Models & Metaphors
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Models & Metaphors Models & Metaphors Document Transcript

  • MODELS AND METAPHORS HOW TO COMMUNICATE THE BIG PICTURE SO YOUR MESSAGE IS UNDERSTOOD MATT CHURCH solution focused publications
  • Models and Metaphors Page 1 Copyright Copy this the right way You have permission to post this, email this, print this and pass it along for free to anyone you like, as long as you make no changes or edits to its contents or digital format. Please do pass it along and make many copies. We reserve the right to bind it and sell it as a real book. Think Quick and Thought Leaders are trademarks of Matt Church Pty Ltd. Disclaimer We care but you’re responsible So please be sure to get specialist advice before taking on any of the ideas. This book is general in nature and not meant to replace any specific advice. Matt Church Pty Ltd, employees of said company and brand derivations, disclaim all and any liability to any persons whatsoever in respect of anything done by any person in reliance, whether in whole or in part, on this e-book. © 2004 Matt Church Pty Ltd www.australianthoughtleaders.com.au
  • Models and Metaphors Page 2 Table of Contents Page About the author ...............................................................3 Welcome ...........................................................................3 The most powerful tool.......................................................4 It’s an art and a science .....................................................6 This is a linear process … or is it? ........................................7 Lessons from Hollywood .....................................................8 Context is concise ............................................................ 10 Broad contexts involve your audience................................ 12 Context by itself isn’t enough............................................ 13 The seven-step process to context .................................... 15 Step 1: What is your idea? ............................................... 17 Step 2: What are the key words? ...................................... 19 Step 3: Lay it out in palette .............................................. 21 Example 1: Word/phrase palette ....................................... 23 Example 2: Casual/formal palette ..................................... 25 Step 4: Make a point........................................................ 26 Examples ........................................................................ 28 Ask and tell ..................................................................... 29 Step 5: What pictures match these? .................................. 31 Step 6: Does this indicate a shape? ................................... 33 Example.......................................................................... 35 Step 7: Expand the idea to fit the context .......................... 36 Example of a model ......................................................... 38 What’s your preference?................................................... 39 Principles of context ......................................................... 40 Your index of ideas .......................................................... 43 A worked example ........................................................... 45 Appendix A: Model Geometry............................................ 57 Appendix B: Classic Models............................................... 59 Appendix C: Some Metaphors ........................................... 63 Australian Though Leaders (contact details) ....................... 64 © 2004 Matt Church Pty Ltd www.australianthoughtleaders.com.au
  • Models and Metaphors Page 3 Welcome Hi, this is Matt Church – welcome to Models and Metaphors. This e-book comes from a workshop I conducted on how to get your message across quickly and effectively. It’s all about communicating in pictures, and I’m going to show you the most powerful tool a communicator can use. About Matt Matt Church is a master communicator and excellent speech coach. He is a founding partner of the Cicero Project, a company that accredits speech coaches in a powerful coaching process that enables their clients to fix how they speak in public and enhance their strategic communication. He is the author of 5 organically published works and countless digital publications such as this e-book you are about to read. Matt is a Certified Speaking Professional with the National Speakers Association and was recently awarded the coveted Nevin Award for service and contribution to the industry of professional speaking in Australia. www.mattchurch.com © 2004 Matt Church Pty Ltd www.australianthoughtleaders.com.au
  • Models and Metaphors Page 4 The most powerful tool This specific tool, models and metaphors, is the most powerful tool that a communicator could use. Why? Because this tool enables a communication mode we use the least. As a result, it is powerful because you get the opportunity to say and do things the way other people aren’t saying and doing them. It is also helpful because I believe that if you have the ability to present ideas contextually (that means ‘big’), your listeners are going to ‘get out’ of your specific industry, ‘get out’ of your specific world, and start to engage with different groups of people. Now, for various reasons I think that is beneficial. The number one reason is that it is commercially beneficial. You get the opportunity to present your information in a new forum, but not necessarily have to present new information. I believe that if you ‘get’ this idea, you have the ability to communicate without being prepared and I think this is one of the ways that you can be incredibly spontaneous in a planned way. So I would like you to think about all the things that you want to communicate to people as key points, and try and figure out a way to put a picture around them. © 2004 Matt Church Pty Ltd www.australianthoughtleaders.com.au
  • Models and Metaphors Page 5 picture context models metaphors point concept stuff content © 2004 Matt Church Pty Ltd www.australianthoughtleaders.com.au
