Development Revision Pack 2012
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  • 1. )rcvd NOTSTAfUrNfmdorf^ro cllfoNocr
  • 2. Contents Page:Page 1: Revision QuestionsPage 3: Case StudiesPage 9: Levels Marking CriteriaPage 10: Potential Essay Questions
  • 3. Poverty & Income Inequality o What is the difference between absolute & relative poverty? o What does a Lorenz curve measure? o Draw a Lorenz curve illustrating perfect equality o What does the gini coefficient measure? o How is this calculated? o What factors can cause poverty? o What are some of the disadvantages/limitations of using the Lorenz curve and gini coefficient to measure income inequality? o Draw and explain the Kuznets curveMeasuring Economic Development o What is the difference between first, second, and third world countries? o What is GDP and GNP? o What does per capitamean? o What is purchasing power parity? o Briefly describe the Human Development Index o Briefly describe the Human Poverty IndexMillennium Development Goals o What are the eight Millennium Development Goals? o For each one, briefly describe how it is measured o For each one, research how progress is going towards reaching it o Web resources available at: httn://delicious.com/sidcuneconomics
  • 4. Limits to Growth & DevelopmentConstruct a table (see example below) listing all the limits to growth anddevelopment we have discussed in lessons, For each one, consider WHY it is alimit, note down any relevant real-world examples, and then EVALUATE why itmight not be that much of a problem reallyLimits Explanation of Real-world Evaluation- is this why its a limit examples really holding developing countries back?Strategies to Promote Growth & DevelopmentDo the same as above, only focusing on what can be done to assist developingcountries[N.8. if youre struggling to remember the limits/strategies listed above, see thespecification on Fusion)Looking for examples for each of the above, you have been provided withmany in the lessons, but many more can be found on the internet-especially at www.economist.com, and in particular in theAfricasection.Theories of Economic DevelopmentFor each of the theories below, make the following notes: 1,. What is its main argument? [draw diagrams if appropriate) 2. What are the limitations with this theory? 3. Can you relate this to any real-world examples? o Harrod-Domar Model o Rostows Stages of Devlopment . DependencyTheory o Lewis Model L
  • 5. Development*Economics:*Linking*Case*Studies*to*Exam*Answers* *It#will#really#help#you#in#the#Unit#4#exam#if#you#can#bring#in#some#case#studies#to#back#up#your#argument.#To#help#you#with#this,#I#have#produced#this#sheet#which#includes#a#selection#of#useful#examples#you#can#use#in#exam#questions#focused#on#both#the#limits#to#growth#&#development#and#the#strategies#governments#can#use#to#promote#it.#Please#take#some#time#to#revise#these#in#preparation#for#your#exams,#and#then#use#them#in#your#answers.##Limits#to#growth#and#development##Poor*infrastructure:*#In#terms#of#transport,#this#generally#means#a#lack#of#paved#roads,#limited#or#no#railway#system,#limited#port/airport#facilities#making#trade#more#expensive/difficult.#This#also#relates#to#communication#systemsD#e.g.#telephone,#internet,#mobile#phones,#etc.##Explanation#case#studies:# D The#World#Bank#says#that#the#lack#of#inadequate#logistics#adds#15%#to#34%#to#the# cost#of#exports#for#Latin#American#businesses,#compared#with#about#10%#in#other# middleDincome#countries#(BBC#News,#2005)# D Investors#in#Kenya#are#reluctant#to#build#new#offices#etc.