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  • 1. Resistance to Imperialism World History 1
  • 2. Europe’s Advantage Industrialization brought inventions that improved Europe’s ability to assert dominance Transportation advances: steamships and railroad Slide 2
  • 3. Europe’s Advantages Communication advances: telegraph and later the telephone Medical advances: cure for malaria Slide 3
  • 4. Europe’s Advantage Superior military weaponry Bolt-action rifles gave the Europeans the ability to quickly reload Maxim Gun and Gatlin Gun (an early machine gun) allowed vastly outnumbered Europeans to defeat Africans Slide 4
  • 5. Barriers - Africa Variety of cultures and languages made unification difficult Low level of technology readily available – most of the guns owned by Africans dated back to the slave trade (which ended two generations before) Slide 5
  • 6. Barriers - Africa Ethnic strife and warfare hampered attempts to work together and build up resources Slide 6
  • 7. Barriers - India Muslim Mughal Empire in steep decline - many preferred British Many Hindu states pledged loyalty to British Slide 7
  • 8. Violent Resistance European encroachment often gradual, native populations did not recognize the threat until too late Generally, Europeans used other native soldiers within their ranks Europeans usually outnumbered, but not out-gunned Slide 8
  • 9. Violent Resistance - Examples Sepoy Rebellion / Uprising in India (1857) 80% of British troops are other Indians Brutal tactics by British - thousands killed Slide 9
  • 10. Violent Resistance - Examples Battle of Omdurman - The British killed some 10,000 Sudanese with machine guns. Slide 10
  • 11. Violent Resistance - Examples African religious leaders during the Maji Maji Rebellion in German West Africa claimed magic water would make bullets harmless – some 26,000 died as they attacked machine guns with spears Zulus in South Africa put on formable resistance to Boers and later the British, but are outgunned and defeated in Slide 11
  • 12. Violent Resistance - Examples Ethiopia was the only country to successfully resist the Europeans Its leader, Emperor Menelik II, skillful played the Italians, French, and British against one another along with his Ethiopian rivals At the Battle of Adowa in 1896, the Ethiopians successfully defeated the Italians and maintained their independence Slide 12
  • 13. Violent Resistance - Examples In the 1930s, Benito Mussolini would target Ethiopia as his first target in the years leading up to World War II – avenging Italy’s loss. (The Ethiopians then fought with the same guns that had defeated the Italians forty years before.) Slide 13
  • 14. Non-violent Resistance Recognition that violence justifies a violent reaction Education of native peoples - generally in Europe, advances new notions of fighting back and resistance Attempted to use colonial laws and legal system to their advantage Provoked a reaction without violence Slide 14
  • 15. Non-violent Resistance - Examples Gandhi was a British - trained lawyer He believed in actively confronting the British - forcing them to react Concept of satyagraha or civil disobedience Slide 15
  • 16. Non-violent Resistance When British lash out at Gandhi and his followers, they lose moral superiority. Why is Gandhi’s profession important to his movement? Why is this important against the British? Slide 16