  • Models and Metaphors Page 6 It’s an art and a science Today is all about the different ways you can use pictures. So you could use word pictures, diagrammatic pictures, or you could use analogy pictures – and it is very much like art or painting. The problem is, if you have ever tried to teach art, you’ll know it is not always a linear process. In fact, art by definition is meant to be individual and varied. Emma, you’ve just spent 6 months in your studio. How do you paint? How do you sculpt? How do you create art? Emma: To me I use a process. Otherwise I procrastinate and waste my time. M: A linear process. Good. Emma: So I have to identify what I want to do. Then I produce ideas and sketch them. The hardest part for me is to select just one, and be clear about what I have selected and then I have to implement it. And when I’ve implemented it I test the materials and judge the end result. M: Great. So you put a science behind art? Emma: Yeah. M: That’s fantastic. © 2004 Matt Church Pty Ltd www.australianthoughtleaders.com.au
  • Models and Metaphors Page 7 This is a linear process … or is it? Has anybody seen the movie Mona Lisa Smile? Well, Julia Roberts is an art teacher who’s trying to get these brilliant students to evolve and develop their own personal style. She gives them all a ‘colour by numbers’ exercise and at the beginning everybody paints it perfectly, the way it is meant to be painted. But at the end everybody comes up with their own variation of it. So I am going to give you a ‘colour by numbers’ process today – a linear science to creating art. My problem however, is I think it is inherently – by definition – limiting, because art should be a personally inspired, connected, evolved process. However, if I was learning to sculpt for the first time, I think I would want a process. So I am going to give you a process that I believe, by pure definition, is flawed and that there are parts of it that I think don’t apply. So I want you to look at the process and be willing to butcher and change the process as we run through it today. Is that cool? © 2004 Matt Church Pty Ltd www.australianthoughtleaders.com.au
  • Models and Metaphors Page 8 Lessons from Hollywood First exercise: I want to show you a couple of movies and I want to show you the context of Hollywood. Think about movie trailers that you’ve seen. Imagine that you are the director of the trailer – the person who directs the trailer is not always the person who directs the movie. The person who is directing the movie is directing the detail of every scene. The person who directs the trailer has a marketing mindset and so take’s different elements from it. In fact this director takes license and changes the storyline. Has anyone every watched a movie where someone responds to a comment that there’s half an hour difference in the movie, but the guy or girl who produced the trailer has shoved the events together? So what poetic license does the trailer director take to change the movie? What did they leave out, what did they put in, what was the structure and science they used to create the trailer? So the first point I would like to make is that models and metaphors are tools of context, communicating contextually. Everything today is about big picture, and the thing about big picture is that it is very, very short. So generally it is the biggest part of your message but it is the shortest part of your message in regards to airtime. © 2004 Matt Church Pty Ltd www.australianthoughtleaders.com.au
  • Models and Metaphors Page 9 Title: Hook Context: Big Picture 80% of the message (not 80% of the speaking time) Concept: The Point Content: The examples 20% of the message (not of the time) © 2004 Matt Church Pty Ltd www.australianthoughtleaders.com.au
  • Models and Metaphors Page 10 Context is concise Movie trailers are very concise. They are usually just snippets. And one of the challenges we have when we learn to communicate context is that we put too much content in it. And what we do is communicate through stuff. And that’s ok, but the stuff sometimes stuffs up the picture. So what movie trailer directors do is remove stuff, re- order stuff, and present stuff not in the way it’s going to appear in the movie but to make a point. And sometimes that poetic license to just get stuff out of the detail is the first artistic skill that you’ve got to ‘get’. We get our hands dirty in the clay, and we are mixing up the material for a piece of art, but it is the end result that we have to get to. This is as much about deletion – what’s the stuff I choose not to put in? And that is what I think a trailer director does – “What’s the stuff I am not going to put in?” And the reason why they use a different director is that the first director is too close. They agonize over every frame. And so the idea of taking them and mixing them and ruining the storyline to sell the movie, they go, “No, no, no, no”. So sometimes if you are the author of stuff that you want to communicate, you are going to have trouble going into context. Because it is about deletion, it is about repositioning, it is about all of these things that you are not going to feel like you want to do. © 2004 Matt Church Pty Ltd www.australianthoughtleaders.com.au
  • Models and Metaphors Page 11 Complex Filters Filter perspective The big picture The point The stuff © 2004 Matt Church Pty Ltd www.australianthoughtleaders.com.au
  • Models and Metaphors Page 12 Broad contexts involve your audience So the good thing about context is, like we said, it is not about detail. And so in a way you will transpose your own feelings on it. If I said, “Sharonne, how did you feel about that?”, you would have had a different feeling than if I turned around and said to Malcolm, “Well, how did you feel about it?”. The context is big so we’ve all got our own personal feelings about it. It wasn’t corralling us down a certain line of thought or creating a certain feeling. And I think an important part of context as well, is that it is very allowing. It allows other people to put their experiences into it. So if you shove too much into it, you’ve taken away the ability for that to happen. Too many people tell an analogy or a metaphor and then say, “The moral of the story is …”. And the minute they do that, they nail, corral, line everybody up, so they end up believing it, in the same way that everyone else believes it. In fact, I am guilty of that too. And so the big challenge for context is keeping it broad enough for everybody to have their own experience around it. I’m trying to communicate that feeling. © 2004 Matt Church Pty Ltd www.australianthoughtleaders.com.au