#which#rely#on#electricity#due# to#the#country’s#‘patchy’#electricity#service,#which#means#their#costs#increase# significantly#due#to#the#need#for#backup#generators#(Economist,#March#2010)# D China’s#latest#fiveDyear#plan,#which#started#in#April#2012,#includes#$1trn#of# infrastructure#spending.#China#are#also#rapidly#expanding#their#highDspeed#rail# network,#aiming#for#19,000#miles#of#track#in#total#(Economist,#Nov#2011)# D Later#on#in#2012#Brazil’s#Acu#Superport#will#be#opened,#improving#efficiency#of# exports#of#key#commodities#to#ChinaD#the#port#has#been#dubbed#the#‘highway#to# China’#(Economist,#Nov#2011)#Evaluation#case#studies:## D Many#developing#countries#have#done#a#lot#to#overcome#the#problem#of#poor# telecommunications#infrastructure#by#skipping#‘old’#technologies#like#fixedDline# phone#networks#and#gone#straight#for#mobile#phones#and#fibreDoptic#cables.#In# Kenya,#three#fibreDoptic#cables#have#arrived#at#the#start#of#2010.#Jeffrey#Sachs#has# described#mobiles#phones#as#‘the#single#most#transformative#tool#for#development’.# In#a#muchDcited#study#in#2005,#for#example,#Leonard#Waverman#of#the#London# Business#School#found#that#an#extra#ten#mobile#phones#per#100#people#in#a#typical# developing#country#added#0.6#percentage#points#of#growth#in#GDP#per#person.# D Angola#is#also#following#this#strategy#of#skipping#towards#the#latest#communication# infrastructure#as#it#launches#a#4G#network#this#year,#way#before#much#of#Europe# (BBC,#May#2012)# D Governments#rarely#know#what’s#best#for#their#economiesD#they#tend#to#pick# ‘prestige’#projects#rather#than#those#which#would#generate#the#most#econonmic# benefit#for#the#country.#For#example,#China#invests#over#50%#of#its#GDP#and#provides# very#generous#loan#terms#for#‘pet’#government#projects#such#as#the#highDspeed#rail# network.#In#particular,#the#Shanghai#maglev#shuttle#to#the#airport#is#more#popular#as# a#tourist#attraction#than#as#a#method#of#public#transport#due#to#its#high#prices#and# failure#to#link#directly#to#‘downtown’#(Economist,#Sep#2011)####### 3
  • 6. Human*Capital*inadequacies:##Explanation#case#studies:# D In#South#Africa,#despite#significant#levels#of#investment,#black#children#still#lag# significantly#behind#their#white#counterparts#in#terms#of#educational#attainment.# There#are#a#number#of#reasons#behind#this,#including#poorer#quality#teaching#and# lack#of#facilities,#but#it#leads#on#to#problems#for#these#children#in#the#future.# D In#the#OECD’s#worldwide#tests#of#pupils’#abilities#in#reading,#maths#and#science,#Brazil# is#near#the#bottom#of#the#class.#In#schools#run#by#state#governments,#13%#of#all# school#days#were#lost#owing#to#absent#teachers#in#2006.#On#a#bad#day#in#bad#schools# in#bad#states,#teachers’#absenteeism#can#reach#30%.# D There#are#still#approx.#72m#children#around#the#world#not#in#education,#half#of#them# in#subDSaharan#Africa.#The#UN#reckons#it#would#cost#$16bn#a#year#to#get#all#these# children#into#school.#Evaluation#case#studies:# D Despite#investments#in#improving#education#and#training#in#the#Caribbean,#the# country#is#still#desperately#short#of#the#skilled#medical#staff#it#desperately#needs#as# many#of#them#are#attracted#overseas#almost#as#soon#as#they#finish#their#training,#due# to#much#higher#pay#and#better#working#conditions.# D Mandating#free#education#for#all#children#in#a#country#won’t#necessarily#solve#this# problem,#as#there#are#many#other#issues#surrounding#education.#For#example,#in# India#parentsD#even#those#on#very#low#incomesD#will#scrimp#and#save#to#get#their# children#into#feeDpaying#schools#because#standards#have#been#gradually#slipping#in# state#schools#as#their#numbers#have#grown#(Economist,#March#2012).