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Intro Indus Rev
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Intro Indus Rev

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Intro Indus Rev Presentation Transcript

  • 1. Introduction to the Industrial Revolution
  • 2. Shift from the Agrarian World
    • Agricultural Revolution – New farming methods invented
    • Lord Townshend in England introduced crop rotation – land could now be used year-round; certain crops revitalized soil
    • Enclosure movement had large land owners buying and then fencing public land
  • 3. Shift from the Agrarian World
    • Smaller farmers pushed off of land to work as wage laborers for various land owners or to move to the growing cities
    • More food produced = population increase
    • In 1700 there were about 100 million people in Europe, by 1800 the population had grown to 190 million.
  • 4. Textile Industry Takes Off
    • Domestic system (cottage industry) had dominated the early 1700s; merchants dropped off raw materials at people’s homes, picked up finished products later
  • 5. Textile Industry Takes Off
    • Series of inventions modernize textile manufacturing, including:
    • 1733 - Flying Shuttle (John Kay) – Used to weave cloth
    The Spinning Jenny
  • 6. Textile Industry Takes Off
    • 1760 – Spinning Jenny (James Hargreaves) – Allowed for multiple threads to be woven together
    • 1769 – Water Frame (Richard Arkwright) – Used water to power the spinning frame
    The Spinning Jenny
  • 7. Textile Industry Takes Off
    • 1785 – Water Loom (Edmund Cartwright) – First machine that could weave cloth
    • 1793 – Cotton Gin (Eli Whitney) – Machine that separated cotton seeds from the cotton
    Plans for the Cotton Gin
  • 8. Textile Industry Takes Off
    • These advancements resulted in the movement of work from the home to the factory
    Plans for the Cotton Gin
  • 9. Britain Industrializes First
    • 1715-1850
    • Many natural resources available in Britain, including large amounts of coal and iron
  • 10. Britain Industrializes First
    • Geographical advantages include a large river system for water power and many natural harbors for easy trade
    • A strong, stable government allowed a strong, stable economy to develop which resulted in extra money to invest
  • 11. Britain Industrializes First
    • Colonial empire provided much needed raw materials and markets
    • Spreads to continental Europe, United States of America, and Japan between 1850 and 1914
  • 12. Changes Brought by the Industrial Revolution
    • Invention of the steam engine in 1763 by James Watt shifts labor from humans and animals to machines
    • Inventions continue to make life, manufacturing, and farming easier and better
    • Continuous reinvestment of profits fuel even greater growth
    • Inventions in one area often led to inventions in others
    • Transportation and communication systems are greatly enhanced
  • 13. Changes Brought by the Industrial Revolution
    • Cities begin to dominate the western world
    • Creates a new social order with the rise of an influential middle class
    • Poor working conditions for lower classes eventually lead to new social and political movements
    • Need for markets and resources force Europeans to take over foreign lands (imperialism)