  • Models and Metaphors Page 13 Context by itself isn’t enough All the words in the trailer aren’t always going to be in the movie. Do you feel comfortable with that? So one of the other things that happens is that people put the point sometimes around context as well. A lot of people, when they communicate context, forget the task of putting it all together. So what you’ve got to do is have stuff that makes a point and paints a picture. And so we’re working today on the picture but it doesn’t stand alone. At some point the picture’s got to work with points, which have to work in the real world. Too many people, particularly those who are involved in using context in therapy or context in academia, miss the point, because context doesn’t stand alone. So even though we are going to get really clear on the big picture ‘academic’ context, we are going to have to align it with something. And that alignment is where we are going to get really powerful. So the pictures have to make points that are supported by your stuff, and your stuff has to make a point which paints a picture. The thing that is common here is the point in the middle, because that is where we get to shift and translate. So we are going to get to that in just a moment. © 2004 Matt Church Pty Ltd www.australianthoughtleaders.com.au
  • Models and Metaphors Page 14 picture context models metaphors point concept stuff content © 2004 Matt Church Pty Ltd www.australianthoughtleaders.com.au
  • Models and Metaphors Page 15 The seven-step process to context So the way to start coming up with pictures to communicate your ideas is to come up with key words. We’ve got a process that we are going to use here to take you through these seven steps. My intention today is to show you the signs, but I think I’ve got to very quickly just unpack a whole heap of models and metaphors and show you the anatomy of those. I’ve got to say, “this one looks this way, here’s how it came together, these are the elements that worked”, and hopefully then you’ll learn by abstract relationship. So I need you to do two things today. I need you to listen to what I say, and to think about its relevance and what you’re going to use. So take a minute and say, “How am I going to communicate? What are my ideas that I’m trying to communicate?”, and run them through this filter. So let’s check out the seven steps to context. There is a simple rule in the Cicero Project that if there’s more than one step there could be infinite and so I’m going to give you the seven. Of course this could have been nine or five if you consider the plus or minus two. I’m going to step through them individually and I would like you to work alongside me now with one of your ideas. © 2004 Matt Church Pty Ltd www.australianthoughtleaders.com.au
  • Models and Metaphors Page 16 7 Steps to context 1. What is your idea about? 2. What are your key words? 3. Lay these out in palette 4. Make a point 5. What pictures match these? 6. Does this indicate a shape? 7. Expand the idea to fit the context © 2004 Matt Church Pty Ltd www.australianthoughtleaders.com.au
  • Models and Metaphors Page 17 Step 1: What is your idea? So the first thing you’ve got to do, is to think of something you’re trying to communicate in the world – in other words, an idea. I’d like you to now draw a big circle on a piece of paper and go into the first step which is to balloon your idea - a little bubble map stokes up your idea. Ask yourself “what are the words that come to mind on this idea”. So, take something you’re trying to communicate to others, put it in the middle and jot down all the other words around it. The more words the better. Okay so let’s just quickly test this. Has someone got an idea? Neil, have you put an idea in the middle? Neil: Yep. M: Okay what have you got? Neil: Bringing life back into the workplace. M: Okay, bringing life back into the workplace, good. What are some of the words that came to mind when you said that? Neil: Passion, life, energy, enthusiasm, leadership, communication, currents, stats, profit. M: Beautiful. © 2004 Matt Church Pty Ltd www.australianthoughtleaders.com.au
  • Models and Metaphors Page 18 7 Steps to context 1. What is your idea about? 2. What are your key words? 3. Lay these out in palette 4. Make a point 5. What pictures match these? 6. Does this indicate a shape? 7. Expand the idea to fit the context © 2004 Matt Church Pty Ltd www.australianthoughtleaders.com.au
  • Models and Metaphors Page 19 Step 2: What are the key words? The second step in the process is to take all of those words and to look for the key words, which you’ve probably already got, but now you have to evolve this a little. What are some of the relationships around those words? So, when I see ‘enthusiasm’, I might put its opposite next to it and start adding more depth by putting contrast into what I do. So what are some different words? Now write down the opposite of the words you’ve put down, try and create some relationships. The next part of this is distilling it. So get a different coloured pen if you have one, and say “Now, okay, of these, what do I want to focus on right now? Just this piece, just that piece, would that stand alone, is that enough of an idea to stand alone?” You know, which ones do you like the best? Generally it will be a relationship thing, so ‘good’ and ‘evil’ will be two words, and you’ll think, “Yeah that’s an idea, that’ll stand alone”. The creative process is actually about deletion, you start by getting all the words out there and then you delete some. You take away the clay that’s not going to make the mould. © 2004 Matt Church Pty Ltd www.australianthoughtleaders.com.au
  • Models and Metaphors Page 20 7 Steps to context 1. What is your idea about? 2. What are your key words? 3. Lay these out in palette 4. Make a point 5. What pictures match these? 6. Does this indicate a shape? 7. Expand the idea to fit the context © 2004 Matt Church Pty Ltd www.australianthoughtleaders.com.au
  • Models and Metaphors Page 21 Step 3: Lay it out in palette Let’s move on to the third step: You’ve got to lay it out in palette. Now this might be a new word for you if you haven’t done a Cicero Project seminar before. Palette means that the language sounds the same. So Gavin, when we worked together the other day we looked at words like quality, professional, dependable, and reliable. They’re all in a certain palette. Does that make sense? They feel like a certain kind of word, but we changed them into different words that are a more suitable palette for the energy in your business, like ‘straight up’, ‘always there’. And we put different words together – sometimes two words that we know are a bit more funky and a bit more casual. So we went from a standard palette into a funky palette, with the words being somewhat the same. The palette could be that they’re all long words with many syllables, or they’re all short words, does that make sense? The reason why this is important is that people hear logical sequence in words. When they’re in the same palette, it’s easier to follow and remember. © 2004 Matt Church Pty Ltd www.australianthoughtleaders.com.au