##**Primary*Product*Dependency:##Explanation#case#studies:# D Angola#is#highly#dependent#on#the#oil#industry,#and#as#such#in#both#2006#and#2007# real#GDP#had#surged#by#around#20%,#and#doubleDdigit#growth#rates#were#widely# predicted#for#at#least#the#next#five#years.#Then#oil#prices#crashed#with#the#global# recession.#Last#year#the#economy#is#estimated#to#have#grown,#at#best,#by#1.5%# (Economist,#Jan#2010)# D Sierra#Leone#is#heavily#reliant#on#the#diamond#trade,#with#this#being#one#of#its#main# exports.#For#years#these#diamonds#fuelled#violent#conflict#within#the#country#and# many#children#were#forced#to#work#in#the#mines.#Despite#the#wealth#these#resources# should#be#generating,#70.2%#of#the#country’s#population#live#below#the#poverty#line# (as#of#2004)#Evaluation#case#studies:# D Such#resources#can#be#developed#for#the#good#of#a#country,#e.g.#in#Angola#oil#has# helped#to#bring#peace#&#prosperity:#the#port#is#being#modernised,#new#roads#&# railways#are#being#built,#The#government#plans#to#build#1m#homes#for#shackDdwellers# by#2012,#waterDpurification#plants#are#being#installed,#and#electricity#being#brought# to#villages#and#urban#slums# D In#the#end,#having#some#sort#of#resource#is#clearly#better#than#nothingD#the# government#just#needs#to#manage#it#carefullyD#look#at#most#MiddleDEastern#countries# and#what#they#have#done#with#their#oil#wealth.# D Botswana#has#managed#to#create#a#highly#successful#and#profitable#50D50#joint# venture#with#De#Beers,#the#world’s#leading#diamond#firm.#This#has#ensured#the# country#and#the#government#benefit#from#the#industry,#including#keeping#the#jobs#of# sorting,#refining,#etc.#within#Botswana#rather#than#in#developed#countries#like#the#UK# (Economist,#Feb#2012)## 4
  • 7. Poor*governance/civil*war:##Explanation#case#studies:# D Angola:#A#14Dyear#war#of#independence#against#its#former#Portuguese#masters#until# 1975#had#been#followed#by#nearly#three#decades#of#fighting#between#the#communist# and#proDWestern#groups#that#ended#in#2002.#Out#of#a#population#of#7m#in#1980,# some#1.5m#were#killed#and#more#than#4m#forced#to#flee#their#homes.#A#whole# generation#had#missed#their#education.#Infrastructure,#political#institutions#and#social# services#had#to#be#rebuilt,#often#from#scratch.# D Sierra#Leone#and#the#fighting#over#blood#diamonds#led#to#a#very#long#civil#war#which# left#the#country#in#a#ruined#state.#More#than#2#million#people#(over#a#third#of#the# population)#were#displaced#by#the#conflict#and#there#was#essentially#no#government# control.# D Somalia:#declared#by#the#Economist#to#be#the#worst#country#on#the#planet,#Somalia# completely#lacks#a#functioning#government#of#any#sort#and#is#simply#governed#by#a# collection#of#pirates#and#tribal#warlords#who#control#their#own#small#territory.## D Syria#is#obviously#the#latest#country#to#experience#the#‘Arab#Spring’,#but#what#looks# increasingly#like#a#civil#war#is#clearly#costing#the#economy#greatly.#Many#have#died#in# the#fighting,#others#have#taken#up#arms#against#the#governmentD#clearly#not#much# economic#activity#is#going#to#be#taking#place,#and#no#foreign#firm#in#their#right#mind# would#invest#in#Syria#at#the#moment.#Evaluation#case#studies:# D Despite#the#major#problems,#some#services#in#Somalia#are#still#flourishingD#a#number# of#companies#have#introduced#mobile#phone#networks#to#the#country#and#their# subscriber#numbers#are#increasing#rapidly# D Depends#on#severity#of#war#or#if#it#affects#a#whole#country,#or#only#part#of#one.# D Potential#for#a#‘better’#situation#once#conflict#has#been#resolved#in#the#long#run.#E.g.# potentially,#with#a#democratic#government,#Egypt#will#be#free#to#prosper#and#enjoy# increasing#economic#growth#at#faster#rates#than#would#have#been#possible#under#the# corrupt#regime#of#Mubarak.