consumers. (Garrett, 2000).
Due to the great impact of environmental pollution – which is directlylinked to industrial manufacturing in the world – consumers havebecome more willing to buy products perceived as environmentallyfriendly (Chen, 2009).
Given their size and the enormous amount of resource consumptionand waste, also the fast food chains felt the need to change theirbehavior to comply with society‟s environmental concerns (Weinbergand Parss, 2010),
As a consequence, an increasing number of companies havepositioned their brand identities based on environmentally friendlycharacteristics, functions, ingredients and benefits usually encodingtheir messages with the term or color „green‟ to communicate thisnew position (Pundit, 2010).
However, since the the early 90‟s too many companies have createdgreen campaigns and claimed themselves to be green in some way oranother, even those with questionable green credentials. The type ofdisinformation so as to present an environmentally responsible publicimage has led to three main phenomena…
marketing consumersGreen marketing m y washing o p i a disillusionment about
Green messages have lost its credentialGreen leading consumers to rethink the issue and mounting cynicism and suspicion.appeal Companies are finding green factors not to be a differentiator advantage anymore and they areloosing touch with their customers.
Green How can branding
The question in context 1/3The branding process is a way of thinking about how an organizationaligns its goals and abilities with the demands of its stakeholders(Aaker, 1997). When a firm manages a brand in such a way that meetsstakeholders demand and exceeds expectations in doing so, peoplebenefit and a value is created (Keller, 2007).
The question in context 2/3Currently there is little doubt about the strategic importance of creatinga well-defined identity for delivering brand value (Aaker, 2000,Kapferer, 1997), so this research has taken into account the BrandIdentity System model by Aaker (1997) to explore the effect of greenbrands identities management on brand appeal.
Models and theor es:Aaker’s Brand Identity model EXPLAINED 1/2Drawing from Aaker‟s findings on brand identity management (1997),a brand value can be represented by functional, experiential,and self-expressive benefits.Green brand strategists can therefore consider three different brandpatterns when enriching and increasing depth for their green identities:the brand as a product, the brand as an organization and the brandas a person.
Models and theor es:Aaker’s Brand Identity model APPLIED 1/3 The (green) brand as a productConsumers derive a functional benefit from green brands because the“environmental care” expressed via product usage
Models and theor es:Aaker’s Brand Identity model APPLIED 2/3 The (green) brand as an organization Consumer derive a experiential benefits from green brands because the feeling of satisfaction for “contributing to social welfare”
Models and theor es:Aaker’s Brand Identity model APPLIED 3/3 The (green) brand as a person Consumer derive a symbolic benefit from green brands because the “social approval” and “personal expression” feeling derived via the brand use and display
The question in context 3/3Then the research has taken into account theories of brand appeal:the 23plusone study by Cramer and Koene (2010), which states thatthe degree by which a brand feels good, brand appeal, has to do withthe fundamental human drives, the things people find important in life.BAW Brand awareness + BEX Brand expectation + 23plusone brand profile = BAP
Models and theor es: Brand appeal explained 1/2: theoriesAn extensively literature study revealed that there are 24 (23plusone)fundamental human drives, like for example loyalty, status andsexuality. When they are triggered, we experience a pleasant feeling ofwellbeing or happiness.The better a brand touches on the 24 fundamental human drives, thehigher the brand appeal (23plusonestudy, 2010). Click to see the 24 human drives
The fundamental human drivesidentified by Cramer and Koene (2010)
Models and theor es: Brand appeal explained 2/2: theoriesThe better a brand simultaneously triggers drives from the five groups,the higher the brand appeal.Brands which trigger „unexpected’ drives‟, deviating from categoryconformity, increase in brand appeal.There are no universal mixing rules. The most effective „drive cocktail‟is category-dependent.
Can green brand identity management really influence brand appeal?
The GBAP SurveyThe author created a new research framework called the GreenBrand Appeal Survey (GBAS) based on brand appeal theoriesfrom Cramer and Koene and Aaker‟s brand identity model. Theobjectives of the survey were to reveal the following: the main motivations (drivers) for consumers to adopt preferable environmental brands in the fast food industry. effect of brand identity management on green brand appeal new insights into the green branding concept
The GBAP SurveyBased on a target population of 120 university students fromthe UK, the online questionnaire measured respondents‟perceptions on three different adverts each representing adifferent green brand identity.The study was created thanks to the adoption of the drivogramsa set of 24 visual and verbal stimuli, each representing the humandrives, created by branding agency BR-ND to measure brandappeal and used by the author for measuring green brand appealinstead. Click to see the drivograms
The 24 human drives translated into 24 visual-verbal stimuli, called Drivograms by agency BR-ND, Amsterdam.
The GBAP SurveyIn line with the main objective of exploring and measuring thegreen brand appeal generated by different green brand identities,the questionnaire was divided into two main sections.• The first part of the questionnaire allowed the author to identify the respondents profile.• The second part of the questionnaire was dedicated on the perceptional responses from three different advertisements Click to see the an example of the survey
Students were asked to express their most important values in lifeby selecting five of the drivograms below.
To find out the level of expectation for a green brand, studentswere also asked to select a max of five the drivograms thatthey felt would fit an environmentally friendly fast food brand.
Finally students were asked to rate how much each AD3: AD2: Green branddrivograms would fit with the proposed adverts with thebrand AD1: The Green aim ofmeasuring perceptions of the different green brand identities. as a symbol. brandorganization an as a product 1 2 3 4 5 For example…
Each adverts representing a different green brand identity wereassessed against the principles of brand appeal. Brand appeal wascalculated for each of the three adverts.
Results showed that AD3 was the ad that generated highest greenbrand appeal among the students. Therefore green self – expressivebenefits are those that are more appealing.AD1 AD2 AD3
The results have shown that green brand position based on thethree different identities perspectives have different effect on the green brand appeal.
CONCLUSIONS Implications for managersResults from the test of the three perspectives have shown that a well-implemented green brand identity based on symbolic and personality greenbrand attributes and benefits lead to higher green brand appealthan organizational and product brand identity perspectives.
CONCLUSIONSImplications for managersIn order for companies to deliver aconsistent and appealing green value,brands need to satisfy consumers‟ needsand interests beyond what is “green”.Successful green marketing programs willbroaden the consumer appeal of greenproducts by convincing consumers of their“non-green” consumers values.Mangers need to consider how peoplewant to feel when going green and targetthe motivations, needs and aspirations ofthose people outside the green sphere.
CONCLUSIONSImplications for managersFocusing exclusively on the healthfunctional attributes may lead to greenmarketing myopia. When targetingconsumers with strong green values thensuch as the case of the target population inthe survey, marketers need to focus on the„unexpected factor‟ if they want to makegreen to spark.