  • Models and Metaphors Page 22 7 Steps to context 1. What is your idea about? 2. What are your key words? 3. Lay these out in palette 4. Make a point 5. What pictures match these? 6. Does this indicate a shape? 7. Expand the idea to fit the context © 2004 Matt Church Pty Ltd www.australianthoughtleaders.com.au
  • Models and Metaphors Page 23 Example1: Word/phrase palettes So Nicole, what were you working on? Nicole: I’ve got a training course I’m putting together at the moment for PAs, and some of the words are ‘etiquette’, ‘communication’, but they don’t go together. M: I think they will, I think etiquette and communication are close enough palette. This is art not science, I think they’re close enough. Nicole: ‘Efficiency’, then I’ve got ‘make the boss look good’. M: That’s out of palette. So what would be the equivalent to ‘make the boss look good’? Now here’s the deal, sometimes that’s a better palette than the other three. So sometimes you could ask: “Make the boss look good, why don’t I change the others into that palette?” So you’ve actually got to do more work not less. It’s not about the shortest road here – it’s about the best expression. So, make the boss look good … okay what was one of the others? Nicole: Efficiency. M: So efficiency is about covering everything, including make the boss look good. Etiquette? That’s about “appearances count”, maybe – I don’t know, just making it up on the spot. Communication is about ‘getting through to others’. So now you’ve got those in palette. © 2004 Matt Church Pty Ltd www.australianthoughtleaders.com.au
  • Models and Metaphors Page 24 Now let’s do the one-word equivalent. So ‘make the boss look good’ is probably about … what’s the one word equivalent of that? What’s the ‘etiquette’ equivalent of make the boss look good? Nicole: Impress. M: Impress … yeah okay, so impression. It’s impression and etiquette. You’ve got to do your nouns, verbs, your classic grammar. The whole thing about communication funnily, is good grammar. If you think about it, it’s about good declarative statements, good distinctions and good relationships. So if you struggle with it and you’re not a wordy person, this is going to be a part of your struggle. You’re going to have a bit of trouble putting words around your ideas. That’s okay – just go with it. It’s probably been a struggle you’ve had most of your life. So Nicole, read your palette again. Nicole: The short words were: efficiency, impression, communication and etiquette. M: Okay great, can you see that they were all in palette, they were all the same? Are they all nouns? Yes. © 2004 Matt Church Pty Ltd www.australianthoughtleaders.com.au
  • Models and Metaphors Page 25 Example 2: Casual/formal palette You’ve actually got to fit a palette to your audience, right? John is talking to a young audience with some of his ideas, so John had to put them in a palette that would fit with that language. So what did you do John – what were a couple of your relationships? John: Well the topics on the mind/body connection and the relationships I came up with were smart/dumb, rich/poor, healthy/unhealthy, cool/uncool, sucks/awesome, sucks/rocks. So the thing to remember here is you would not say ‘dumb’ in a corporate audience, but it is perfect for John’s young audience. It is absolutely the right palette about ‘dumb body mind choices’ you know. A dumb way of thinking is this...a smart way of thinking is...good, perfect. The only risk is … you can get away with it because you’re cool. But if I tried to deliver some of that language they would go, “Oh, you’re a try-hard!” You know what I mean? So if other people were to present your ideas, you’d better make sure that they can carry off the palette. Does that make sense? So Nicole, you’re developing a training program, and different people might deliver it. The reason why you might create different multiple palettes is some people are going to be more comfortable using a formal language and some are going to get tongue-tied on words that have too many syllables. © 2004 Matt Church Pty Ltd www.australianthoughtleaders.com.au
  • Models and Metaphors Page 26 Step 4: Make a point Let’s make a point, because you can’t build a picture without a foundation. A point is made up of two things; a little bit of telling and a little bit of asking. So maybe you’d like to tell somebody something, and then maybe you’d like to ask something. Maybe make a statement and write a question. Let me give you a metaphor to demonstrate this point … It’s interesting to note that a knife gets sharpened on one side only. What amateurs do with knives is they sharpen both sides of the knife. So if they have a steel in their butcher’s block they pull their knife out and sharpen one side … and then they change sides and sharpen the other side. It blunts your knife, because the key to cutting is to have a leading edge that’s your cutting edge, and a dull edge that is your separation edge. So when you want to cut, you actually want to have only one side that’s sharp. So too when you communicate, you need to have a sharp penetration point and then a soft opening point. And that’s what the ‘ask/tell’ is about. The ‘tell’ is the sharp cutting leading edge, it’s short and distinct; and then the ‘ask’ is the opening soft side that allows people to separate the stuff. And most people, when they communicate, communicate within that softened blunt side...and we just can’t get through, there’s too much going on and we end up butchering the attention of people. © 2004 Matt Church Pty Ltd www.australianthoughtleaders.com.au
  • Models and Metaphors Page 27 7 Steps to context 1. What is your idea about? 2. What are your key words? 3. Lay these out in palette 4. Make a point 5. What pictures match these? 6. Does this indicate a shape? 7. Expand the idea to fit the context © 2004 Matt Church Pty Ltd www.australianthoughtleaders.com.au
