Colonial Society and Culture

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Colonial Society and Culture

  1. 1. Colonial Society and Culture
  2. 2. Representative Government <ul><li>“ Mixed” government </li></ul><ul><li>Political divisions in New York </li></ul><ul><li>New England most representative </li></ul><ul><li>Virginia house of Burgesses </li></ul>
  3. 3. Imperial Organization <ul><li>Crown-appointed governors </li></ul><ul><li>The Navigation Acts </li></ul><ul><li>The Lords of Trade (1675) </li></ul><ul><li>The foundation of New Hampshire </li></ul><ul><li>London merchants </li></ul>
  4. 4. James II <ul><li>The Exclusion bill and the Whig/Tory divide </li></ul><ul><li>Coronated 1685 </li></ul><ul><li>Religious toleration </li></ul><ul><li>The brat </li></ul>
  5. 5. The Dominion of New England <ul><li>Dissolution of colonial charters </li></ul><ul><li>Sir Edmund Andros </li></ul><ul><li>The Anglican church </li></ul><ul><li>Methods of resistance </li></ul>
  6. 6. The “Glorious” Revolution <ul><li>The Immortal Seven </li></ul><ul><li>The Earl of Shaftesbury and John Locke </li></ul><ul><li>William and Mary </li></ul><ul><li>The Battle of the Boyne (1690) </li></ul><ul><li>The Bill of Rights </li></ul>
  7. 7. Reforms and Rebellions <ul><li>Fall of the Dominion of New England </li></ul><ul><li>NY: Jacob Leisler </li></ul><ul><li>Maryland: from proprietorship to crown control </li></ul><ul><li>Court and Country parties </li></ul>
  8. 8. New England: the Witchcraft Scare <ul><li>Nature of the charges </li></ul><ul><li>Social background of accused and accusers </li></ul><ul><li>Salem – breakdown of community standards </li></ul><ul><li>Jeremiads </li></ul><ul><li>Cotton Mather </li></ul>
  9. 9. Georgia: last of the 13 <ul><li>James Oglethorpe </li></ul><ul><li>The “Family Compact” </li></ul><ul><li>Surplus persons and debtors’ prisoners </li></ul><ul><li>Militarized regulation </li></ul>
  10. 10. Colonial Demographics <ul><li>Reduction in death rate </li></ul><ul><li>Increase in slave population (absolute and proportional) </li></ul><ul><li>Non-English immigration </li></ul>
  11. 11. The Economy: Exchange <ul><li>The Navigation Acts </li></ul><ul><li>Smuggling and foreign trade: a mercantilist nightmare </li></ul><ul><li>The Triangle Trade </li></ul><ul><li>Sectional conflicts </li></ul><ul><li>Persistence of Native American trade </li></ul>
  12. 12. The Economy: Production <ul><li>Chesapeake tobacco: crop limitation </li></ul><ul><li>New England: oceanic economy </li></ul><ul><li>Slave production of rice and indigo in lower South </li></ul>
  13. 13. The Economy: Consumption <ul><li>Patterns of distribution </li></ul><ul><li>Products and sociability </li></ul><ul><li>Class markers and conspicuous consumption </li></ul>
  14. 14. The Operations of Class <ul><li>Land riots in New York </li></ul><ul><li>The Regulator movement </li></ul><ul><li>Backwoodsmen and the Coastal Elites </li></ul><ul><li>Indian, negro, poor white: a volatile combination? </li></ul>
  15. 15. Functions of Racism <ul><li>Elite fears of combination </li></ul><ul><li>Social hierarchies </li></ul><ul><li>Legitimation of profitable productive arrangement </li></ul><ul><li>Intersection with class </li></ul>
  16. 16. High Culture and Art <ul><li>Refinement and gentility in the colonies </li></ul><ul><li>Higher education </li></ul><ul><li>The Enlightenment in the Colonies </li></ul><ul><li>John Singleton Copley </li></ul>
  17. 17. Public Culture <ul><li>John Peter Zenger case </li></ul><ul><li>Development of colonial press </li></ul><ul><li>Patterns of literacy </li></ul><ul><li>Oral culture and literacy </li></ul>
  18. 18. The Great Awakening <ul><li>Latitudinarianism </li></ul><ul><li>George Whitefield: the revival </li></ul><ul><li>Jonathan Edwards: “Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God” – 1741 </li></ul><ul><li>Old Lights vs. New Lights </li></ul>
  19. 19. Populism <ul><li>Assembly franchises widened </li></ul><ul><li>Emerging colonial middle class </li></ul><ul><li>Co-optation of lower class discontent towards British </li></ul><ul><li>Racism to diffuse class tensions </li></ul><ul><li>Elite rivalry: the case of Hutchinson and Otis </li></ul>
  20. 20. Summary <ul><li>American colonial society developed institutions of political authority that provided both the means of resistance to British imperial domination and the means of control over poor white, African slave, and Native American populations </li></ul><ul><li>American culture developed the rudiments of its independent character in the years before the Revolution, becoming at once both more Populist and also more divided by class distinctions </li></ul><ul><li>The American economy continued to expand and grow as Americans participated in an often unpredictable world economic market. The uneven distribution of those profits, though, often caused hardship and unrest in the colonies. </li></ul>

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