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Russia Presentation Transcript

  • 1. Russia: A Brief Political History AP World History West Hills High School
  • 2. Overall Characteristics/Themes Visible Throughout Russia History
    • Invasions and fear of invasion
    • Openness to West – or not
    • Alternating periods of repression and reform
    • Little or no history of democracy
  • 3. Invasion
    • Russian political history began with an invasion
    • 1237-1240 Mongol Invasion: forces of Gengis Khan move from North China across the continent to take Moscow
      • Tatars: a Turkish people who were also invading Russia – became agents/administrators for Mongols
  • 4. 1240-1480 Mongol/Tatar Rule
    • Brutal invasion
    • Russia “hibernated” and missed the high middle ages of Europe
    • 1480 Ivan III (Ivan the Great) formally renounces Mongol rule over Russia
  • 5. Early Empire
    • Ivan III - “gathering of Russian land”
    • Moscow becomes powerful state
    • Cossacks (Turkish word = “free men”) - peasants help expand borders
    • Adopted Byzantine traditions - Third Rome
  • 6.  
  • 7. Ivan the Terrible
    • Ivan III’s son
    • Began “assemblies of the land” - groups that informed him of local situations
    • Military elite ( boyars) threatened power
    • Granted new powers, sought and killed “traitors” and innocents
  • 8. Ivan the Terrible
    • Died with no heir, Russia in disarray
    • Civil War, Polish invasion ensue
  • 9. Openness to the West – or not
    • Romanov Dynasty begins in 1613, when Russian independence is restored
    • First three Romanovs work to help Russia “catch up” with Europe:
      • Organized/modernized trade and commerce
      • Efforts toward education and chronicling histories
      • Bringing in European artists
  • 10. Openness to the West
    • 1689-1725 Tsar Peter the Great
      • Traveled widely; preference for things Western; contempt for Russian backwardness
      • “ Westernizing”
      • Modernized army, continued expansion
      • Table of Ranks - allowed movement in government based upon merit
      • Built Saint Petersburg
  • 11. Reform, then Repression
    • 1762-1796 Catherine the Great (tsarina, czarina)
    • Initially “open” with reforms . . .
    • French Revolution, rebellion at home led her to become more oppressive
  • 12. Russian Expansion
    • Russian empire would stand until 1991
    • Orthodox/Catholic rivalry w/ Poland brings acquisition of Ukraine, partition of Poland
    • In South, take land from Ottomans in Crimean War
    • In East, Russians displace natives, take Manchuria
    • Claimed Alaska, visited California, Hawaii
  • 13.  
  • 14.  
  • 15. Russian Life
    • Orthodox Christianity eventually controlled by Tsar.
    • Mostly agrarian
    • Most peasants tied to land, Tsars created laws that backed land owners