  • Models and Metaphors Page 28 Examples M: So John, the challenge for you is that you have five points? John: Yeah. M: So let’s make smart and dumb choices or points or something like that, and say the declaration or the exclamation mark would be something like: “We all want to make smart choices”, or “Make smart choices!”. Then, “There’s a difference between the dumb and the smart choices in your life. You need to choose which side you want to be on …” – that’s the relationship part that comes as the question. And that’s your point, are you cool with that? John: Yeah absolutely. M: Maree, how are you going with this? Did you come up with something? Maree: Yeah just trying to match the word that I have at this point. I’ve got; real desire/the freedom to live our lifestyle, how can we overcome our personal restrictions/limitations? M: Perfect. Now all that needs is a sharper declaration at the beginning, something like; life is freedom. Maree: Okay. M: It really is just a couple of words that nail the point and you’ve already said them somewhere else in your words. So just pull them out and put them up front. © 2004 Matt Church Pty Ltd www.australianthoughtleaders.com.au
  • Models and Metaphors Page 29 Ask and tell When you’re making a point, do you increase or decrease the amount of telling? That’s an important question. When we teach ask and tell, we teach more about the mode of the communicator rather than the outcome. If I was a coach, I would ask a lot of questions, because the questions would elicit the responses relevant to the individual’s intent. If I were telling them I would be telling them my interpretation of their intent. So some things lend themselves to an asking space, some to a telling space. I’m telling the seven steps today and at the same time I put a big caveat up at the front saying that the seven steps could be wrong. This is effectively the only bit of asking I’m doing, just asking you to put your own thoughts into it and then I’m telling you seven steps. The newer the idea to the audience, the more you tell and the less you ask. I think if you have to get your point across quicker, I’d tell, not ask; and if you had credibility, you can tell, not ask. We balance tell and ask around the six delivery modes which is something we’ll do in another workshop or you can download information from the web site www.CiceroProject.com/downloads. So balance your ask and tell when making a point. © 2004 Matt Church Pty Ltd www.australianthoughtleaders.com.au
  • Models and Metaphors Page 30 tell Leader Author Teacher Mentor Facilitator Coach ask © 2004 Matt Church Pty Ltd www.australianthoughtleaders.com.au
  • Models and Metaphors Page 31 Step 5: What pictures match these? So what pictures match these? Don’t put any science into these – just go, “What pictures come to mind as I think about that point?” For example, if I think about atmosphere, I’m thinking about the earth, I’m thinking about putting the earth in the middle of a circle and then I’m thinking about putting a whole heap of bigger circles around that and maybe there are three or four atmospheres – which there are. And then I’d probably want to go to the World Book and figure out what the names of them are. I’d probably think, one’s called the stratosphere and another one’s called the ionosphere. So there’s an ionosphere and stratosphere, and there are properties that they have. For example, for one of them gravity doesn’t apply. So I can use that metaphor, that picture, to make the point. What it does is that it forces you to expand the idea, which we’ll talk about later. © 2004 Matt Church Pty Ltd www.australianthoughtleaders.com.au
  • Models and Metaphors Page 32 7 Steps to context 1. What is your idea about? 2. What are your key words? 3. Lay these out in palette 4. Make a point 5. What pictures match these? 6. Does this indicate a shape? 7. Expand the idea to fit the context © 2004 Matt Church Pty Ltd www.australianthoughtleaders.com.au
  • Models and Metaphors Page 33 Step 6: Does this indicate a shape? We’ve only given you one part of the context – we’ve talked about which pictures match these, which is metaphor and analogy. The second question is: What shapes match these? So atmosphere makes me think of the earth and it makes me think of layers of air around the earth. Well that’s very clear to me – it indicates circles. Models are shapes; metaphors are pictures like stories or things that you see in everyday life, like a chair. As a result, when we put the two together, it doubles its power. Sometimes I will change my metaphor to find one that works with the shape. Sometimes I’ll change my shape to find one that works with a metaphor. You can always express things many different ways. And the end game for you is that I’d like you to be able to put a metaphor with every model and a model with every metaphor. So when a shape can tell a story and a story has a shape, I think you’re starting to communicate powerfully with context. © 2004 Matt Church Pty Ltd www.australianthoughtleaders.com.au
  • Models and Metaphors Page 34 7 Steps to context 1. What is your idea about? 2. What are your key words? 3. Lay these out in palette 4. Make a point 5. What pictures match these? 6. Does this indicate a shape? 7. Expand the idea to fit the context © 2004 Matt Church Pty Ltd www.australianthoughtleaders.com.au
  • Models and Metaphors Page 35 Example M: So Anthony, what was a point that you were thinking of? Anthony: When there’s a dispute, look at it as an opportunity not as a problem. M: Beautiful, so he’s got relationship and distinction. Okay, just to let everyone know, Anthony is a world class mediator in conflicts and I think, does it better than a lot of QCs. So based on that Anthony, what pictures did that create in your mind when you said that to yourself? Anthony: Both physically seeing them and meeting people and not reading someone’s account. M: Okay, so I’m seeing eyeballs, I’m seeing hands, I’m seeing the problem in hand, are you seeing that sort of thing? Maybe a handshake could be the symbolism for that. It’s something about the human connection right? It’s something about turning up, not just a piece of paper. Maybe even the relationship between the paper in one hand and the hand in the other hand, do you know what I mean? That becomes the metaphor. We can either send bits of paper or we can go and shake hands with people. When it comes to mediating disputes and getting profit out of them rather than problems, what we need to do is meet the people. © 2004 Matt Church Pty Ltd www.australianthoughtleaders.com.au
