End of WWI

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End of WWI

  1. 1. The End of World War I
  2. 2. Stalemate <ul><li>By 1917 both sides fighting defensive war </li></ul><ul><li>Neither could put together a massive attack </li></ul><ul><li>Defeatism in England, France </li></ul><ul><li>Mutinies in French, British armies </li></ul>
  3. 3. Russia <ul><li>Terrible military defeats </li></ul><ul><li>Czar’s leadership lacking </li></ul><ul><li>November Revolution put Lenin and Bolsheviks in power </li></ul><ul><li>Treaty of Brest-Litovsk got Russia out of war with Germany </li></ul><ul><li>Russia gave up massive amounts of land </li></ul>
  4. 4. Germany Breaks down <ul><li>Shortage of food, supplies </li></ul><ul><li>Final offensive fails at the 2nd Battle of the Marne </li></ul>
  5. 5. Armistice <ul><li>An agreement to stop fighting before a formal treaty is reached </li></ul><ul><li>Germany agrees to surrender if the President Wilson used his 14 Points to negotiate peace treaty </li></ul>
  6. 6. Wilson’s 14 Points <ul><li>Outline measures to maintain peace after WWI </li></ul><ul><li>No secret alliances </li></ul><ul><li>Freedom of the seas </li></ul><ul><li>Free trade </li></ul><ul><li>Sovereignty for Belgium, former states of Russia and Austria-Hungary </li></ul>
  7. 7. Paris Peace Conference <ul><li>“ The Big Four” : United States (Woodrow Wilson), Great Britain (David Lloyd George), Italy (Vittorio Orlando), and France (Georges Clemenceau) </li></ul><ul><li>Russia, Germany, and German allies not represented at the conference </li></ul>
  8. 8. Paris Peace Conference <ul><li>Pre-conference vision of peace: </li></ul><ul><li>France = revenge, security </li></ul><ul><li>Great Britain = balance of power </li></ul><ul><li>Italy = territorial gains </li></ul><ul><li>United States = 14 Points, League of Nations </li></ul>
  9. 9. Treaty of Versailles <ul><li>Signed June 28, 1919 </li></ul><ul><li>Germany forced to pay the Allies $33 billion in reparations over 30 years </li></ul><ul><li>Article 231 (“war guilt” clause) = sole responsibility for the war is placed on Germany’s shoulders </li></ul><ul><li>Germany returns Allasace-Lorraine to France; French border extended to the west bank of the Rhine River </li></ul><ul><li>Germany surrenders all of its overseas colonies in Africa and the Pacific </li></ul>
  10. 10. Treaty of Versailles <ul><li>Germany is (a) forbidden to build or buy submarines or have an air force, (b) prohibited from importing or manufacturing weapons or war material, and (c) army is limited in size </li></ul><ul><li>Creation of a League of Nations to settle international disputes </li></ul>
  11. 11. Results <ul><li>Map of Europe is radically changed </li></ul>
  12. 12. Results <ul><li>Germany, Italy, Russian and Japan feel cheated by the terms of the final peace </li></ul><ul><li>United States turns away from international affairs (isolationism), refuses to join the League of Nations </li></ul><ul><li>Dissatisfaction with the treaty and worldwide depression in the 1930s sets the stage for a 2nd World War </li></ul>

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