Spread Am Democracy
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  • 1. The Spread of American Democracy
  • 2. Key Things to Remember
      • Democracy is Hard Work!
        • We still struggle with making democracy work!
      • Just because something works in one place, it doesn’t mean that it will work elsewhere
        • You need to understand history and conditions in other places
        • People don’t decide to do random and “crazy” things for no reason
  • 3. Background
      • US first country founded as democracy since Athens
      • US borrowed ideas from others:
        • Athens
        • Romans
        • British
        • Judeo-Christian Tradition
        • Enlightenment
  • 4. Early Problems
      • Strength of a Federal Government
        • State Rights vs. Federal Rights
      • Inconsistency in trade, currency
      • US was flat broke
  • 5. Resolution
      • 1787 - Articles of Confederation replaced by Constitution
        • Clear limits on power of Federal Government
        • States given specific rights
        • National currency and defense
  • 6. Exporting American Democracy - Middle East
    • Understand the Following:
      • Social: Patriarchal Society
        • Many ethnic groups!
      • Political: Many empires over time
        • Nationalism!
      • Religion : Mostly Islam, but also Jews and Christians
        • Sects: Sunni and Shia
  • 7. Exporting American Democracy - Middle East
      • Intellectual: Islam has VERY strong sense of Justice, rule of law
      • Technological: We most associate oil with the region, but SUPER-IMPORTANT location on trade routes
      • Economic: Oil has brought great wealth to some nations, but others extremely poor
    • Problems in Middle East are several centuries in the making = no quick fix !!!
  • 8. Exporting American Democracy - Iraq
    • Iraq:
      • Until 1918: In Province of Mesopotamia, Ottoman Empire
      • 1918: WWI ends
        • British promised independence after war
        • British and France betray region, make them mandates (fancy word for colony)
  • 9.  
  • 10.  
  • 11. Iraq, Cont’d
      • Oil!
      • WWII: Germans promise independence if Middle East countries help them - Germany loses war
      • 1960s: “Democratic” Baath Party
        • Secular Gov’t
        • Relatively stable
  • 12. Iraq, Cont’d
      • Saddam, 1970s
        • War with Iran, 1980s
        • Kurdish Rebellion, early 1980s
          • Use of poison gas in mass slaughter of Kurds
        • In huge debt, invaded Kuwait 1991
          • Operation Desert Storm puts Iraq back in place
        • 9/11: US take proactive approach in ME
          • Sees Saddam as a threat
          • 2003, Invades and “liberates” Iraq from Saddam
          • Goal to build democracy in Iraq
  • 13. Democracy-Building in Iraq
    • Potentials:
      • Oil = $ to rebuild
      • People want peace and stability
      • Most hated Saddam
      • US has made commitment to Iraq
    • Challenges:
      • Sectarian violence (Sunni and Shia)
      • Kurds want own state, or better representation
      • Country is broke
      • No infrastructure
      • Some neighbors not keen on US-style democracy (and culture)
      • Terrorists are NOW a problem here
  • 14. Democracy-Building in Afghanistan
      • Afghanistan:
        • Used to be on Silk Road
        • Little- to no natural resources
        • Strategic location in Central/Southern Asia
  • 15.  
  • 16. Afghanistan - Recent History
    • WAR!
      • 1800s: British Meddling in region
      • 1970s: Soviet Invasion
        • Cold War: US training and arming of Mujahideen (Islamic “freedom fighters”)
          • Osama bin Laden
      • Late 1980s: Soviets withdraw
        • No effective government
        • Mujahideen turn on each other (and US)
  • 17. Afghanistan
      • 1990s: Rise of Taliban
        • Taliban are extreme fundamentalists
        • Extremely strict control on society
        • Provide haven to Islamic terrorist orgs.
        • Economy financed by production of opium (use to make heroin, etc.)
          • Is a narcostate
      • 9/11: US invades, overthrows Taliban
  • 18. Democracy-Building in Afghanistan
    • Potentials:
      • People want peace
    • Challenges:
      • Beyond broke
      • No oil
      • Middle of nowhere
      • Taliban making comeback
      • No infrastructure at all
      • Geography is rugged
      • Very delicate balance between tradition and progress