  • Models and Metaphors Page 36 Step 7: Expand the idea to fit the context A good metaphor actually grows your idea. So if you think about stratosphere and ionosphere and you put them in three layers and then think about relationships, you can go … Hmmm, I bet relationships could be put in those three layers. There are the people we hardly know, the people we spend a lot of time with, the people we love, the people whose air we breathe … Suddenly the relationships idea explodes and the metaphor builds the idea, makes it bigger. You know you’re on to a good context when your idea grows inside of it. We’ll see an example of that later when I explain how our model for delivery modes developed. M: So Tanya, are you happy to share one of your metaphors so that we can do the layers thing? Tanya: Okay. M: In the development of this idea Tanya had a couple of key elements. The words weren’t necessarily in palette, but when she came up with the metaphor – the analogy – it actually expanded the idea and the idea grew into the context – does that make sense? Okay, take it away, Tanya … © 2004 Matt Church Pty Ltd www.australianthoughtleaders.com.au
  • Models and Metaphors Page 37 7 Steps to context 1. What is your idea about? 2. What are your key words? 3. Lay these out in palette 4. Make a point 5. What pictures match these? 6. Does this indicate a shape? 7. Expand the idea to fit the context © 2004 Matt Church Pty Ltd www.australianthoughtleaders.com.au
  • Models and Metaphors Page 38 Example of a model Tanya: In every aspect of our lives and within ourselves, our own health, personal relationships and professional relationships, there are a variety of layers. The layers that we all deal with are a lot like the anatomical layers of the skin. So everyone please feel your skin. The very top layer of skin that you’re feeling is the epidermis. It’s obviously what we can all see and can touch. So it’s really about appearances. Behind that there are a whole lot of other layers and it can be useful to think about them when you’re in a particular interaction. The layer right below the skin is called the dermis – it is actually where the nerve endings sit. So it is the layer where you start to get some feeling about what’s going on. You’re not just looking at it on the surface. The layer below that – which we all have, no matter how much we exercise – is subcutaneous fat. We are all a bit concerned about fat, but it really is just a good layer of protection. So under the feeling layer we have the protective layer. The next layer down is the muscle. This is where you get to the real strength of the situation, where a fair amount of the balance and power sits. And then right at the bottom, down here, we get to bone – and we all know the phrase ‘cutting to the bone’, that’s when you’re really getting to the essence of what you’re talking about. © 2004 Matt Church Pty Ltd www.australianthoughtleaders.com.au
  • Models and Metaphors Page 39 What’s your preference? So if you look at the seven steps again, I want you to resonate with steps five and six and ask yourself which one was easier. Was it easier to come up with a shape or was it easier to come up with a picture? We do have a tendency to prefer one or the other. So I’d like to ask you: Are you more into logic or art? Are you more into science or art? Are you more likely to paint a solution or engineer a solution? The brain is made up of two hemispheres – the left and the right – the left with an ability to process logically and analytically and the right side capable of creative expression. We need to understand that the metaphor appeals to the artist and the model appeals to the scientist. The reason why you want to use both methods is because you’ve got both types of people in the room. My suggestion today is to nurture your weaker side so that you have a more balanced competency to communicate context. So can I just put a caveat up? I really struggled putting these seven steps to context together because I didn’t believe it was a scientific process. I believed it was an artistic process, and it’s there as a guide. The order could change, it’s not set in stone, but I’d like you to have a linear process. If you’re learning about context for the first time, this will probably be useful and help you understand what it’s about. © 2004 Matt Church Pty Ltd www.australianthoughtleaders.com.au
  • Models and Metaphors Page 40 Principles of Context Okay so what are we talking about today? We’re talking about communicating in pictures. And I think there are some principles that are really powerful, and I want to make sure we address these when we put our pictures together. 1. Grow your ideas So when you come up with the good ones – like when Doc came up with the skin and the layers to the bone – you should grow your idea. The atmospheric one like stratosphere, grows your idea, you get the opportunity to put more to it. 2. Give them an experience It should then be something that individuals can ‘experience’, so just like the trailers, we all had a different emotional response to it. So too with a good context, we should all have our own experience around it. And you’ve got to be careful you don’t put too much of your experience into it. That’s not the job of context. It is a combination of the left and the right brain, the science and the art, the model and the metaphor. 3. Align with a point It’s has to be, not just in picture, as I said earlier, but it’s got to make a point. It can’t just be an academic theory – it’s useless if it has no point. So it’s built on the foundation of a point, that’s what alignment means. © 2004 Matt Church Pty Ltd www.australianthoughtleaders.com.au
  • Models and Metaphors Page 41 4. Stack, don’t blend Models and metaphors should be stacked not blended. I blended metaphors; I mixed metaphors a little earlier today. Spot the mistake. Did anybody hear it? Well I suddenly went from knives to building, I said that we build on the foundation of a point and the point was sharp, I mixed metaphors. It would have been better to say a knife stands up in a butcher’s block and that the foundation for the knife is the butcher’s block. I don’t know if you even picked that up, but for me I’m constantly watching for when I mix metaphors. People get tired of metaphors when they change too often; when they don’t have depth to them; when they’re flippant and cute. And one of the ways you make it flippant is to mix them by mistake, so you take a building and a knife and you shove it together, rather than carrying the knife metaphor right through. So it’s a real balance between putting your metaphor out there, and having a model with it. Then I can sometimes jump out of the artistic side to the scientific side. So they should be stacked – the knife and the butcher’s block is stacked – the knife on a building site was blended. Okay but if I can see you had a way to make a building site work with a chisel and change it from a knife to a chisel then it might have worked. Do you know what I mean? © 2004 Matt Church Pty Ltd www.australianthoughtleaders.com.au
