The North


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The North

  1. 1. The North: Industrialization and Social Change
  2. 2. Market Agriculture and Mechanization <ul><li>America’s breadbasket </li></ul><ul><li>Cyrus McCormick and John Deere </li></ul><ul><li>Demographic effects </li></ul><ul><li>Economies of scale </li></ul>
  3. 3. Family and Communal Life <ul><li>New England: communal spaces and public culture </li></ul><ul><li>Rituals of sociability </li></ul><ul><li>Ethnic communities and linguistic differences </li></ul>
  4. 4. Industrial Capitalism <ul><li>Market relations </li></ul><ul><li>Cyclical patterns of industrialization </li></ul><ul><li>The corporation </li></ul><ul><li>Patterns of financial development </li></ul><ul><li>Capitalism and the Courts </li></ul>
  5. 5. Industrializing Economic Sectors <ul><li>Machine tools </li></ul><ul><li>Capital-goods production </li></ul><ul><li>Energy </li></ul><ul><li>Transportation </li></ul><ul><li>Textiles </li></ul>
  6. 6. The Railroad <ul><li>The “managerial revolution” </li></ul><ul><li>Federal role </li></ul><ul><li>Negating time and distance </li></ul><ul><li>Samuel Morse and the telegraph </li></ul>
  7. 7. Textiles <ul><li>Lowell, MA </li></ul><ul><li>Factory Girl </li></ul><ul><li>Child labor </li></ul><ul><li>Slave dependency </li></ul><ul><li>Industrial militancy: Lynn shoemakers </li></ul>
  8. 8. Manager’s Brain in Workman’s Cap <ul><li>Steel: puddlers and rollers </li></ul><ul><li>Craft unionism </li></ul><ul><li>From artisan to operative </li></ul><ul><li>Skilled, semi-skilled, unskilled labor </li></ul>
  9. 9. Trade Unionism <ul><li>1834 Boston Trades’ Union </li></ul><ul><li>The Locofocos </li></ul><ul><li>Ethnic divisions: Kensington 1844 </li></ul><ul><li>Female unionism </li></ul>
  10. 10. Handbill of the Union Society of Journeyman Tailors, 1837 <ul><li>The Rich Against the Poor! </li></ul><ul><li>Judge Edwards, the tool of the aristocracy, against the people! Mechanics and working men! A deadly blow has been struck at your liberty!...They have established the precedent that workingmen have no right to regulate the price of labor, or in other words, the rich are the only judges of the wants of the poor man. </li></ul>
  11. 11. From General Store to Shopping Mall <ul><li>Mass production and the ready-made industry for consumer goods </li></ul><ul><li>Jobbers and international commerce </li></ul><ul><li>The modern department store </li></ul><ul><li>Geographic patterns of distribution </li></ul>
  12. 12. Urban Life <ul><li>The rise of New York </li></ul><ul><li>Sanitation and the cholera epidemic of 1832 </li></ul><ul><li>The tenement </li></ul><ul><li>The company town </li></ul><ul><li>“ Cheap amusements” </li></ul>
  13. 13. Immigration <ul><li>The Hungry Forties </li></ul><ul><li>“ No Irish need apply” </li></ul><ul><li>Working class unrest </li></ul><ul><li>Mutual aid societies </li></ul><ul><li>Nativism </li></ul>
  14. 14. Social and Political Unrest <ul><li>New York Anti-Rent Movement </li></ul><ul><li>Dorr’s Rebellion </li></ul><ul><li>Popular unrest and the 2 nd party system </li></ul>
  15. 15. Educational Reform <ul><li>Horace Mann and the Common School movement </li></ul><ul><li>Liberal education vs. trade education </li></ul><ul><li>Parochial schools </li></ul>
  16. 16. An American Romantic Movement <ul><li>Transcendentalism and The Dial </li></ul><ul><li>Emerson, Thoreau, and the “Noble Savage” </li></ul><ul><li>Poe and the sublime </li></ul>
  17. 17. Victorian Feminism <ul><li>Separate spheres ideology </li></ul><ul><li>British common law and coverture </li></ul><ul><li>Seneca Falls Convention, 1848 </li></ul><ul><li>Elizabeth Cady Stanton </li></ul><ul><li>Susan B. Anthony </li></ul>
  18. 18. “ Ain’t I a Woman?” <ul><li>Well, children, where there is so much racket there must be something out of kilter. I think that 'twixt the negroes of the South and the women at the North, all talking about rights, the white men will be in a fix pretty soon. But what's all this here talking about? </li></ul><ul><li>That man over there says that women need to be helped into carriages, and lifted over ditches, and to have the best place everywhere. Nobody ever helps me into carriages, or over mud-puddles, or gives me any best place! And ain't I a woman? Look at me! Look at my arm! I have ploughed and planted, and gathered into barns, and no man could head me! And ain't I a woman? I could work as much and eat as much as a man - when I could get it - and bear the lash as well! And ain't I a woman? I have borne thirteen children, and seen most all sold off to slavery, and when I cried out with my mother's grief, none but Jesus heard me! And ain't I a woman? </li></ul>
  19. 19. Free Blacks <ul><li>Fugitive slave arrangements </li></ul><ul><li>Institutions of social life </li></ul><ul><li>Black religion </li></ul><ul><li>Frederick Douglass </li></ul>
  20. 20. Abolitionism and the Race Question <ul><li>Immediatism vs. gradualism </li></ul><ul><li>William Lloyd Garrison and The Liberator </li></ul><ul><li>“ a most tremendous excitement” </li></ul><ul><li>American Anti-Slavery Society </li></ul><ul><li>Partisan formations </li></ul>
  21. 21. Summary <ul><li>The development of industrial capitalism in the cities of the North fostered not only dynamic economic growth, but also social dislocation expressed through class and ethnic conflicts. The first half of the 19 th century thus witnessed a profound transformation as the American economy modernized in the wake of the Industrial Revolution. However, this development was highly uneven, leading to regional disparities of economic activity that foreshadowed the divergent economic interests behind the later conflicts leading up to the Civil War </li></ul>