####Corruption:##Explanation#case#studies:# D Zimbabwe#is#probably#the#best#example#here.#Robert#Mugabe#essentially#ruined# what#was#once#one#of#Africa’s#richest#countries.#Whilst#land#redistribution#is#a#good# policy#in#itself,#the#skilled#and#knowledgeable#white#farmers#were#simply#thrown#off# their#land#with#no#compensation#and#the#land#was#then#parcelled#up#and#given#to# supporters#of#Mugabe’s#ZanuDPF#party#who#had#little#or#no#knowledge#of#how#to# farm#the#land,#leading#to#a#drastic#loss#of#agricultural#output#in#the#country.#Mugabe# also#began#printing#money#when#the#government’s#coffers#ran#out,#which#led#to# hyperinflation,#with#people’s#life#savings#suddenly#becoming#worthless.# D Rwanda’s#government#has#been#working#very#hard#to#overcome#corruption,# including#jailing#government#ministers.#According#to#Transparency#International#it#is# now#‘less#graftDridden#that#Italy#or#Greece’.#This#has#led#to#much#more#business# activity#in#the#country,#both#local#and#foreign#firmsD#for#example#Visa#are#now# helping#Rwandan#firms#to#link#into#its#global#payments#network.#(Economist,#Feb# 2012)# #### 5#
  • 8. Evaluation#case#studies:# D Corruption#present#in#many#governments,#but#that#doesn’t#necessarily#mean#that#it’s# a#problemD#many#fairly#successful#countries#have#very#corrupt#systems#in#place,#e.g.# in#India#it#is#generally#accepted#that#bribes#are#needed#to#smooth#many#daily# transactions#with#state#officialsD#e.g.#student#loans,#electricity#suppliers,#border# officials.#This#does#not#stop#India#enjoying#rapid#economic#growth#and#its#firms# expanding#abroad#in#a#number#of#significant#industries,#the#most#famous#example# being#TATA#(owners#of#Corus,#a#European#steel#company,#and#JaguarDLand#Rover# among#many#others).###Strategies#to#promote#growth#&#development##Aid:##Explanation#case#studies:# D Haiti#earthquake:#this#is#an#example#of#‘emergency’#aid#or#‘disasterDrelief’,#and#is# generally#seen#as#a#good#response#to#events#such#as#natural#disasters#which# countries,#particularly#developing#ones,#will#struggle#to#cope#with.# D Aid#agencies#around#the#world#are#currently#campaigning#hard#for#funds#to#prevent# what#many#experts#predict#will#be#a#major#humanitarian#disaster#across#West#and# Central#Africa#in#the#summer#of#2012.#According#to#Oxfam#(Feb#2012),#across#the# Sahel#region#13#million#people#are#at#severe#risk#of#a#food#crisis#caused#by#drought,# erratic#rains,#high#food#prices,#and#regional#conflicts.#Oxfam#are#seeking#to#raise# £23m#through#its#emergency#appeal.# D Malaria#nets#campaign#has#been#running#for#several#years#now,#designed#to# reduce/wipe#out#malaria#across#Africa,#mainly#by#providing#free#malaria#nets#to#those# in#need.#This#is#a#very#cheap#yet#highly#effective#way#to#attempt#to#‘solve’#the# problem#of#Malaria#in#many#developing#countries.##Evaluation#case#studies:# D Large#amounts#of#aid#money#is#given#to#Israel,#much#more#than#they#would#seem#to# deserve,#given#the#fact#that#they#are#not#really#a#poor#countryD#suggesting#that# politics#often#gets#in#the#way#of#aid#transactions# D Compare#the#earthquake#in#Haiti#to#that#in#Chile,#where#very#few#people#died#and# the#government#was#able#to#quickly#respond#to#the#problems#that#it#did#causeD#in# sharp#contrast#to#Haiti#where#the#government#was#completely#unable#to#react# D A#problem#with#the#malaria#nets#campaign#was#that#these#nets#were#all#imported# from#abroad#to#be#distributed#in#many#African#countries,#but#this#then#led#to#the#loss# of#local#manufacturers#of#nets#and#so#damaged#economic#growth.#It#also#meant# there#was#noDone#available#locally#to#repair#the#imported#nets#when#they#became# damaged.