  • Models and Metaphors Page 42 5. Unpack in layers Models and metaphors are best unpacked in layers, so when you design your models and metaphors, and your context, it’s best to think of it in layers, and unpack them. So Doc might pre-draw the diagram. And then you change colours and put layer two in a different colour, and then a third layer. So in the first layer, you put numbers one, two, three, four, five, then draw the lines, then put the word in. If you were doing it in PowerPoint, you’d actually have the anatomical terminology like subcutaneous body fat. So unpack them, unpack them in layers. Layer your idea so it evolves. The problem with doing this is that once I show you how to do this I’ll have to do it really well for the rest of today! I don’t always do that but if you got two or three of these you’re already doing a fantastic job. You know what I mean? You don’t have to absolutely nail all of these. © 2004 Matt Church Pty Ltd www.australianthoughtleaders.com.au
  • Models and Metaphors Page 43 Your index of ideas Look at these cards. This is one of our fundamental operating principles – that every idea should end up on a card. We use the metaphor or analogy of a deck of playing cards and say that every idea should be represented as fifty two – four aces, all the kings, queens and jacks, all the hearts, diamonds, clubs, and spades. It’s about organizing a hierarchy for the stuff you know. Warwick, I know you understand about business development so you have a set of cards about business development. But I also know you understand about viral marketing, so you might have a deck of cards on viral marketing and everything you’re an expert in has its own deck. Now your deck might only have four aces or it might be a full sweep with tens, nines, eights, sevens, sixes – each one of these becomes one card and these are the three dimensions of an idea which we’ll get to a little bit later. They’re useful and you can download them off the web site at www.CiceroProject.com/downloads. © 2004 Matt Church Pty Ltd www.australianthoughtleaders.com.au
  • Models and Metaphors Page 44 Title| Context Concept Content Indexof ideas| Deck of cards ™ © Cicero Project 2003 © 2004 Matt Church Pty Ltd www.australianthoughtleaders.com.au
  • Models and Metaphors Page 45 A worked example What I thought I’d do now is start dissecting a contextual example, I’ll step through it. This is one of our key ideas, which is Delivery Modes. Many of you would have seen it before, which is good because I want you to now see the construction of it. As I show you how we constructed this idea, or this model, I want you to be aware that I am, in a way, taking the magic out of the show. Has anybody ever been to a magic show of some kind, like Sigfried and Roy? Could you imagine going with someone who told you how they did every trick? Would you like it or not? In magic I love it; in movies I don’t. When I go to a movie I don’t want to be told what the next scene is about. But when I go to a magic show I would love to have a competent magician next to me saying, “What they did is this … they placed a mirror on a 230 degree angle to the audience, the screen smoker distracted us with flashing lights up there …” I like to know that because I do go to magic shows wanting to know the trickery behind the magic. Well, what I’m about to do today is to show you how the tricks are done, so in a way it takes the lustre off. But I want you to be okay with that because this is a conscious way. © 2004 Matt Church Pty Ltd www.australianthoughtleaders.com.au
  • Models and Metaphors Page 46 Leader Message Teacher Process Facilitator Environment Coach Agreement Mentor Experience Author Investment © 2004 Matt Church Pty Ltd www.australianthoughtleaders.com.au
  • Models and Metaphors Page 47 What is this idea about? So let’s take the first layer – this idea is about having six different layers through which we can deliver our information. The first layer is about unpacking the idea. We draw a line from top to bottom and we communicate that there’s a big difference between hearing something and getting it. We want people to understand that. And so the first model I used was an up and down line. So what’s the point of an ‘uppy-downy’ line? Well it’s to show a sense of deepening. Okay, so the point I wanted to make is that you can learn things superficially or deeply. You can learn something for the first time or you can truly ‘get it’. I wanted to communicate depth, so a line going down communicates depth. And this is what models are. Most people would make them more dramatic than they are because when we see them fully clothed they’re great, but when you break them down they’re just based on simple geometry. © 2004 Matt Church Pty Ltd www.australianthoughtleaders.com.au
  • Models and Metaphors Page 48 hearing it getting it © 2004 Matt Church Pty Ltd www.australianthoughtleaders.com.au
  • Models and Metaphors Page 49 1. What is this idea about? I went “Key words … there’s a difference between getting it and hearing it” and “Ooh … getting it, hearing it, that’s a relationship.” I picked that out: “Getting it, hearing it.” Can you see that difference between my key words? 2. Laying it out in palette I then changed the palette to exposed and embedded and I used the seven step process. 3. Does this indicate a shape? What shape did that indicate? Well, what’s deep? I suppose a line gets deeper – that’s your first layer. I then said, that sometimes when a keynote speaker speaks it’s like the tip of the iceberg. So that indicated a picture to me, that when an expert keynote speaker speaks, you feel like you’re just getting the tip of the iceberg. So the iceberg then became the model. What shape does an iceberg communicate to me? A triangle. Does a triangle work with an ‘uppy-downy’ line? Yes. In fact, if I’d inverted it, it wouldn’t have worked as well as it does here because it’s getting into depth, getting deeper. It gave me that feel. © 2004 Matt Church Pty Ltd www.australianthoughtleaders.com.au
  • Models and Metaphors Page 50 Exposed Embedded © 2004 Matt Church Pty Ltd www.australianthoughtleaders.com.au
