The Birth of Nationalism

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The Birth of Nationalism

  1. 1. The Birth of Nationalism
  2. 2. The French Revolution <ul><li>The Constitutional Phase: 1789-1792 </li></ul><ul><li>The Radical Phase: 1793-4 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Terror </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Citizen Genet </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The Directory: 1795-9 </li></ul><ul><li>The First Empire: 1800-1815 </li></ul>
  3. 3. President Adams <ul><li>Election of 1796 </li></ul><ul><li>Federalist Retrenchment </li></ul><ul><li>“ Above faction” </li></ul><ul><li>Divided government </li></ul>
  4. 4. War and the State <ul><li>The XYZ Affair and the Quasi-War </li></ul><ul><li>Alien and Sedition Acts </li></ul><ul><li>The Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions </li></ul><ul><li>Convention of 1800 </li></ul>
  5. 5. The First Party System <ul><li>Voter participation and property restrictions </li></ul><ul><li>Jefferson/Madison vs. Hamilton </li></ul><ul><li>The “Revolution” of 1800 </li></ul><ul><li>The partisan press </li></ul><ul><li>Rituals of political culture </li></ul><ul><li>Lyon vs. Griswold – political animosity </li></ul>
  6. 6. Federalists <ul><li>Centers of geographic strength: NE and Mid-Atlantic </li></ul><ul><li>Demographic and Economic Bases: urban, mercantile, export-based farmers </li></ul><ul><li>Commercial centralism </li></ul><ul><li>Pro-British </li></ul>
  7. 7. Republicans <ul><li>Centers of geographic strength: South, West, and Middle states </li></ul><ul><li>Demographic and Economic Bases: most farmers, planters, immigrant workers </li></ul><ul><li>Agrarian individualism </li></ul><ul><li>Pro-French </li></ul>
  8. 8. Jeffersonian Democracy <ul><li>“ We are all Republicans; we are all Federalists” </li></ul><ul><li>The virtue of simplicity: a trope of American politics </li></ul><ul><li>Early systems of patronage </li></ul>
  9. 9. The New Slavery <ul><li>Gabriel’s Rebellion </li></ul><ul><li>Eli Whitney and the cotton gin </li></ul><ul><li>Cessation of the Slave Trade </li></ul><ul><li>Towards the West </li></ul>
  10. 10. Marshall and the Court <ul><li>Midnight Judges and John Marshall </li></ul><ul><li>Judicial federalism </li></ul><ul><li>Marbury v. Madison – judicial review </li></ul><ul><li>Dartmouth v. Woodward </li></ul><ul><li>McCulloch v. Maryland </li></ul>
  11. 11. Government on the Cheap <ul><li>Albert Gallatin, Sec. of the Treasury </li></ul><ul><li>Internal taxation </li></ul><ul><li>Demilitarization </li></ul><ul><li>Reduction of the federal bureaucracy </li></ul>
  12. 12. The Louisiana Purchase <ul><li>New Orleans and the Mississippi </li></ul><ul><li>Napoleon’s dreams </li></ul><ul><li>Black Jacobins – the Haitian Revolt </li></ul><ul><li>Lewis and Clark </li></ul>
  13. 13. Jefferson’s Embargo <ul><li>The Orders in Council and the Continental System </li></ul><ul><li>Impressment </li></ul><ul><li>Chesapeake Incident </li></ul><ul><li>Embargo and Non-Intercourse </li></ul><ul><li>Neutral Rights </li></ul>
  14. 14. The War Hawks <ul><li>John C. Calhoun </li></ul><ul><li>Henry Clay </li></ul><ul><li>Expansionism and the agrarian interest </li></ul><ul><li>The Northern Prize </li></ul><ul><li>More East-West turmoil </li></ul>
  15. 15. Madison and the War of 1812 <ul><li>The invasion of Canada </li></ul><ul><li>The Great Lakes theatre </li></ul><ul><li>Sack of Washington, D.C. </li></ul><ul><li>Battle of New Orleans </li></ul>
  16. 16. “ A common and equal right in the land…” <ul><li>Indian Trade and Intercourse Acts </li></ul><ul><li>“ agriculture… manufactures… civilization” </li></ul><ul><li>Tecumseh </li></ul><ul><li>Battle of Horseshoe Bend </li></ul><ul><li>First Seminole War </li></ul>
  17. 17. The Collapse of Federalism <ul><li>Hartford Convention and New England secession </li></ul><ul><li>“ The Era of Good Feelings” </li></ul><ul><li>The 1816 Election </li></ul>
  18. 18. The Virginia Dynasty <ul><li>James Monroe </li></ul><ul><li>Consensus nationalism </li></ul><ul><li>Tariffs and banks </li></ul><ul><li>The Missouri Compromise </li></ul>
  19. 19. The Monroe Doctrine <ul><li>Bolivar and Latin American Independence </li></ul><ul><li>1823 State of the Union Address </li></ul><ul><li>Moral opposition to colonialism </li></ul><ul><li>Hostility of Western Hemisphere wars </li></ul><ul><li>Britain: liberalism and naval enforcement </li></ul><ul><li>Towards American colonialism </li></ul>
  20. 20. Summary <ul><li>The new republic weathered the storms of international turmoil brought about by the French Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars and emerged from them with a newly minted spirit of nationalism. </li></ul><ul><li>The first party system institutionalized the process of legitimate dissent and established a pattern for the rest of American history in diffusing and limiting political unrest. </li></ul><ul><li>The apparent “Era of Good Feelings,” though, concealed bitter divisions within the nationa over issues like slavery, economic policy, and treatment of the Indians that would characterize the following decades. </li></ul>

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