# D The#key#issue#with#shortDterm#‘emergency’#aid#is#it#does#little#to#solve#the#longDterm# issues#in#many#countries.#The#Sahel#region#of#Africa#was#in#a#very#similar#position#last# Summer,#needing#massive#support#from#international#organisations#such#as#Oxfam# and#the#UN’s#world#food#programme.#This#situation#is#likely#to#continue#unless#a# more#longDterm#strategy#can#be#brought#in.# D Over#the#last#few#decades#around#$1#trillion#has#been#given#to#African#countries#in# aid#from#developed#countries,#yet#many#countries#on#the#continent#still#suffer#hugely# from#absolute#povertyD#much#of#this#money#clearly#hasn’t#been#well#spent,#and#has#in# many#ways#created#a#culture#of#dependency#and#thus#simply#exacerbated#the# problem.#### 6#
  • 9. Debt*Relief:##Explanation#case#studies:# D Uganda#was#the#first#country#to#go#through#the#Heavily#Indebted#Poor#Countries#(HIPC)# initiative.#The#money#saved#thanks#to#debt#relief#can#now#be#spent#on#improved# education#and#healthcare,#including#paying#for#a#programme#about#HIV#and#AIDS,# with#the#result#that#the#number#of#people#infected#with#the#disease#is#falling.###Evaluation#case#studies:# D The#basic#problem#with#offering#a#country#debt#relief#is#moral#hazardD#the#idea#that#it# could#then#simply#encourage#them#to#get#into#debt#again,#believing#that#once#more# they#will#simply#be#bailed#out.#This#can#be#applied#to#any#country#that#has#benefited# from#debt#relief.# D The#Heavily#Indebted#Poor#Countries#Initiative#has#also#been#heavily#criticised#for# enforcing#a#freeDmarket#agenda#on#countries#in#exchange#for#receiving#debt#relief.##Developing*human*capital:##Explanation#case#studies:# D One#Laptop#per#Child#initiative#in#Rwanda:#By#2012,#Rwanda#wants#every#child#in#the# country#between#the#ages#of#nine#and#12,#1.3m#children#in#all,#to#have#a#laptop,#each# with#an#internet#or#intranet#connection#to#download#free#educational#software#and# electronic#books.#By#2012#the#Rwandans#want#to#be#supplied#with#more#advanced# laptops#that#OlpC#is#developing.#These#will#be#made#from#a#single#piece#of#plastic.# They#will#be#waterproof,#harder#to#break,#have#colour#screens,#yet#could#cost#as#little# as#$75#each.#With#prices#that#low,#say#the#Rwandans,#children#might#be#able#to#keep# one#laptop#through#their#entire#school#career.#Schoolwork,#textbooks#and#a#library#of# other#books#and#applications#would#be#stored#in#them,#with#screens#designed#to#be# readable#in#bright#sunshine#and#to#use#minimal#power#in#huts#without#electricity#at# night.# D ‘Hole#in#the#Wall’#initiativeD#illustrates#that#highDquality#teaching#and#resources#are# not#essential#to#improving#students’#learningD#and#that#providing#them#with# computer#access#may#be#the#most#effective#method#to#improve#the#human#capital#of# a#country# D It#is#possible#to#compare#the#development#path#of#both#Singapore#and#Jamaica.#They# are#both#former#British#colonies#that#once#had#fairly#equal#levels#of#development.# However,#Singapore#decided#to#focus#on#the#education#of#its#workforce#whereas# Jamaica#focused#on#the#mining,#agricultural,#and#tourist#industries.#Singapore’s#GDP# is#now#roughly#seven#times#that#of#Jamaica#(Financial#Times)#Evaluation#case#studies:# D South#Africa#example#from#earlier,#where#large#sums#of#money#have#been#invested#in# schooling#for#black#children,#but#it’s#done#little#to#solve#the#problems#these#children# face#as#the#root#causesD#poorly#trained#teachers#and#lack#of#facilitiesD#still#haven’t# been#addressed.# D Improving#education#isn’t#enough#on#its#own:#infrastructure#is#also#needed#if#these# highly#skilled#workers#are#to#have#jobs#(e.g.