  • Models and Metaphors Page 51 I tried it then with a curvy line and I thought, that’s nice that’s elegant. In fact, in another model we put ten of these together, or five, and we start to create octagons and all sorts of different shapes. So then we talk about developing information empires. Then I had six variables and noticed that there was a relationship here. The top three were to do with communicating with groups, the bottom three were to do with communicating one-on-one. The underlying assumption is that when you communicate one-on-one you get a deeper learning. This is why coaching is so hot right now. Coaching is about a deeper understanding. Yet I thought there were even deeper things. I’ve read books, dog eared them and highlighted them and they absolutely changed my life. So we start to put all this together and the model then expanded the idea. Do you get that I didn’t have three? I had three and one (coaching). I didn’t have mentoring and authoring. But when I came up with a model and there were three I thought, “Ah, there should be three down the bottom, what would they be?” Because I never believed there was only two. So there’s obviously more and this then expanded it. © 2004 Matt Church Pty Ltd www.australianthoughtleaders.com.au
  • Models and Metaphors Page 52 Leader Message Teacher Process Facilitator Environment Coach Agreement Mentor Experience Author Investment © 2004 Matt Church Pty Ltd www.australianthoughtleaders.com.au
  • Models and Metaphors Page 53 So we tried it and started to say, “Okay, well what are the proficiencies you need to be a leader”, and we put sixteen ideas there … and eventually it became the 102 proficiencies audit. This metaphor, this model, this contextual tool exploded the way I was thinking. I didn’t start off knowing all of this but the context helped me write it. They often say God is found in context, and I don’t mean that from a religious point of view, but the essence of ‘bigger than you’, of expanding your thinking, comes from really good context. If you can have a really good picture, you start to get really great ideas. So I love a good picture. And then I thought, “Okay, that’s two dimensional. Can I go to a third layer and make it three dimensional and still have my iceberg metaphor?” If you’ve heard me teach this, I’ll hardly ever use the iceberg metaphor because I’m saving my metaphor for the third layer. I want to talk about a bowl and I want to make this look like a bowl, so I won’t use the iceberg. So now, fold this screen in half and you start to see this as the base of the bowl, and here are the lips of the bowl. © 2004 Matt Church Pty Ltd www.australianthoughtleaders.com.au
  • Models and Metaphors Page 54 © 2004 Matt Church Pty Ltd www.australianthoughtleaders.com.au
  • Models and Metaphors Page 55 I then took it to the third layer and created a bowl and I realised that when you lay them out, the indirect ones such as talking to large groups, and the direct ones such as one-on-one, you can start to shape them into a bowl. The bottom ones are all about asking: facilitators ask, coaches ask. But authors tell, leaders tell. And so the ask/tell started to layer itself. I certainly didn’t start out with all this in mind. The point is, that context is often the way you create and evolve your ideas. And then I found that when leaders and authors talk they give examples – specific content, but when coaches and facilitators talk they just use context. Then I realised that the same idea looks different, it’s got layers and layers and layers and I think what it communicates is great depth. It communicates an expertise, and gives people a logical way of thinking. The information is slowly unpacked and that to me is the anatomy of our six delivery modes. So what we saw was a contrast in personal development which could be applied to many things. And I think that’s the sign that you’ve nailed a good context, when it applies to many things, when it expands your idea, and when it communicates a picture very simply and quickly. The whole idea is contained in a picture, that’s a good context. © 2004 Matt Church Pty Ltd www.australianthoughtleaders.com.au
  • Models and Metaphors Page 56 content Leader Author Indirect Direct Teacher Mentor Facilitator Coach context © 2004 Matt Church Pty Ltd www.australianthoughtleaders.com.au
  • Models and Metaphors Page 57 Appendix A: Model Geometry Lines Relationships Distinctions Continuum Squares Ranges Building Dress up lines © 2004 Matt Church Pty Ltd www.australianthoughtleaders.com.au
  • Models and Metaphors Page 58 Circles Intersections Exclusions Evolution Triangles Depth Expansion Three © 2004 Matt Church Pty Ltd www.australianthoughtleaders.com.au
  • Models and Metaphors Page 59 Appendix B: Classic Models X Model X Model: Variation A B - Distinctions A B X Model: Variation Left to Right Growth L R 1 2 3 © 2004 Matt Church Pty Ltd www.australianthoughtleaders.com.au
  • Models and Metaphors Page 60 Y Model Y Model: Variation A B - Distinctions A B © 2004 Matt Church Pty Ltd www.australianthoughtleaders.com.au
  • Models and Metaphors Page 61 Circle Model Circle Model: Variation Focused 3 2 1 Circle Model: Variation Segmented Pie Work Relationships Soul You Help Health Others Fun © 2004 Matt Church Pty Ltd www.australianthoughtleaders.com.au
  • Models and Metaphors Page 62 Circle Model: Variation Venn Model Venn Model: Variation Arrow Venn Urgent/Important Not urgent/Important 1 2 3 4 Urgent/ Not Important Not urgent/ Not Important © 2004 Matt Church Pty Ltd www.australianthoughtleaders.com.au
  • Models and Metaphors Page 63 Appendix C: Some Metaphors Instruments: Measuring and Feedback Compass Clock Dashboard Thermometer Maps Transport: Movement and effort Boats Cars Trains Planes Rockets Creating: Art and combining Painting Building Sculpting Professions: Quality and Process Medicine Law Accounting Handyman Plumber Nature: Growth and order Spider’s web Pools of water Bamboo Trees Universe: Big relationships Stars Orbit Gravity Sport: Roles and responsibilities Positions for players Game comparison Chalk Talks © 2004 Matt Church Pty Ltd www.australianthoughtleaders.com.au
  • Models and Metaphors Page 64 To learn more about our coaching services contact: Australian Thought Leaders PO Box 140 Seaforth NSW 2392 Ph: (02) 9949 2115 Fax: (02) 9949 7333 Email: support@mattchurch.com.au Web: www.australianthoughtleaders.com.au Other e-books available in this series: • Sell Your Thoughts • Speak Out in Public © 2004 Matt Church Pty Ltd www.australianthoughtleaders.com.au