Early India

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Early India

  1. 1. From Harappan to the Mauryans The Origins of Indian Culture
  2. 2. Geography, Ecology, Demography <ul><li>Northern Mountain Belt </li></ul><ul><li>Indo-Gangetic Alluvial Plain </li></ul><ul><li>Dravidians and East Africa </li></ul><ul><li>The Indus valley and the Land of the Seven Rivers </li></ul><ul><li>The Ganges (Ganga) system </li></ul>
  3. 3. Harappan Society and Culture <ul><li>Harappan bricks and streets </li></ul><ul><li>Seals and ideograms </li></ul><ul><li>Ancient sanitation systems </li></ul><ul><li>Mohenjo-Daro: Land of the Dead </li></ul><ul><li>Harappan Economy </li></ul>
  4. 4. The Aryan Question <ul><li>Arya vs. Aryan </li></ul><ul><li>The Western Imperial view of Aryan Supremacy </li></ul><ul><li>Aryans and the Fall of Harappan </li></ul><ul><li>Aryan origins? </li></ul><ul><li>The Aryanization thesis </li></ul>
  5. 5. Sanskrit and the Indo-European Language Family <ul><li>Sir William Jones’ discovery </li></ul><ul><li>Philology: the History of Words </li></ul><ul><li>Indian Literature: The Mahabharata and the Ramayana </li></ul><ul><li>The Scientific Analysis of Sanskrit </li></ul>
  6. 6. The Vedas <ul><li>The Vedas as History </li></ul><ul><li>The Rig Veda </li></ul><ul><li>The Vedic Pantheon </li></ul><ul><li>The Dasas </li></ul>
  7. 7. Varnas, Jati, and “Caste” <ul><li>The Varna </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Brahman </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Kshatriya </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vaishya </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Shudra </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Twice-born varna and the Vedas </li></ul><ul><li>Jati and endogamy </li></ul><ul><li>“ Outcastes” – the Untouchables </li></ul>
  8. 8. Vedic Religion: The Brahmans <ul><li>The emergence of a priestly class </li></ul><ul><li>Propitiatory Sacrifice and Ritual Exactitude </li></ul><ul><li>Brahmanic Meteorology </li></ul><ul><li>Mantras and the Separation of Spoken and Written Language </li></ul>
  9. 9. The Upanishads <ul><li>The Revolt of the Sages </li></ul><ul><li>Atman and the Universal-Particular Union </li></ul><ul><li>The Eternal Recurrence and Moksha </li></ul><ul><li>Karma </li></ul>
  10. 10. Jainism <ul><li>Mahavira’s revelation </li></ul><ul><li>Extreme asceticism: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Nudism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Self-mutilation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Starvation unto Death </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Pantheistic Animism and the Sanctity of Sentience </li></ul>
  11. 11. The Life of Buddha (ca. 563-483 BC) <ul><li>Siddhartha Gautama: the Spoiled Prince </li></ul><ul><li>The Upanishadic Scholar </li></ul><ul><li>The Ascetic Wanderer </li></ul><ul><li>Under the Pipal Tree </li></ul><ul><li>The Sangha and Monastic virtue </li></ul>
  12. 12. Tenets of Buddhism <ul><li>The Wheel of Law (Dharma) </li></ul><ul><li>The Four Noble Truths </li></ul><ul><li>The Eightfold Path </li></ul><ul><li>Nirvana </li></ul><ul><li>Theravada (Hinayana) </li></ul>
  13. 13. Magadha and the Macedonian Invasion <ul><li>Alexander the Great and the Persian legacy </li></ul><ul><li>Herodotus and the Gold-Sand Ants </li></ul><ul><li>The Battle of Hydaspes and the end of the World </li></ul>
  14. 14. The Mauryan Empire <ul><li>Chandragupta Maurya </li></ul><ul><li>Kautilya and the Arthasastra </li></ul><ul><li>Seleucis and the Marriage Pact </li></ul><ul><li>Pataliputra </li></ul>
  15. 15. Ashoka, “Caesar of India” <ul><li>The War with Kalinga </li></ul><ul><li>The Conversion to Buddhism </li></ul><ul><li>Forced labor and indentures </li></ul><ul><li>Ashoka’s building projects </li></ul><ul><li>Ministries across Asia </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge of the West </li></ul>
  16. 16. The Fall of the Mauryans <ul><li>Greco-Bactrian Conquest </li></ul><ul><li>The Rise of Mahayana </li></ul><ul><li>The (Other) Barbarian Invasions </li></ul><ul><li>St. Thomas in India </li></ul><ul><li>Renaissance India? </li></ul><ul><li>International Hub </li></ul>
  17. 17. Hinduism <ul><li>Foundational elements of hinduism </li></ul><ul><li>Vishnu, Brahma, Shiva </li></ul><ul><li>Stage’s on Life’s Way: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Brahamacharya </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Grihastha </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vanaprastha </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sanyasa </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Summary <ul><li>Indian history presents the historian with a number of fascinating paradoxes. The seemingly advanced stage of its early development virtually disappears, leaving us to wonder how this society would impact the Aryan world to come. Additionally, India is one of the world’s great indigenous centers of religion today, along with the Near East. Understanding the cultural contributions of India thus requires us to seek to understand this distant and unique culture. </li></ul>

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