#reliable#electricity#supply#essential#for# many#industriesD#such#as#the#call#centre#companies#Kenya#is#trying#to#attract)# D Creating#a#highly#skilled#workforce#might#not#be#enoughD#e.g.#in#the#Caribbean#many# nurses#are#being#trained,#but#they#are#simply#leaving#for#better#jobs#in#the#developed# world#as#soon#as#possible# D In#Peru#the#one#laptop#per#child#scheme#has#been#operating#for#around#a#year#now,# and#the#schools#involved#in#the#scheme#have#seen#little#or#no#improvement#in#the# students’#grades.#This#is#partly#down#to#lack#of#teacher#training#in#how#to#make#the# best#use#of#the#new#technologyD#with#in#many#cases#the#laptops#simply#being#used#as# ‘highDtech#notebooks’#(Economist,#April#2012)# 7
  • 10. #Fairtrade*schemes:##Explanation#case#studies:## D In#Ghana#the#Volta#River#Estates#plantation#is#situated#in#an#area#of#the#country#with# high#unemployment,#offering#wages#60%#above#the#national#minimum#wage#and# providing#healthcare#for#all#workers#Evaluation#case#studies:# D Can#encourage#farmers#to#overproduce,#e.g.#coffee#is#a#commodity#grown#in#many# developing#countries#and#which#has#in#the#past#been#massively#overDproduced,# causing#significant#price#falls.# D What#about#all#the#farmers#who,#for#whatever#reason,#aren’t#involved#in#the# Fairtrade#scheme?# D In#some#cases,#the#ability#to#sell#Fairtrade#crops#is#restricted#to#farmers#in#coD operatives,#again#limiting#access#for#farmers#who#aren’t#in#this#position# 8
  • 11. Levels Essav Marking CriteriaFor the essay half of your exam you must answer two essay questions, one 20marks and one 30 marks. They are both marked according to a levels system, asdetailed below. Remember that you should be writing one paragraph per point,whether explanation or evaluation. Also, within your explanation points youmust demonstrate the exam skills or knowledge, application, and analysis. Thismeans you MUST relate what you are talking about to economic theory, explain itstep-by-step, and illustrate your arguments with relevant case studies. AlwaysAIM for level 5 and make sure theres some clear, detailed evaluation within bothanswers- otherwise youre severely limiting your potential grade.Criteria for 20-mark essays Level 14ark Level 1 1-7 ldentification of poinis onlv Level 2 8-10 Consideration of one factor with one evalualive point or 2 pclnts with no evaIua:ion Level 3 11-14 Consideration of 2 factors with one evatuative point or 3 points with no evaluai.ion Level 4 .15-16 Consideration of trading blocs and 2 ather factors with one evaluative ooint Level 5 17-20 ConsidEration of trading blocr and 2 other fqctorr with at least trvo evaluative pointsCriteria for 30-mark essalrs Level Mark Descriptor Level 1 1-11 ldentification of points only Level 2 12-15 2 factors with two evaluative points or 3 factors and 1 evaluative comment Level 3 l5-21 3 factors with two evaluative points Level 4 z7-25 4 faciors with two Evatuative pointr Level 3 26-30 4 factors with at teast three evatuative pointsTake special care here- without evaluation your highest mark will be 11/301. 9 1
  • 12. Potential)Essay)Questions) )These%questions%come%from%a%variety%of%sources3%some%from%the%exam%board,%some%from%textbooks,%and%quite%a%few%you%might%recognise%from%the%lessons.%They’re%all%the%‘style’%of%essay%question%you%could%be%asked%in%the%exam%and%all%relate%to%the%exam%board%specification,%and%so%are%on%the%topics%you%could%be%asked%about%in%the%exam.%Have%a%go%at%planning%or%writing%out%answers%to%them3%I’m%happy%to%mark%anything%you’ve%done.%%N.B.%I%haven’t%put%marks%by%most%of%these,%as%generally%the%questions%can%be%considered%as%either%20%or%30%mark%ones3%the%style%of%response%you%should%give%is%pretty%much%the%same,%just%in%a%bit%more%detail%for%the%30%mark%ones.%%Remember%to%ensure%you%are%following%the%criteria%set%out%in%the%levels%guide%when%answering%essay%questions.%%The%questions%below%highlighted%in%bold%are%particularly%good%examples%of%essay%questions%because%they%are%more%vague%and%open3ended%than%some%of%the%other%questions,%and%so%I%would%encourage%you%to%focus%on%these%in%particular.%%% 3%3%3%% a. To)what)extent)is)economic)growth)compatible)with) sustainable)development?)(20)marks)) b. Evaluate)four)major)barriers)to)growth)and)development) experienced)by)LEDCs)(30)marks))% 3% %Discuss)two)factors)that)are)likely)to)influence)the)levels)of)economic)growth)in)developing)countries)% 3%%Assess)the)causes)of)absolute)poverty)in)a)developing)country)of)your)choice) ) I) )To)what)extent)is)reducing)the)number)of)people)living)in)absolute)poverty)sufficient)to)achieve)economic)development?) %% 3% % 10
  • 13. Evaluate)three)key)policies)to)help)promote)economic)development)in)LEDCs)% 3% %What,%in%your%opinion,%are%the%three%key%things%a%developing%country%government%should%do%to%help%to%increase%its%economic%growth%rate?% % 3%%‘a%lack%of%access%to%financial%services%is%the%biggest%hindrance%on%economic%development%in%LEDCs’.%Discuss%this%statement.%% 3%%‘South%Africa’s%Education%Inequality%can%only%be%solved%by%massive%public%investment%in%schools%and%teachers%in%rural%black%townships’.%Discuss.%%% 3%%Why%is%human%capital%considered%crucial%to%economic%development%in%LEDCs?%% 3%%How%might%a%developing%country%government%encourage%greater%investment%in%capital%accumulation?%What%problems%might%it%face%in%attempting%to%do%this?%Why%is%a%‘savings%gap’%a%major%problem%for%LEDCs?%% 3% %Using%the%example%of%Guinea,%assess%the%significance%of%political%instability%in%hampering%a%country’s%economic%development%%(for%this%you’ll%need%to%look%in%the%‘poor%governance’%folder%for%some%information%on%Guinea3%or%do%some%research%to%find%out%the%latest%situation%in%this%very%volatile%country)%% 3% %Why%does%a%lack%of%infrastructure%limit%a%country’s%development?%% 3%%Are%high%population%growth%rates%a%blessing%or%a%burden%for%developing%countries?%% 3% 11
  • 14. %Why%is%it%a%problem%for%countries%to%rely%on%exports%of%a%few%primary%products?%% 3% %What%can%developing%country%governments%do,%focusing%specifically%on%the%agricultural%sector,%to%promote%growth%&%development?%% 3% %Analyse%the%effectiveness%of%international%organisations%such%as%the%IMF%and%World%Trade%Organisation%in%helping%to%promote%economic%development%% 3% %Do%fairtrade%schemes%help%to%support%workers%in%developing%countries,%or%do%they%simply%distort%free%trade%and,%overall,%do%more%harm%than%good?%% 3% %Should%development%aid%be%provided%to%countries%most%in%need%or%those%best%equipped%to%make%good%use%of%the%funding?%% 3% %Should%the%debts%of%all%LEDC%governments%be%wiped%clean%to%enable%them%to%invest%further%in%developing%their%economies%and%lifting%their%citizens%out%of%poverty?%% 3% %How%can%tourism%benefit%developing%countries?%%What%are%some%of%the%drawback%of%tourism%for%developing%countries?%% 3% %‘The%UN’s%Millennium%Development%Goals%do%more%harm%than%good’%Do%you%agree%with%this%statement?%% 3%%‘The%global%targets%the%world%set%for%itself%five%years%ago%did%not%emerge%from%the%bottom%up,%as%the%sum%of%what%might%be%feasible%in%each%poor%country.%They%were%instead%imposed%from%the%top%down.%Their%fit%is%thus%often%rather%awkward.’% 12
  • 15. Discuss%whether%this%means%that%global%targets%such%as%the%Millennium%Development%Goals%do%more%harm%than%good.%% 3% %Income%distribution%in%Namibia%is%much%more%unequal%than%in%the%United%States.%What%might%be%the%reasons%for%this?%% 3% 13